Abstract：Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by 2019 new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. The disease is highly contagious and people are generally susceptible to it. New coronavirus pneumonia is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets and close contact, but there is also a possibility of aerosol infection. At present, the outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia has spread rapidly to all parts of the world. However, there is still no specific drug in clinical treatment. After the outbreak, the National Health Commission organized relevant experts to launch a series of diagnosis and treatment programs, including traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） treatment programs from the Trial Version 3. Chinese medicine injections were applied from the Trial Version 4. In this paper, the applications of Chinese medicine injections, which were recommended in the Trial Version 7 of Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19, in respiratory infectious diseases were summarized. Besides, the potential roles of Chinese medicine injections in the treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia were discussed, in order to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable application of Chinese medicine injection in COVID-19 treatment.
Keywords：coronavirus disease-2019;Chinese medicine injection;respiratory system;infection;application
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） syndromes of 46 patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) by cluster analysis method.MethodThe 46 COVID-19 patients with TCM symptoms, signs, tongue and pulse were analyzed by frequency analysis and clustering analysis, and the TCM syndrome types of COVID-19 patients were classified and summarized by combining clinical expertise, and the evolution law was analyzed by combining the median days of the syndrome collection.ResultThe major signs and symptoms of the 46 patients with COVID-19: fever (frequency of 39, accounted for 84.8%), poor appetite (frequency of 44, 95.7%), fatigue (frequency of 42, 91.3%), wheezing breath (frequency of 35, 76.1%), dry mouth (frequency of 21, 45.7%), lung condition short (frequency of 20, 43.5%), defecate pond (frequency of 15, 32.6%), red tongue (frequency 30, accounting for 65.2%), yellowish moss (frequency 27, accounting for 58.7%), and slimy pulse (frequency 30, accounting for 62.5%). TCM syndromes were divided into seven types, i.e. dampness and heat syndrome (13 cases), dampness and toxin syndrome (10 cases), heat stasis syndrome (7 cases), dampness and heat syndrome (5 cases), cold dampness internal invasion syndrome (4 cases), dampness poison blood stasis syndrome (2 cases).According to the time of onset, there were cold and dampness syndrome (median days 6.5 days), dampness was heavier than heat syndrome (10 days), dampness and heat syndrome (10 days), dampness and heat syndrome (11.5 days), heat stagnation of liver and gallbladder syndrome (13 days), dampness and blood stasis syndrome (15 days), and Yin injury syndrome (16 days).ConclusionAmong the 46 cases of COVID -19, damp-heat syndrome was the most common, followed by heat stagnation of liver and gallbladder syndrome, Yin injury and gas consumption syndrome, cold and damp internal invasion syndrome, and dampness and blood stasis syndrome. The pathogenesis of the disease evolved into heat and poison, and later appeared to consume Qi Yin performance.
Keywords：coronavirus disease-2019（COVID-19）;traditional Chinese medicine;traditional Chinese medicine syndrome
Abstract：This paper uses the Luobing theory to guide the diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and states that lung collateral includes Qi collateral and blood collateral, and is the basis for playing the function of lung of dominating Qi, controlling breathing and connecting all vessels. The concept of Qi channel is different from that of Qi collateral, but its function is closely related to lung collateral. COVID-19 belongs to "pestilence" in traditional Chinese medicine. The epidemic pathogenic factor enters from mouth and nose and then causes the disease. The early characteristics of this disease include the invasion of the lung by the epidemic pathogenic factor, the obstruction of Qi channels, the prevailing of the evil and the retreat of the good, and the deficiency and stagnation of Qi collateral. Generation of toxic heat from inside, obstruction of Qi channels and dysfunction of "breathing and blood transfer" are the key links to the development and aggravation of this disease. Qi disease involves blood, blood wound intrudes into collateral, and blood consumption and hemorrhage are the late outcome of this disease. Based on the experience of doctors of all dynasties in the treatment and medication of pestilence, the treatment principle of active intervention in the early and middle stage is proposed, including focusing on pathogenesis and expelling of toxin, drug use before syndrome onset and active intervention, and the whole regulation and multi-target treatment. Lianhua Qingwen developed under the guidance of Luobing theory can inhibit the activity of novel coronavirus in vitro, relieve clinical symptoms (such as fever, cough, weakness, shortness of breath and so on) and reduce the rate of disease progression to severity. Lianhua Qingke can diffuse the lung, clear the lung heat, relieve cough and reduce sputum. It can be used to relieve the symptoms of cough and sputum in patients with COVID-19, which proves the important scientific value of Luobing theory and collateral-dredging drugs in epidemic prevention and control.
Abstract：In this paper, the author systematically summarized and explained the idea of Prof. JIANG Liang-duo for preventing and treating the coronavirus disease-2019(COVID-19). According to Prof. JIANG, in the early stage of the disease, dampness and heat injury to the lung is the main cause and pathogenesis, and the high-risk group can be protected by supplementing Qi and nourishing Yin, clearing away heat and penetration. The patients with mild disease can be treated with Chinese medicine. But the accurately treatment can be given only knowing the ratio of the dampness, heat, deficiency and excess. For the patients with severe disease, both strengthening and removing pathogenic factors are important. But the drug for Qi should be prescribed instead of drugs for blood. The prognosis of critical illed patients is very poor, and the method of Invigorating Qi and taking Jin is useful to strengthen the foundation, promot lung, remove dampness, clear heat and cool Ying. Clinical medication should be adjusted according to people, time and place in the different situations.
Keywords：coronavirus disease-2019(COVID-19);etiology and pathogenesis;lung damage from hot and humidity;Qi cannot immobilize body fluid
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the general situation and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome characteristics in patients with coronavirus disease-2019（COVID-19） in Anhui province, and to provide a basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.MethodThe 144 cases of COVID-19 patients in Anhui province were collected from designated hospitals by means of multi-center cross-sectional epidemiological survey. The TCM syndrome information collection table of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia was created to collect the general data, etiology and pathogenesis, pulse and signs, syndrome type and frequency statistics of the patients, and then summarize and analyze the main symptoms and syndrome distribution characteristics of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia.ResultThe mean age of 144 patients with COVID-19 infection was （43.54±15.91） years old, and the number of males was larger than the number of females (9/7). The age distribution and gender difference of the patients were statistically significant (P<0.05). 36.11%（52/144） of the patients had a history of travel/residence in Wuhan/Hubei province, and 63.89% (92/144) of the patients had a history of close contact with the confirmed patients. The main clinical manifestations included fever, cough, diarrhea, fatigue and poor tolerance. Light red tongue and red tongue were dominant in tongue quality, with mainly greasy coating, slippery pulse, rapid pulse and soft pulse were the main types of pulse. The main types of syndrome differentiation were the common type (76.38%, 110/144), most of which were demonstrated as dampness obstructing the lung and spleen (56.25%, 81/144). There was no significant difference in gender composition and age distribution between two groups.ConclusionThe pathogenesis of COVID-19 patients in Anhui province is closely related to the lung and spleen, and the dampness caused by pathogen of the epidemic virus is the main pathological factor of disease, which is in line with characteristics of dampness epidemic in TCM, also can see concurrently "heat, poison, stasis" for a characteristic.
Keywords：coronavirus disease-2019 （COVID-19）;traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome;syndrome of dampness obstructing lung and spleen;syndrome of damp-heat stagnating in the lung
Abstract：ObjectiveThis paper analyzed the prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） for all patients diagnosed with novel coronavirus pneumonia（corona virus disease-2019，COVID-19）in Wuhan third hospital，analyzed the medication rules of the prescription，summarized the characteristics and thoughts of medication，and discussed the contents of TCM pharmaceutical care.MethodUse the data analysis software Excel 2007 and SQL server 2017 to perform statistical analysis for all inpatients in Wuhan Third Hospital from January 25，2020 to March 18，2020 who were treated by the prescriptions of TCM. The usage quantity，frequency，average dosage and dosage range of TCM were counted and compared with the dosage stipulated in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.ResultIn this study，a total of 875 patients were included in the treatment prescription，involving 233 TCMs，and 20 high-frequency herbs were obtained，which were mainly used to dissolve phlegm，relieve cough and asthma，and tonify body. In the analysis of the characteristics of TCM，it is mainly composed of plain drugs，followed by cold drugs and warm drugs. The main taste of medicine is bitter，followed by spicy and sweet. The main meridians were the lung meridians，followed by the spleen and stomach meridians. By using association rule analysis and complex network analysis，it was found that the correlation degree of Artemisiae Scopariae Herba，Amomi Fructus Rotundus，Akebiae Caulis，Talcum and Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus was very high，which could treat symptoms such as fever，cough，sputum，thirst，chest tightness and abdominal distension after COVID-19 infection.ConclusionIn this study，it was found that the core prescription for the treatment of COVID-19 in Wuhan Third Hospital was the addition and reduction of clearing damp agent，modified Ganlu Xiaodudan，and the reduction of expectorant modified Qingjin Jianghuotang，all the drugs were excess used than pharmacopoeia prescribed dosage. As a clinical Chinese pharmacist，we should distinguish the syndrome types according to the symptoms of the patients，and medication monitoring should be conducted from the aspects of usage and dosage of specific medication，processing product selection，compatibility，patient education，etc.
Keywords：coronavirus disease-2019（COVID-19）;2019-nCoV;traditional Chinese medicine;medication rule;pharmaceutical care;Ganlu Xiaodudan;Qingjin Jianghuotang
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） Toujie Quwen granules in the treatment of coronavirs disease-2019（COVID-19） in the early stage, and its effect on relevant inflammatory index expression of COVID-19.MethodA total of 65 COVID-19 cases were diagnosed and divided into 2 groups: the treatment group （n=32） and the control group （n=33）. Before and after treatment，TCM syndrome score，WBC，LYM，LYM%，NEU%，PCT，CRP and D-dimer were compared.ResultAfter 10 days of treatment，the TCM syndrome score of the treatment group was significantly reduced（P<0.05），while the absolute value of lymphocyte was up-regulated，with statistically significant differences（P<0.05）， according to the inter-group comparison, there were statistically significant differences in the absolute value of LYM and NEU%（P<0.05）. There was no significant difference in WBC count and LYM%. The levels of CRP，PCT and D-dimer in the two groups were reduced after treatment，with statistically significant differences between two groups （P<0.05）. After treatment，the differences of CRP and PCT was statistically significant between both groups（P<0.05），but the difference in D-dimer was not statistically significant. There was no difference in the effect of chest CT examination between the both groups.ConclusionThe clinical syndrome and inflammatory particles of COVID-19 can be alleviated by early and timely use of Toujie Quwen granules.
Keywords：Toujie Quwen granules;coronavirs disease-2019（COVID-19）;clinical study;pneumonia;light type;ordinary type
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the mechanism of decomposed Zuoguiwan（ZGW） recipes in treating ovariectomized osteoporosis rats.MethodForty Sprague-Dawley female rats were equally and randomly divided into Sham-operated group, ovariectomized model group, positive group, and low and high-dose ZGW groups. After 12 weeks of administration by gavage, the bone mineral density (BMD) of rats' distal femur was measured by micro-CT, the morphology of bone tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE), β-cross-linked c-telopeptide of type Ι collagen (β-CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the mRNA and protein expressions of β2AR, OPG and RANKL were evaluated by Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （PCR）.ResultCompared with Sham-operated group, BMD of rats in ovariectomized model group was decreased (P<0.01), morphology of bone tissue was destroyed, serum BALP was reduced, while β-CTX was boosted (P<0.01)，mRNA and protein expressions of OPG in tibia were reduced, while RANKL were increased, and mRNA and protein expressions of β2AR in the hypothalamus were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with ovariectomized model group, BMDs of rats in low and high-dose ZGW groups were increased (P<0.01), morphology of bone tissue was repaired, serum BALP and mRNA and protein expressions of OPG in tibia were up-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01), whereas serum β-CTX and mRNA and protein expressions of β2AR in the hypothalamus and RANKL in tibia were down-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01).ConclusionYang-nourishing components in decomposed Zuoguiwan recipes can improve BMD of ovariectomized rats by regulating OPG/RANKL pathway mediated by β2AR. "Seeking Yin in Yang" is a crucial mechanism of Zuoguiwan in treating ovariectomized osteoporosis in rats.
Keywords：Zuoguiwan;decomposed Zuoguiwan recipes;osteoprotegerin;seeking Yin in Yang;receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL);osteoprotegerin (OPG);β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR)
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Danggui Yinzi on allergic reaction in chronic urticaria (CU) mice model and the mechanism of autophagy intervention.MethodThe SPF BALB/c mice were used to replicate the CU mice model by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide suspension. The animals were randomly allocated into six groups: a normal group (normal saline 20 mL·kg-1·d-1), a model group (normal saline 20 mL·kg-1·d-1), a loratadine group(0.001 3 g·kg-1·d-1), a Danggui Yinzi high，medium and low-dose group（39.3，19.6，9.8 g·kg-1·d-1）. The pathological changes of skin tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Morphological changes of autophagy in skin tissues epithelial cells were observed by transmission electron microscope. The mRNA levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B(LC3B) and ubiquitin-binding protein p62 mRNA in skin tissues were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The expressions of LC3B and p62 in skin tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC).ResultDanggui Yinzi can significantly improve the pathological manifestations of dermal edema, collagen bundles separation, telangiectasia in CU mice， it can also improve autophagosomes formation and abnormal cell ultrastructure such as nuclear chromatin condensation, mitochondrial swelling, endoplasmic reticulum expansion, etc. Compared with the normal group, the protein expressions of LC3B in skin tissues of the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01), LC3B mRNA level was increased too, while p62 mRNA levels and its protein expressions were decreased-regulated (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, levels of LC3B mRNA and protein expressions of the Danggui Yinzi groups were significantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.01), while p62 mRNA levels and its protein expressions were significantly decreased-regulated (P<0.05,P<0.01).ConclusionDanggui Yinzi can regulate the expression of LC3B, p62 mRNA and protein expressions, enhance the level of autophagy, and improve the pathological state of CU mice.
Keywords：chronic urticaria;autophagy;Danggui Yinzi;microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B(LC3B);ubiquitin-binding protein p62(p62)
Abstract：ObjectiveTo regulate autophagy protein p62 of airway epithelial cells in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) rats with Qingjin Huatantang, in order to explore its effect on interleukin (IL) -1β and tumor necrosis, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and leukotriene C4 (LTC4).MethodAirway epithelial cells and AECOPD airway epithelial cells were cultured. Sixty SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely high, medium and low-dose Qingjin Huatantang groups, western medicine group, model group and normal group. Except for the normal group, the remaining groups were included into the AECOPD model by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tracheal instillation method + fumigation method. After modeling, the dosage of the high-dose traditional Chinese medicine group was 30 g·kg-1·d-1, that of the middle-dose group was 15 g·kg-1·d-1, that of the low-dose group was 7.5 g·kg-1·d-1, the positive control group was given luo erythromycin (0.017 5 g·kg-1·d-1), the model group and the blank control group were orally given normal saline with the volume of 20 mL·kg-1·d-1. Serum was extracted two weeks after administration, and the cells were intervened with drug-containing serum. The content of interleukin IL-1β, TNF-α, and LTB4 in cell supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). And LTC4 content, p62 mRNA and protein expressions in lung airway epithelial cells were detected by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group, ELISA results showed that IL-1β, TNF-α, LTB4, and LTC4 in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, IL-1β, TNF-α, LTB4, LTC4 in cell supernatants in each administration group were significantly reduced (P<0.01), mRNA and protein expressions in p62 showed that compared with the normal group, mRNA and protein expressions in p62 of model group significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of p62 in each administration group significantly increased to different degrees (P<0.01). The expression of autophagy in Qingjin Huatantang high-dose group and western medicine group was comparable.ConclusionQingjin Huatantang can reduce the inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells, which may be related to the regulation of autophagy protein p62.
Keywords：Qingjin Huatantang;acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;autophagy;p62;acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD);traditional Chinese medicine
Abstract：ObjectiveTo compare the effect and mechanisms of modified Erchentang and Xuefu Zhuyutang on high-fat diet-induced apolipoprotein-E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).MethodTen C57/BL6J mice were taken as normal control group and fed with normal feed. Totally 30 ApoE-/- mice were fed with high-fat diet to establish a disease model for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the 30 ApoE-/- mice were divided into model group, Xuefu Zhuyutang group (hereinafter referred to as Huoxue group) and modified Erchentang group (hereinafter referred to as Huatan group) by random number table method, with 10 in each group. The normal group and the model group were intragastrically administered with normal saline. The drug-administered group was intragastrically administered at a dosage that was ten times of the adult dose, once a day, for 8 weeks. Serum and liver were collected after the end of the 12-week experiment. The serum lipid and liver function levels of each group were measured, and the liver pathological morphology was observed. Protein and mRNA expressions of liver inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic factor-1 (MCP-1) were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) and Western blot.ResultThe results of serum lipids and liver function showed that compared with the normal group, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the model group were significantly increased, while serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, serum TG ，LDL and ALT were significantly decreased, HDL was significantly increased in the Huoxue group (P<0.05). The serum levels of TC, TG， LDL, AST and ALT in the Huatan group were significantly decreased，HDL was significantly increased (P<0.05，P<0.01), and TG was decreased. The mice serum HDL in the Huatan group was higher than that in the Huoxue group. The serum ALT in the Huoxue group was lower than that in the Huatan group. The pathological observation showed that compared with the normal group, hepatocytes in the model group had severe steatosis with many lipid droplet vacuoles, suggesting that the mouse NAFLD model was successful. Compared with the model group, each administration group alleviated hepatocyte steatosis, with no significant difference between the two administration groups. Western blot and Real-time PCR results showed that compared with the normal group, protein and mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and MMP-9 in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.05，P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the Huoxue group significantly down-regulated the expressions of IL-1β, MCP-1 protein and MCP-1 mRNA(P<0.05，P<0.01). The Huatan group significantly reduced the expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-9, MCP-1 protein, TNF-α and MMP-9 mRNA(P<0.05，P<0.01).ConclusionModified Erchentang and Xuefu Zhuyutang can alleviate the therapeutic effect of NAFLD mice to a certain extent, modified Erchentang has a better therapeutic effect.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the mechanism of Taoren Chengqitang in regulating intestinal myoelectric activity and microenvironment homeostasis in intestinal sepsis rats based on high mobility group protein 1(HMGB1)/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor -κB(NF-κB) pathway.MethodThe 60 SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, glycyrrhizic acid (HMGB1 inhibitor, 0.03 g·kg-1) group, Taoren Chengqitang group (10 g·kg-1), glycyrrhizic acid+Taoren Chengqitang group (0.03 g·kg-1+10 g·kg-1), with 12 rats in each group. Except the sham operation group, the other groups established intestinal sepsis rat models, each group was treated with medicine, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to detect the histopathological changes of small intestinal mucosa in rats of each group, the changes of mucosal thickness and villus height were compared, the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactic acid in intestinal mucosa of rats were detected by kit, the intestinal myoelectrical activity of rats in each group was measured, the slow wave frequency and amplitude of small intestinal smooth muscle were compared, the intestinal flora of rats in each group was detected, the contents of E. coli, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were compared, and the expressions of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway proteins HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in small intestinal tissues were detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with sham operated group, the villus height, mucosal thickness, sIgA content, slow wave frequency and amplitude of smooth muscle, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus contents in intestinal mucosa of model group rats were significantly decreased, and serum DAO and D-lactic acid levels, intestinal E. coli content, intestinal tissue HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 proteins were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the villus height, mucosal thickness, sIgA content, slow wave frequency and amplitude of smooth muscle, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus contents in intestinal mucosa of the Taoren Chengqitang group, glycyrrhizic acid group, and glycyrrhizic acid + Taoren Chengqitang group were significantly increased, and serum DAO and D-lactic acid levels, intestinal E. coli content, intestinal tissue HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 proteins were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the Taoren Chengqitang group and the glycyrrhizic acid group, the villus height, mucosal thickness, sIgA content, slow wave frequency and amplitude of smooth muscle, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus contents in intestinal mucosa of glycyrrhizic acid+Taoren Chengqitang group were significantly increased, and serum DAO and D-lactic acid levels, intestinal E. coli content, intestinal tissue HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 proteins were significantly decreased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).ConclusionsTaoren Chengqitang can alleviate intestinal mucosal injury, regulate intestinal myoelectrical activity and microenvironment homeostasis, restore intestinal function and maintain flora balance in intestinal sepsis rats, which may be achieved by down-regulating HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway.
Keywords：Taoren Chengqitang;high mobility group protein 1(HMGB1)/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) pathway;intestinal sepsis;intestinal myoelectrical activity;microenvironment homeostasis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from tumor necrosis factor-α+actinomycetes ketone （TNF-α+CHX） induced apoptosis in rat small intestine crypt epithelial cell line (IEC-6) via AU rich element mRNA binding protein HuR mediated posttranscription of p21 and the potential mechanism.MethodThe cultured IEC-6 cells were observed. The experiment was divided into blank group, GA (60 μmol·L-1) group, TNF-α+CHX group and GA+TNF-α+CHX group. Cytoplasmic and nuclear HuR were measured by Western blot. The interaction of HuR and p21 mRNA was detected by biotin pull down and RNA IP. Luciferase activity was measured after transfection with construct with p21 3'-UTR cloned into downstream of luciferase reporter. Cell apoptosis was detected by real-time dynamic cell analyzer, p21 and cysteine proteinas-3 precursor protein（proCaspase-3） association was analysised by CO-IP.ResultAfter GA treatment for 48 h, cytoplasmic HuR protein expression increased（P<0.05）,the binding between HuR and p21 mRNA expression up regulated(P<0.05), luciferase activity increased(P<0.01), and p21 mRNA and protein expression also increased(P<0.05), while these results were abolished by HuR silencing with siRNA. GA enhanced p21 and procaspase3 interaction(P<0.05), and attenuated TNF-α+CHX induced apoptosis in IEC-6 cells.ConclusionGA protected IEC-6 cells from TNF-α/CHX induced apoptosis via HuR mediated p21 posttranscription, which due to GA enhanced HuR binding to endogenous and recombinant p21 mRNA and increased p21 interaction with proCaspase3.
Keywords：glycyrrhizic acid;AU rich element mRNA binding protein HuR;p21;intestinal epithelial cells;apoptosis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of tetrandrine on transforming growth factor-β1（TGF-β1）stimulated MRC-5 cells.MethodDifferent concentrations of TGF-β1 (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 μg·L-1) were applied to MRC-5 cells. Proliferation toxicity of TGF-β1 to MRC-5 was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Detection of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Vimentin's expression levels in MRC-5 by Western blot. Detection of changes of collagen I(Col-I) and fibronectin (FN)'s expression levels in MRC-5 supernatants by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kit. And the appropriate concentration of TGF-β1 activated MRC-5 cells was screened. The appropriate concentration of TGF-β1 and different concentrations of Tet (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 μmol·L-1) were applied to MRC-5 cells, and CCK-8 method was used to screen safe concentration again. Western blot was used to detect changes in α-SMA and Vimentin expression levels in MRC-5 cells, and ELISA method to detect changes in Col-I and FN in MRC-5 cell supernatant.ResultCompared with the blank group, 20，40 μg·L-1 of TGF-β1 had toxic effects on MRC-5 cells at 24 hours (P<0.05), and 10，20，40 μg·L-1 of TGF-β1 had toxic effects on MRC-5 cells at 48 h (P<0.05).When Tet is added for 24 h, the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was 14.07 μmol·L-1, and when cultured for 48 h, the IC50 value was 7.51 μmol·L-1. Compared with the blank group, the relative contents of α-SMA, FN and Col-I in the 5 μg·L-1 of TGF-β1 group were obviously increased (P<0.05), and the relative contents of Vimentin were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the relative contents of FN and Col-I, α-SMA and Vimentin in 10 μg·L-1 group were significantly increased (P<0.01). 10 μg·L-1 of TGF-β1 was co-cultured with Tet at different concentrations. Compared with the TGF-β1 group, the relative levels of α-SMA, Vimentin and FN in the 5 μmol·L-1 of Tet group were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and the relative levels of Col-I were obviously reduced (P<0.05). In the Tet 10 μmol·L-1 group, the relative contents of the α-SMA, Vimentin, FN and Col-I were significantly reduced (P<0.01).ConclusionTGF-β1 can increase the levels of Col-I, FN and other extracellular matrices in MRC-5 cells, and Tet can effectively inhibit the occurrence of this change. It is suggested that Tet may inhibit secreting extracellular matrix of fibroblasts in the formation of pulmonary fibrosis.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1（G-Rg1）in ameliorating lipid uptake and oxidation in HepG2 cells induced by free fatty acids (FFA).MethodHepG2 cells were divided into normal group, model group，low-dose ginsenoside Rg1 group (25 μmol·L-1) and high-dose G-Rg1 group (50 μmol·L-1). HepG2 cells were treated with 1 mmol·L-1 free fatty acid for 24 h to construct the NAFLD cell model, and then treated with 25，50 μmol·L-1 G-Rg1 for 24 h. The effect of G-Rg1 on HepG2 cell activity was determined by cell counting kit-8（CCK-8） assay. The level of triglyceride (TG) was detected by micro method. The accumulation of lipid droplets was observed by oil red O staining. Quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the alterations of key genes and proteins relating to lipid uptake and metabolism.ResultCompared with the normal group, the intracellular TG level and the absorbance of the oil red O staining in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, G-Rg1 reduced TG and lipid deposition were significantly reduced (P<0.01).Results of Real-time PCR and Western blot showed that compared with normal group, model group peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors gamma（PPARγ），fatty acid binding protein 1（FABP1），fatty acid transport protein 2/5（FATP2/5）and fatty acid translocase（CD36）expressions increased（P<0.05），whereas peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors α（PPARα），carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1（CPT1）and peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1（ACOX1）expressions decreased（P<0.05）. Compared with the model group, the expressions of PPARγ, FABP1, FATP2, FATP5 and CD36 in the G-Rg1 group were decreased (P<0.05，P<0.01), while the expressions of PPARα, CPT1 and ACOX1 were increased (P<0.05，P<0.01).ConclusionG-Rg1 can ameliorate lipid deposition in NAFLD cell model by reducing lipid uptake and increasing lipid oxidation.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Tongxie Yaofang on irritable bowel syndrome-D (IBS-D) of liver-stagnation and spleen-deficiency type, in order to explore its mechanism in regulating brain-intestine interaction by changing the intestinal flora before and after treatment.MethodTotally 116 patients with IBS-D with liver stagnation and spleen deficiency who were diagnosed from July 2016 to December 2018 were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 58 patients in each group. Observation group was treated with Tongxie Yaofang orally. Control group was treated with pivalvonium orally. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks. Scores of traditional Chinese medicine pattern curative effect scoring system (TCM-PES), IBS quality of life questionnaire (IBS-QOL), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) of two groups were compared before and after treatment. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were detected before and after treatment by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) was used to detect changes in Escherichia coli, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecalis and other intestinal flora before and after treatment.ResultTCM-PES and IBS-QOL scores of two groups were improved after treatment. TCM-PES and IBS-QOL scores of observation group were higher than those of control group (P<0.05). TCM syndromes of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). SAS and SDS scores were significantly lower after treatment. SAS and SDS scores of observation group were lower than those of control group after treatment (P<0.05). Plasma CGRP and VIP decreased after treatment. Plasma CGRP and VIP in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant change in E. coli after treatment in two groups. After treatment, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium, and S. faecalis increased (P<0.05). In control group, intestinal L. acidophilus increased after treatment (P<0.05). The differences of intestinal L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium, S. faecalis in two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05).ConclusionTCM can alleviate clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea in patients with IBS-D, improve patients' bad mood and improve their quality of life. This may be related to improvement of intestinal flora imbalance, regulation of brain intestinal peptide secretion and reduction of visceral hypersensitivity.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Ditantang on phlegm turbid-blocked obstruction type tetan-burst twins in children with epilepsy and its effect on immunoglobulin, Peripheral blood helper T cells 17（Th17）， interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17A（IL-17A）in children with epilepsy.MethodThe random distribution sequences of 100 children generated by the random number table method were placed in sealed envelopes, and the subjects were divided into the corresponding experimental group and treatment group. Control group was treated with sodium valproate oral solution, and treatment group was also treated with Ditantang in addition to the therapy of control group. The total course of treatment was 3 months. The changes of immunoglobulin M（IgM）， immunoglobulin A（IgA），immunoglobulin G（IgG）, peripheral blood Th17 cells，IL-6，IL-17A, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), blood homocysteine (Hcy) and the adverse reactions were detected before and after treatment in two groups. The changes in the number of seizures, duration of seizures and EEG before treatment and 3 months after treatment were compared between the two groups.ResultThree months after the treatment of phlegm-blocking obstruction type tetan-burst twin epilepsy with Ditantang combined with sodium valproate, the results showed that the total effective rate of treatment group was superior to that of control group, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). After treatment, treatment group was superior to control group in the reduction of epilepsy score (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the levels of IgG，IgA and IgM in treatment group were significantly increased (P<0.05), while the levels of Th17，IL-6，IL-17A，hs-CRP and Hcy in peripheral blood were significantly decreased. Compared with control group, the levels of Th17，IL-6，IL-17A，hs-CRP and Hcy in peripheral blood decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in control group was significantly higher than that in treatment group (P<0.05).ConclusionDitantang is effective and safe in treating phlegm turbidness and obstruction type epilepsy (tetan-episode twin), and can improve the clinical symptoms of children and electroencephalogram. Besides, it can improve the level of immunoglobulin in children, significantly reduce the levels of Th17，IL-6 and IL-17A in their peripheral blood, regulate the immune function of the body, and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.
Keywords：Ditantang;children with phlegm-turbid obstruction epilepsy;tetane-burst twin;clinical efficacy;immunoglobulin;Th17 cells and related factors
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of modified Yiweitang on fatigue symptom and immunological indicators in primary Sjörgren′s Syndrome (pSS).MethodBy random, control, single-blind method, 116 cases of patients with pSS were divided into treatment group and control group, with 58 cases in each group. The treatment group was given modified Yiweitang, a dose a day, twice a day， and the control group was given hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ) 200 mg/time, twice a day. The treatment lasted for six months. Visual analogue scale (VAS) of fatigue symptoms, total traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome score, TCM fatigue score, rheumatoid factor (RF) and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) were used to compare two groups before and after treatment.ResultAfter treatment, the treatment group had a better efficacy on TCM syndromes than control group (Z=3.712, P<0.05). After treatment, the treatment group were superior to control group in improvement of TCM fatigue score and VAS score of fatigue symptom (P<0.05). After 6 months of treatment, IgG level in treatment group decreased significantly compared with before treatment, with statistical differences (P<0.05), but no difference between treatment group and control group. After treatment, RF in two groups showed no significant decrease compared with before treatment. The incidence of adverse reactions in the treatment group and the control group were 1.75%（1/57） and 25.49%（13/51）, respectively.ConclusionCompared with HCQ, modified Yiweitang can significantly alleviate fatigue and overall symptoms of patients of pSS, both of which can reduce serum IgG, and the efficacy of modified Yiweitang is more obvious than hydroxychloroquine sulfate. Both drugs had no significant effect on RF level of pSS patients. After long-term administration, modified Yiweitang is safer than hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the treatment of pSS.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the efficacy and safety of warm acupuncture combined with Congrong Duhuosan in treating ankylosing spondylitis （AS） with deficiency of kidney-Yang.MethodTotally 186 patients with AS of deficiency of kidney Yang type were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 93 patients in each group. The control group was treated with meloxicam dispersive tablets combined with Sulfasalazine enteric-coated tablets, while the observation group was treated with warm acupuncture combined with Congrong Duhuosan, with a course of treatment of 63 d. Bath ankylosing spondylitis patient global score (BAS-G), visual analogue score (VAS), bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), physicians global assessment (PGA) and syndrome differentiation of kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） were observed before and after treatment. Interleukin-17 (IL-17)，interleukin-23 (IL-23) mRNA expression levels, T helper cell 17（Th17） and regulatory cells（Treg）levels and Th17/Treg ratio were detected before and after treatment. Efficacy and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between two groups.ResultThere were 7 cases falling off in control group and 1 case in observation group. After treatment, the total effective rate of observation group was 85.87%（79/92）, which was better than 60.47%（52/86）of control group (χ2=6.08，P<0.01). The scores of BAS-G, VAS, BASDAI, BASFI, PGA and TCM kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome in observation group were significantly improved than those in control group (P<0.05, P< 0.01). IL-17 and IL-23 mRNA expression levels, Th17 and Treg levels and Th17/Treg ratio in observation group were significantly improved compared with control group (P<0.01). The incidence of adverse reactions in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.01).ConclusionWarm acupuncture combined with Congrong Duhuosan can effectively relieve pain, inflammatory reaction and other clinical symptoms of patients with kidney-Yang deficiency AS, and restore the activity function of patients with small adverse reactions. Therefore, it is a safe and effective clinical therapy.
Keywords：needle warming moxibustion;Congrong Duhuosan;ankylosing spondylitis;deficiency of kidney-Yang;clinical study
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Jiwei Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang combined with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture on shouder-hand syndrome (SHS), and its effect on neurogenic inflammatory factors and hemorheology.MethodOne hundred and forty-eight patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group (74 cases). Both groups' patients got rehabilitation measures, such as diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets for two to four weeks, 75 min/time, 1 time/day, and patients with apparent swelling got prednisone acetate tablets for one to two weeks, 10 min/time, 1 time/day. And patients in control group got Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture, 1 time/day, 6 times/week. Control grouporal Naoxintong capsule 4 tablets/time,3 times/day, patients in observation group were added with Jiwei Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang, 1 dose/day. The courses of treatment were 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, shoulder hand syndrome scale (SHSS), the upperextremities of the Fugl-meyer movement assessment (U-FMA), ability of daily life activities (ADL), Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and clinical efficacy were scored, disappearing time of pain and swelling were recorded, and levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), bradykinin (BK) and hemorheology were detected.ResultThe clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.106, P<0.05). And scores of sensory, autonomic, motion according to SHSS scale and the total scale of SHSS were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Disappearing time of pain and swelling were shorten than those in control group (P<0.01). After treatment, scores of U-FMA and ADL were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while score of syndrome of Qi deficiency and blood stasis was lower than that in control group (P<0.01). And level CGRP was higher than that in control group (P<0.01), and levels of SP and BK were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). After treatment, whole blood viscosity (high cut, low cut), plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and platelet aggregation rate were all lower than those in control group (P<0.05).ConclusionIn addition to the conventional western medicine therapy, Jiwei Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang combined with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture can reduce the severity of SHS and clinical syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine, shorten the course of disease, improve the motor function of upper limbs, inhibit the neurogenic inflammatory reaction, and improve the blood flow, the ability of daily life and the clinical efficacy of patients..
Keywords：shoulder hand syndrome;ischemic stroke;Jiawei Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang;acupuncture treatment of Xingnao Kaiqiao;neurogenic inflammatory factors;hemorheology
Abstract：ObjectiveTo discuss the effect of modified Yangxintang on chronic pulmonary heart disease (CPHD) with syndrome of deficiency of heart and lung Qi and progress of disease.MethodOne hundred and twenty-eight patients were randomly divided into control group 64 cases and observation group 64 cases by random number table. Patients in control group got comprehensive rehabilitation measures of western medicine. Those who had respiratory distress got Salmeterol ticasone powder inhaler, 1-2 times/day, 1 inhale/time.And those who had cough and phlegm got Ambroxol hydrochloride tablets for 1-2 week, 1-2 tablet/time, 3 times/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group was also added with modified Yangxintang, 1 dose/day, 5 days/week. Record the and times of acute aggravate and cold, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were recorded during 48 weeks. Before and after treatment, scores of modified British medical research council respiratory questionnaire (mMRC questionnaire), Minnesota Heart Failure Quality of life scale (MLHFQ), syndrome of deficiency of heart and lung Qi and 6-minute walking test (6 MWT) were scored. And levels of N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET-1), CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ were detected.ResultThe clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.108, P<0.05). During 48 weeks of observation period, times of acute aggravate and cold in observation group were less than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of PASP, MPAP and NT-proBNP were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And levels of LVEF, SV, CO, 6 MWT and NO were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), levels of CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). And levels of mMRC, MLHFQ, score of syndrome of deficiency of heart and lung Qi, TNF-α , IL-6, ET-1, CD8+ and were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01, P<0.05).ConclusionIn addition to anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic and anti-tussive therapies, modified Yangxintang can improve the immune function, relieve the symptoms of heart and lung, improve the function of heart and lung and the quality of life, inhibit the inflammatory reaction, improve the function of vascular endothelium, reduce the pulmonary hypertension, control the progress of disease.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the water soluble chemical constituents in rhizoma of Acorus tatarinowii and transformation pathway of nucleosides in the process of water extraction.MethodCompounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography on macroporous resin，Sephadex LH-20，ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Nucleosides were identified from aqueous extract of A. tatarinowii，and their stability was investigated by HPLC. The possible transformation pathways of nucleosides in aqueous extract of A. tatarinowii were studied by nucleotide addition test.ResultEleven compounds including four nucleosides，four phenylpropanoids，two alkaloids and a furfural were isolated，and identified as uridine（1），adenine（2），guanosine（3），adenosine（4）， 5-hydroxymethylfurfural（5），5-（hydroxymethyl）-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde（6），（threo）1'，2'-dihydroxyasarone（7），（erythro）1'，2'-dihydroxyasarone（8），acoraminol A（9），acoraminol B（10），and tatarine A（11）. The chromatographic peaks of compounds 1-4 and cytidine were identified from aqueous extract of A. tatarinowii by HPLC. After ultrasonic extraction for 0.5 h，the stability of nucleosides in water was poor. After ultrasonic extraction for 3 h or refluxing extraction for 0.5 h，the stability of nucleosides in water was good. Four transformation pathways including 5'-cytidylic acid→cytidine，uridine monophosphate→uridine，guanosine monophosphate，guanosine and adenosine-5'-monophosphate，adenosine 5'-diphosphate，adenosine 5'-triphosphorate，adenosine，adenine might exist in water extract of A. tatarinowii.ConclusionCompounds 1-4 and 6 were isolated from the genus Acorus for the first time. These compounds further enriched the chemical constituents of A. tatarinowii. The stability and transformation pathway of nucleosides in A. tatarinowii provides reference data for the analysis of nucleosides in A. tatarinowii and other traditional Chinese medicine.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze and compare the fishy components in raw, stir-fried, liquorice-processed, vinegar-processed and wine-processed products of Pheretima aspergillum, and explore the material basis and processing principle of fishy smell of P. aspergillum.MethodHeracles Ⅱ ultra-fasted gas chromatography electronic nose technology combined with chemometrics was used for the overall analysis of volatile components in raw P. aspergillum and its processed products. Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) was used to analyze and identify the volatile compositions in the raw products and processed products. Gas chromatographic conditions were as following：temperature program (initial temperature at 60 ℃, kept for 5 min, up to 120 ℃ with the heating rate of 3 ℃·min-1, and then up to 230 ℃ with the heating rate of 10 ℃·min-1 and finished), the inlet temperature at 280 ℃, high purity helium as the carrier gas, the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1, the split ratio of 20∶1. Mass spectrum conditions were as following：electron impact ionization (EI), electron collision energy of 70 eV, ion source temperature of 230 ℃, quadrupole temperature at 150 ℃, scanning range of m/z 50-550. The relative content of each component was calculated by peak area normalization.ResultPrincipal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) of the electronic nose showed that the raw products and its processed products could be clearly distinguished from each other. Among them, the difference between raw products and stir-fried, liquorice-processed products was small, but the difference between raw products and vinegar-processed, wine-processed products was large. A total of 25, 27, 22, 26 and 33 components were respectively identified from raw, stir-fried, liquorice-processed, vinegar-processed and wine-processed products of P. aspergillum, there were 13 common components in these products, including 4 aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, hexanal, benzaldehyde), 2 ketones (2-heptanone, 2-tridecanone), 1 carboxylic acid (lauric acid), 4 heterocyclic compounds (2-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-pentylfuran, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine), 1 amine (trimethylamine) and 1 alcohol (1-octen-3-ol).ConclusionThe odorous components in the raw products are mainly derived from aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, 2-ethylhexanal, hexanal) and amines (trimethylamine). Odorous components of P. aspergillum can be reduced effectively by stir-fried and liquorice, vinegar, wine processing, while flavoring substances can be increased by wine processing to cover its ugly odor. This paper can provide scientific basis for the deodorization of P. aspergillum by processing, and also provide reference for the analysis and correction of ugly odor of other animal medicines.
Keywords：Pheretima aspergillum;processed products;electronic nose;headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS);fishy components;correction of odor;material basis
Abstract：ObjectiveThe interaction between lobetyolin and bovine serumal bumin（bovine serum albumin，BSA）.MethodBy the steady-state fluorescence analysis method，the molecular-docking，ultraviolet absorption spectrum and fluorescence quenching were used to calculate quenching constant and binding constant，the number of sites，the position，the force and the distance of lobetyolin-BSA system. In addition， the effect of metalionson quenching constant of the lobetyolin-BSA system was studied.ResultThe quenching constant was 1.25×104 L·mol-1（37 ℃），the binding constant was 2.95×104 L·mol-1（37 ℃），and the number of sites was 1 and bound with site 1 in ⅡA of BSA， thermodynamic meters were ΔH=-19.374 kJ·mol-1，ΔS=23.1 J·mol-1·K-1， the interaction distance was 3.2 nm. Meta lions could accelerate the quenching.ConclusionBy the steady-state fluorescence technique，molecular-docking and ultraviolet absorption spectrum，the quenching mechanism of Lobetyolin-BSA is quiescent quenching，and the interactive force is electro static force. The Lobetyolin-BSA can be well combined. At the same time，it also shows that the molecular docking results are similar to the experimental results obtained by steady-state fluorescence analysis.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the quality regionalization and environmental impact factors of Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix based on main active ingredients，and provide a reference for the determination of high-quality production areas and the dominant environmental factors affecting the content of Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix.MethodPartial least squares regression analysis (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the quality regionalization and environmental impact factors based on the main active ingredients of tetrandrine and fangchinoline, and investigate the environmental factors of the producing areas.ResultThe content of fangchinoline was positively correlated with soil pH and annual average temperature，negatively correlated with latitude. The content of tetrandrine was positively correlated with soil pH，negatively correlated with annual rainfall and longitude. The total content was positively correlated with soil pH and annual average temperature，but negatively correlated with annual rainfall，latitude and longitude. Principal component analysis showed that the 50 production areas could be divided into four groups of quality formation. The groups with the highest scores were Shixing county in Guangdong，Shexian county in Anhui，Songxi county in Fujian，Nanxiong city in Guangdong and Xiangxiang city in Hunan，all of which were best areas for accumulation of the two main active ingredients.ConclusionSoil pH，annual average temperature，annual rainfall，latitude and longitude are the main environmental factors affecting the main active ingredients of Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix. The best areas for accumulation of tetrandrine and fangchinoline are Shixing county in Guangdong，Shexian county in Anhui，Songxi county in Fujian，Nanxiong city in Guangdong and Xiangxiang city in Hunan.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish an atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the content of eight trace elements of Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza in different growth stages，namely K，Cu，Na，Mg，Fe，Zn，Ca and Mn.MethodMicro-digestion-atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the trace elements in the roots of Yu S. miltiorrhiza. The HPLC method was used to determine the content of active constituents of Yu S. miltiorrhiza. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the results.ResultThe contents of trace elements in Yu S. miltiorrhiza in different growth periods were significantly different. Cu had a significant positive correlation with the growth period，while Zn，Ca and Mn had significant negative correlations with the growth period. The comprehensive score of Yu S. miltiorrhiza in December was the best. The content of index components was negatively correlated with Mn，Zn and Ca，and positively correlated with Cu，Fe and Na. In soil，Mg，Fe，Ca and Mn were correlated with Zn，Ca and Mn，while Mn was negatively correlated with Cu. The content of K and Mg in the crude drug increased gradually with the change of the growth period，and the overall score of annual Yu S. miltiorrhiza was the best.ConclusionThe change of trace elements in Yu S. miltiorrhiza in different periods has certain regularity. Trace elements in soil have impacts on trace elements in medicinal materials. Trace elements in medicinal materials are closely correlated with index components and quality of medicinal materials.
Keywords：Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza;atomic absorption spectrum;trace elements;different growth periods;rhizosphere soil
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the pharmacological mechanism of Danhong injection (DHI) in the treatment of coronary heart disease with angina pectoris from the level of functional modules by modular pharmacological analysis framework.MethodThe targets of drug components in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and the angina-related genes in DisGeNET, OMIM and CTD databases were combined to construct the target network of DHI for the treatment of coronary angina pectoris by STRING version 11.0. Functional modules were identified by the molecular complex detection (MCODE), Markov cluster (MCL) and GLay algorithms, and the results were optimized by the minimum network structure entropy algorithm. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed on the modules by DAVID version 6.8 bioinformatics analysis platform.ResultBy integrating 262 genes related to DHI and 192 genes related to angina pectoris, the target network of DHI for angina pectoris was constructed, including 414 nodes and 6 621 edges. After optimization of the minimum network structure entropy, 12 functional modules (number of nodes>3) were identified by MCODE algorithm, of which the largest module (module 1) has 47 nodes and 962 edges, MCODE score=41.826. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was conducted on the gene network of DHI for angina pectoris and the modules divided by MCODE, and 37 and 58 KEGG signaling pathways were obtained respectively, with the coverage rate of 86.5%. The pathways enriched by the modules could be roughly divided into 11 categories, among which human diseases (45%), signal transduction (17%), and amino acid metabolism (14%) were involved in a large proportion. Module 1 was enriched into 39 pathways, which was signal transduction-related module. Module 3 was amino acid metabolism-related module.ConclusionThe therapeutic effect of DHI on coronary heart disease with angina pectoris is achieved through multiple modules, multiple pathways and multiple functions, mainly by regulating modules related to signal transduction, amino acid metabolism, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Ca2+ and p53 signaling.
Abstract：Ethnic medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine, which has encountered many problems in the development process, such as the lack of effective inheritance of valuable experience and practice, weak basic research and lack of talents, serious destruction of ethnic medicine resources, uneven quality of medicinal materials, weak intellectual property protection, etc. To sum up, these seriously restrict the development of ethnic medicine. Here, the authors propose some corresponding suggestions according to these problems. Firstly, we should try our best to protect and mine relevant professional books for promoting national medicine culture, establish complete system of national and local standards, strengthen the construction of standardized planting bases and germplasm resource banks, build a well-known brand of ethnic medicine and give full play to the leading role of the brand. Secondly, we should strengthen basic research on ethnic medicine and build an integrated system of production-study-research. By integrating the strength of culture, scientific research, talents and industry, this paper hopes to promote the vigorous development of ethnic medicine.
Keywords：Chinese ethnic medicine;Tibetan medicine;Mongolian medicine;Dai medicine;Uygur medicine;Zhuang medicine;Miao medicine
Abstract：To investigate the effect of flavonoid compounds on vascular endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells were located between plasma and vascular tissue, and can complete the metabolic exchange of plasma and interstitial fluid, synthesize and secrete a variety of biologically active substances, so as to ensure the normal contraction and relaxation of blood vessels, and maintain the tension of blood vessels. Besides, it can regulate blood pressure and the balance of blood coagulation and anticoagulation, and maintain normal blood flow and long-term patency of blood vessels. Endothelial cell damage can cause a series of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. Flavonoids are widely found in nature. Because these compounds are mostly yellow or light yellow, they contain ketone groups in the molecule, which are called flavones. Flavonoids are widely distributed, mostly in higher plants and ferns. Various flavonoid compounds, such as flavonoids, flavonols, flavanones isoflavones and flavanones, can protect vascular endothelial cells. This article reviews relevant findings published in domestic and foreign journals. It is found that flavonoids have effects in resisting inflammation, reducing blood vessel fragility, improving blood vessel permeability, lowering blood lipids and cholesterol, vasodilating and resisting hemagglutinating, with the same effect as phytoestrogens. They can reduce vascular endothelial cell damage through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, stable mitochondrial function, and regulating nitric oxide（NO）. It can be used in clinic to treat diseases, such as insufficient cerebral blood supply, sequelae caused by cerebral hemorrhage, hyperviscosity, cerebral thrombosis, coronary heart disease and angina pectoris.
Abstract：Zixue was first recorded in detail in Qianjin Yifang, and practitioners of later generations renamed it as Zixuesan and Zixuedan, which is the representative prescription of antipyretic preparations and has high clinical application and research value. At present, there have been many studies on the pharmacological effect and clinical application of Zixue, but the medical books of the past dynasties have slightly different records on Zixue, which has brought some difficulties to the reasonable clinical application and research of this prescription. In addition to the introduction of Zixuesan, which is different from the ancient recipe, the researchers have questions about which development method can reasonably inherit and develop the classical preparation. The authors intend to summarize the historical evolution of "formula" and "preparation" of Zixue, in order to clarify its historical context, which can provide a reference for the modern research and development of this formula, and provide a new ideas for the in-depth exploration of other classic preparations.
Abstract：The latest research shows that the intestinal flora is closely related to the pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine（TCM）, and the study of microecological mechanism is a new direction of pharmacology of TCM. Among many functional groups of intestinal flora, butyric acid producing bacteria is an important functional group of intestinal flora. It can ferment dietary fiber, carbohydrate, endogenous protein and so on to produce metabolites. The imbalance of its flora is also related to the occurrence of a variety of diseases. The reason is that butyric acid is an important secondary metabolite of butyrobacteria. As an important short chain fatty acid, butyric acid can maintain intestinal health, regulate immune system and inflammatory response, regulate energy metabolism, and affect cell fraction Chemokines and apoptosis play an important role. Polysaccharide of TCM has the characteristics of high content, not easy to be digested and absorbed by the host, but can be decomposed and utilized by intestinal flora. It can be used as the carbon source of bacteria to regulate the intestinal flora, including butyric acid producing bacteria, and improve the structure of intestinal flora to achieve the purpose of disease treatment. Therefore, based on "butyric acid producing bacteria-polysaccharide of TCM", it is a new field in the study of microecological mechanism of TCM to study the pharmacology of TCM from the function of intestinal bacteria and the polysaccharide component of flora carbon source. Based on the latest literature and microecological pharmacology of TCM, this paper reviews the role of butyric acid, the molecular mechanism of butyric acid producing bacteria using polysaccharide of TCM, the relationship between polysaccharide of TCM and butyric acid producing bacteria, and discusses the relationship between butyric acid producing bacteria and polysaccharide of TCM. It also looks forward to the research of TCM pharmacology based on "butyric acid producing bacteria-polysaccharide of TCM", in order to provide a reference for the research progress of TCM pharmacology based on "butyric acid producing bacteria-polysaccharide of TCM".
Keywords：short-chain fatty acids;butyric acid;intestinal flora;butyric acid producing bacteria;polysaccharides of traditional Chinese medicine
Abstract：Health-preservation thoughts of the four major schools (Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and Medicine) have important reference values for the health preservation and health care industry. The core of health-preservation thought of the Taoism is taking mind training as the focus and physical exercise as the supplementary means, Taoism is nature-admiring, emphasizes the idea of natural laws and inaction and humanity follows natural laws, as well as advocates following nature's courses, realizing the passive inaction, and keeping calmness, also, it advocates the way of keeping good health through preserving vital essence, energy and mentality, in order to achieve the purpose of training vital essence into energy, training energy into mentality and maintaining complete vital essence, energy and vitality. Through long-term development, Medicine has formed a relatively complete set of theoretical and systematic health-preservation methods. The holistic concept of Medicine emphasizes the uniformity among human, nature and society, considers human body as an organic whole, and advocates the health-preservation thoughts of living in harmony with nature, accommodating the four seasons, keeping good circulation of energy and blood, dredging collaterals, nourishing essence and replenishing energy, accumulating healthy energy and repelling pathogenic factors, maintaining the inseparability of the body and spirits, as well as taking proper exercises and keeping mental calmness. Based on the health-preservation thoughts of the four major schools, this paper summarizes the modern health-preservation guiding thoughts of dredging collaterals, nourishing essence, taking exercises and keeping mental calmness, in order to provide the theoretical guidance for traditional Chinese medicine health-preservation services.
Keywords：Taoism;Medicine;health-preservation thought;health-preservation methods;venation;preventive treatment of disease