Abstract：ObjectiveThrough phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase（PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）/mammalian rapamycin target protein （mTOR） signaling pathway， explore the effect of Zhigancao Tang on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury（MIRI）The role and mechanism of arrhythmia（ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation）.MethodThe 72 SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group，model group， Zhigancao Tang low，medium and high dose group（11.43，22.86，45.72 g·kg-1），Wenxin granule group（2.43 g·kg-1），continuous drug intervention for 10 days. Two hours after the last administration，the MIRI model of rat was prepared by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery，and the changes of electrocardiogram were recorded. After successful modeling，blood and heart tissue were collected to detect the content of creatine creatine（CK），lactate dehydrogenase（LDH）and aspartate aminotransferase（AST）in the serum, the enzyme-linked immunoassay（ELISA） method was used to detect cardiac troponin（CtnI）content, immunohistochemical detection of myocardial PI3K，Akt，mTOR expression. Western blot was used to detect the myocardial autophagy-related protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3（LC-3），autophagy markers Beclin1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway related protein expression and phosphorylated p-PI3K，p-Akt，p-mTOR levels.ResultIn model group， 100% of ventricular tachycardia and 91.67% of ventricular fibrillation occurred. Compared with sham operation group， the serum levels of CK，LDH，AST，and CtnI in the model group were significantly increased（P<0.01），PI3K，Akt，mTOR AOD values in myocardial tissue were significantly increased （P<0.01），the relative expression of the ratio of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ and Beclin1 was significantly increased（P<0.01），p-PI3K/PI3K，p-Akt/Akt，and p-mTOR/mTOR were significantly reduced （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in the high-dose Zhigancao Tang group was significantly reduced （P<0.01），and the duration was the shortest compared with other administration groups（P<0.01）， CK，LDH，AST level and CtnI content were significantly reduced（P<0.01）， the expression of PI3K，Akt and mTOR of Zhigancao Tang group was significantly decreased with increasing dose（P<0.01）， the expression of LC-3 and Beclin1 was accompanied by Zhigancao Tang increase of each dose group of soup had different degrees of decrease （P<0.01），while the expression ratio of PI3K/Akt/mTOR-related protein was significantly increased （P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionPretreatment of Zhigancao Tang can reduce the abusually elevated cardiac enzymes CK, LDH, AST and CtnI, inhibit excessive autophagy of cells, and up-regulate the expression of PI3K, Akt and mTOR, indicating that the anti-MIRI arrhythmia effect of Zhigancao Tang may be related to the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo research optimum compatibility components ratio for the anti-influenza virus effect of different compatibility of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba-Schizonepetae Herba.MethodThe 228 SPF grade ICR rats of half male and half female were randomly divided into 19 groups, with 12 rats in each group. In each group, the ratio of flavonoids and volatile oil was determined. ICR rats were anesthetized with ether and infected with influenza A virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) with A 10-fold lethal dose（LD50）50 μL nasal drip infection. Than the blank control group was treated with the same amount of normal saline nasal drip control, and the rats were given the drug by gavage on the day after virus infection, the blank group and model group were given the same amount of distilled water, and the positive control group were given Oseltamivirphosphate and compound Jinyinhua granules by gavage, and once a day for 7 days. Different compatibility of volatile oil and flavonoids in Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and Schizonepetae Herba are applied to rats infected with influenza A/PR8/34 (H1N1) virus to study the pharmacodynamic screening by lung index of influenza-infected mice and histopathological examination. And antiviral effects as well as the expression of interleukin-6（IL-6）, interleukin-1β（IL-1β）, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is studied.ResultLung infection injury was prepared by infecting mice with influenza A virus A/ pr8/34(H1N1). Lung mass increased at the end of the experiment in the model group, and lung index was compared with that in the blank group(P<0.01). And the experimental lung weight of oseltamivirphosphate group, compound Jinyinhua granules group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2 group, volatile oil 1 group and volatile oil 2 group were compared with that of the model group (P<0.05). Lung index of Oseltamivirphosphate group and volatile oil group was compared with that of model group (P<0.01).Lung index of compound Jinyinhua granules group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2 group, volatile oil 2-flavonoids 2 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2-flavonoids 1 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2-flavonoids 2 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2-flavonoids 2 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2-flavonoids 2 group and volatile oil 2 group were compared with the model group (P<0.05). And antiviral effect as well as the expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α is studied. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α in volatile oil 1-flavonoids 1 group, volatile oil 1-flavonoids 2 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2-flavonoids 1 group, volatile oil 1-volatile oil 2-flavonoids 2 group, volatile oil 2 groups, flavonoids 2 groups were decreased, compared with the model group (P<0.01).ConclusionIt is found that different combinations have better biological effects and good antiviral effects. This study explores the synergies compatibility rule and mechanism of action on Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and Schizonepetae Herba pairs, which will not only develop the theory of Chinese medicine compatibility but also contribute to laying a foundation for the innovation of the influenza virus drug development.
Keywords：Menthae Haplocalycis Herba;Schizonepetae Herba;compatibility;antiviral;Chinese medicine pair
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the antitumor effect of Xihuangwan on A549 lung cancer nude mice in inflammatory microenvironment, and explore the effect of Xihuangwan on the expressions of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammatory bodies and their products in serum and tumor tissue of A549 lung cancer nude mice.MethodThe lung cancer A549 cell model was established in nude mice with lung cancer, and the lung cancer A549 cell model was established in inflammatory microenvironment by adding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the culture medium. After modeling, the rats were randomly divided into blank group (equal volume of normal saline), positive drug control group (MCC950 solution, 0.79 g·kg-1), and low, medium, high-dose Xihuangwan groups (0.39, 0.78, 1.95 g·kg-1). The rats were administered orally once a day for 21 days, and then sacrificed. The tumor tissues were stripped to measure the tumor body. The expressions of NLRP3, malondialdehyde（MDA）, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and NLRP3 were detected by Western blot, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-18 and MDA were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA）.ResultCompared with the blank group, the tumor inhibition rates in the positive drug control group and the low, medium and high dose Xihuangwan group were 39.21%, 31.72%, 42.24% and 55.68%. ELISA showed that the high-dose Xihuangwan group could significantly reduce the expressions of MDA, IL-1β and IL-18 in the serum of nude mice (P<0.05). Western blot showed that the high-dose Xihuangwan group could effectively reduce the protein expressions of MDA, IL-1β, IL-18 and NLRP3 in tumor of nude mice (P<0.05), the results of immunohistochemistry showed that the expression rate of NLRP3 in the tumor tissues of nude mice was reduced in the positive drug group and each dose of Xihuangwan group (P<0.05).ConclusionXihuangwan can inhibit the growth of tumor tissue of A549 cells bearing lung cancer in nude mice. The mechanism may be that it can inhibit the growth of tumor cells by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3 inflammatory bodies, IL-1β, IL-18, MDA tables, and then inhibiting the inflammatory microenvironment of tumor cells.
Keywords：Xihuangwan;A549 lung cancer bearing nude mice;nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3);inflammatory microenvironment;proliferation inhibition
Abstract：ObjectTo analyze the effect of muscular tension injury in spasticity of cerebral apoplexy(SCA) rats with spasticity and the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAα), γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (GAT-1) protein and mRNA expression in cerebral cortex modified Shaoyao Gancaotang, electroacupuncture Quchi, Yanglingquan and acupuncture combined with herb therapies alleviate the effect of SCA.MethodRandomly divided into two groups, divided into blank group, sham operation group, model group, modified Shaoyao Gancaotang group, acupuncture combined with herb group, electroacupuncture group, selected qualified SD rats into the group, 9 rats in each group. The modified Zea-Longa thread embolism method+internal capsule injection of NMDA receptor method was used to prepare a rat model. After the behavioral score confirms the success of the model,dispose of each group separately,electroacupuncture group (electroacupuncture on both sides of Yangling Spring and Quchi,1 time/d for 5 days), modified Shaoyao Gancaotang group (with Shaoyao Gancaotang 1 time/d,10 mL·kg-1 for 5 days),acupuncture combined with herb (modified Shaoyao Gancaotang was given, then electroacupuncture treatment was continued for 5 days). After treatment, the muscle tension was detected by behavioral analysis. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR（Real-time PCR） and Western blot were used to detect the expression of GABAα and GAT-1 related mRNA and protein in the cortex.ResultCompared with normal group, the muscle tension of the model group increased (P<0.01), the expression of GABAα mRNA and protein decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of GAT-1 mRNA and protein increased (P<0.01), compared with model group, the muscle tone score of the each treatment group decreased (P<0.05), the expression of GABAα mRNA and protein increased (P<0.05，P<0.01), and the expression of GAT-1 mRNA and protein decreased (P<0.05，P<0.01), of which the corresponding expression in the acupuncture combined with herb group was the most significant.ConclusionElectroacupuncture Quchi, Yanglingquan,modified Shaoyao Gancaotang and acupuncture combined with three therapies can alleviate the muscle tension of limbs spasm of stroke,and the combination of acupuncture and medicine treatment on the cortical γ-aminobutyric acid receptor the highest expression efficiency suggests that it has the best effect on improving the excitatory spasticity of stroke limbs.
Keywords：stroke spasm state;γ-aminobutyric acid type a receptor;γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1;electroacupuncture;Shaoyao Gancaotang;acupuncture combination medicine
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism of Euphorbiae Ebarcteolatae Radix bacteriostasis ointment in eczema mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB).MethodA total of 40 ICR adult mice were randomly divided into control group，model group，hydrocortisone Butyrate cream group (0.09g·kg-1) and Euphorbiae Ebarcteolatae Radix bacteriostasis ointment group (0.09 g·kg-1), with 10 mice in each group. Except for the normal group, other groups were given DNCB to induce the chronic eczema model. Twenty-four hours after DNCB stimulation, they were given the corresponding drugs through auricle and back, twice a day for 10 days. After drug intervention, efforts were made to measure the change of thickness and weight of the middle ear, assess the allergic effect, and calculate the spleen index of the mice. Optical microscope was used to observe the pathological changes in ear tissues of mice. And the levels of serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4) in mice were determined by multiplex immunoassay.ResultCompared with control group, the thickness and weight of right ears, score of allergic effect, spleen index and the levels of IL-2 and IL-4 in serum showed significant increases in model group (P<0.05，P<0.01). The histopathology injuries of ear were aggravated. Compared with model control group, Euphorbiae Ebarcteolatae Radix bacteriostasis ointment could reduce ear thickness and score of allergic effect, regulate the spleen index, decrease the inflammation factor in serum such as IL-2 and IL-4 (P<0.05，P<0.01), and improve ear histopathology injuries.ConclusionEuphorbiae Ebarcteolatae Radix bacteriostasis ointment may have a good effect on eczema.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide combined with dihydroartemisinin on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of THP-1 cells, and explore the mechanism.MethodThe thiazolyl blue （MTT） method was applied to detect the effect of different concentrations of arsenic trioxide, dihydroartemisinin and arsenic trioxide combined with dihydroartemisinin on the proliferation of THP-1 cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide（PI）assay was used to detect the change of THP-1 cell cycle and apoptosis．Western blot was performed to assess the expression of cysteine protease-3（Caspase-3）, cleaved Caspase-3, B-lymphocytoma-2（Bcl-2） and Bcl-2 associated X protein （Bax）. The changes of cell morphology were observed under high intension microscope.ResultCompared with blank group, arsenic trioxide and dihydroartemisinin both exhibited obvious antiproliferative effect on the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 in time-dose dependence （P<0.01）. After 48 h, compared with the same dose of arsenic trioxide or that of dihydroartemisinin alone, the inhibition effect of 1 µmol·L-1 arsenic trioxide combined with 2 µmol·L-1 dihydroartemisinin on proliferation of THP-1 cells was significantly stronger （P<0.01）. Compared with the control group, arsenic trioxide combined with dihydroartemisinin significantly arrested the cells in G1 phase （P<0.01）, induced the downregulation of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 （P<0.01） and upregulation of cleaved Caspase-3 significantly（P<0.05）.ConclusionArsenic trioxide combined with dihydroartemisinin can significantly inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of THP-1 cells. The possible mechanism may be related to arrest the cells in G1 phase, reduce the expression of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2, increase the expression of cleaved Caspase-3.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of different concentrations of Astragali Radix containing serum on the expression of 24-hydroxylase（CYP24A1），1α-OHase（CYP27B1） mRNA and protein in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells （BMSCs）， and to explore the mechanism of primary osteoporosis （OP）.MethodThe experiment was divided into 6 groups，like normal group， model group， low ，middle and high dose group of Astragali Radix containing serum（20%，40%，60%），Vitamin D group. Cell proliferation toxicity assay（CCK-8） was used to detect the effect of different concentrations of Astragali Radix containing serum on survival rate of aging BMSCs.Real-time quantitative PCR（Real-time PCR） and Western blot was used to detect the expression of CYP24A1 CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in senile BMSCs osteogenic differentiation cells by different concentrations of Astragali Radix containing serum.ResultCompared with normal group， the proliferation and survival rate of BMSCs osteoblasts induced by D-galactose in model group was significantly lower than that in normal group （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， medium and high dose groups and Vitamin D group could improve the proliferation and differentiation of aging BMSCs into osteoblasts in different degrees（P<0.01）. The relative expression of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in model group was significantly lower than that in normal group， while the relative expression of CYP24A1 mRNA and protein in model group was significantly higher than that in normal group. Compared with model group， high dose Astragali Radix containing serum group could increase the relative expression of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein， and decrease the relative expression of CYP24A1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner（P<0.01）.ConclusionThe mechanism of different concentrations of Astragali Radix containing serum in the treatment of osteoporosis may be related to the regulation of CYP24A1， CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in the osteogenic differentiation of aging BMSCs.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Paiteling on the proliferation，metastasis and invasion of HeLa cells and relevant proteins of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway.Method① HeLa cells were divided into blank group and Paiteling concentration gradient groups (3.906，2.604，1.953，1.563，1.302，1.116，0.977 g·L-1). After drug intervention for 24 h，the cell morphological changes were observed under microscope. The cell viability was measured by thiazole blue (MTT) colorimetry，and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Paiteling on HeLa cells was calculated. ② HeLa cells were divided into blank group，cisplatin group (0.01 g·L-1)，Paiteling high-dose group (2.974 g·L-1)，Paiteling medium-dose group (1.487 g·L-1) and Paiteling low-dose group (0.991 g·L-1). Cell proliferation and toxicity test (CCK-8) method was used to detect the effect of Paiteling on the proliferation ability of HeLa cells，scratch test was used to detect cell migration，and invasion test (Transwell) was used to detect changes in cell invasion ability. ③ Inhibitor LY294002 group (0.006 g·L-1) was added. Western blot (WB) was used to detect the expressions of Paiteling on PI3K，Akt，recombinant human B-cell lymphoma factor-xl (Bcl-xl)，and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia associated D protein (Bad).Result① Compared with the blank group，microscopic observation showed that the number of cells in the treatment group was significantly reduced, and the cell morphology was incomplete. MTT experiments showed that Paiteling has a significantly inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation (P<0.01). The IC50 of Paiteling on HeLa cells was calculated as 2.974 g·L-1. ② The CCK-8 experiment showed that compared with the blank group，all the drug-treated groups had an inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation at 24，36，48 h (P<0.01), compared with the cisplatin group，middle and low-dose Paiteling groups showed a reduced inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation at each time point (P<0.01). The scratch test showed that，compared with the blank group，each drug-added group could inhibit the migration ability of HeLa cells (P<0.01)，and the cell migration rate of the high-dose Paiteling group was lower than that of the cisplatin group (P<0.05). Transwell experiments showed that compared with the blank group，the number of membranes permeated by HeLa cells in each drug-treated group was decreased (P<0.01)，and the number of membranes permeated in the middle and low-dose Paiteling groups was increased compared with the cisplatin group (P<0.01). ③ Western blot showed that compared with the blank group，the expression levels of PI3K，Bcl-xl，and Akt in the high，medium，and low-dose Paiteling groups and the LY294002 group decreased (P<0.05，P<0.01)，while the expression of Bad increased (P<0.01). Compared with the high-dose Paiteling group，the PI3K，Akt，and Bcl-xl protein expressions were increased in the low-dose Paiteling group (P<0.01)，whereas Bad expression was decreased (P<0.01).ConclusionPaiteling can inhibit HeLa cell proliferation，metastasis and invasion ability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner，which may be related to its effect on the expressions of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related proteins.
Keywords：HeLa cells;paiteling;half inhibitory concentration (IC50);invasion;metastasis;phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase / protein kinase B (PI3K / Akt)
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the therapeutic mechanism of Canhuang tablets on the mRNA and protein expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2) in the liver of jaundiced rats induced by α-naphthalene isothiocyanate (ANIT).MethodThe rats were divided into normal group, model group, Canhuang tablets (CHP) group and ursodeoxycholic acid tablets (UDCA) group. The jaundice model was reproduced by ANIT. After the intervention of the corresponding drugs, the contents of total bilirubin (TBIL), total bile acid (TBA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum and the liver histopathology were examined to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CHP. The relative mRNA and protein expressions of FXR, UGT1A1 and MRP2 in rat liver tissues were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot.ResultCHP can significantly reduce the increase of TBIL, TBA, ALT, AST and ALP caused by ANIT in rat serum, and inhibit the liver pathological changes, which showed that the removing jaundice effect of CHP was better than UDCA. Compared with the normal group, ANIT significantly inhibited the mRNA levels of FXR, UGT1A1 and MRP2 in rat liver tissues after modeling (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, CHP and UDCA significantly increased the mRNA levels of target genes of each protein after intervention (P<0.01), and CHP was superior to UDCA in improving the mRNA level of bilirubin metabolizing enzyme UGT1A1 (P<0.01). In the aspect of affecting protein expression, compared with the normal group, ANIT modeling significantly increased the expression of FXR in rats (P<0.05). CHP intervention showed a tendency to promote the expression of FXR, while UDCA did not, but there was no significant difference between them. In the aspects of promoting bilirubin metabolism and bile excretion, the expressions of UGT1A1 and MRP2 were significantly decreased by ANIT modeling (P<0.01), while the expressions of UGT1A1 and MRP2 proteins were significantly increased after treatment of CHP (P<0.01). CHP was superior to UDCA in increasing the expression of bilirubin and bile acid efflux protein MRP2 (P<0.01).ConclusionThe jaundice abating mechanism of CHP is related to activating FXR mRNA expression in liver, promoting the mRNA and protein expression of bilirubin metabolizing enzyme UGT1A1 and bile acid transporter MRP2, improving liver metabolism of free bilirubin and promoting bile acid excretion from the liver, and alleviating cholestatic liver injury.
Keywords：Canhuang tablets;jaundice;bile;bilirubin;farnesoid X receptor (FXR);uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1);multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2)
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Juanbitang iontophoresis combined with warm acupuncture in treatment of wind cold and blocking collaterals syndrome due to external humeral epicondylitis (EH) and the effect on serum oxidative stress index.MethodFrom January 2018 to October 2019, 180 patients with EH wind cold and blocking collaterals syndrome were randomly divided into the warm acupuncture group, the traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） group and the combination group, with 60 cases in each group. The TCM group was treated with modified Juanbitang combined local iontophoresis at Quchi (affected side), Zhouliao (affected side), Ashi (affected side), 30 min/time/day, while the warm acupuncture group was treated with warm acupuncture once a day, 5 days/week. The combination group was treated with warm acupuncture in addition to the therapy of the TCM group, and the three groups were treated for 4 weeks. JOA’s elbow joint function scale, HSS’ elbow joint score scale and pain visual simulation score (VAS) were used to evaluate the symptoms and signs and the improvement of daily life before and after treatment. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA） method was used to detect the contents of late oxidized protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in serum of patients before and after treatment. The cure rate, the total effective rate and the recurrence rate of 1 month and 3 months after treatment were compared.ResultCompared with before treatment, JOA and HSS scores increased, whereas VAS scores decreased (P<0.05). AOPP and MDA contents decreased, while SOD and HO-1 contents increased in the combination group and the TCM group (P<0.05). Compared with the TCM group and the warm acupuncture group after treatment, JOA, HSS score and pain R value increased, whereas VAS score decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the warm acupuncture group after treatment, serum AOPP, MDA content decreased, while SOD, HO-1 content increased (P<0.05). After 4 weeks of treatment, the cure rate and the effective rate of combination group were higher than those of the TCM group (χ2cure rate=4.617, χ2effective rate=6.471, P<0.05) and the warming acupuncture group (χ2cure rate=4.207, χ2effective rate=6.775, P<0.05). One month after the treatment, the cure rate and the effective rate of the combination group were higher than those of the TCM group (χ2cure rate=7.617, χ2effective rate=13.347, P<0.05) and the warm acupuncture group (χ2cure rate=4.762, χ2effective rate=6.277, P<0.05). The recurrence rate of the combination group was lower than that of the TCM group (χ2=9.32, P<0.05) and the warm acupuncture group (χ2=3.899, P<0.05). Three months after the treatment, the cure rate and the effective rate of the combination group were higher than those of the TCM group (χ2cure rate=4.789, χ2effective rate=9.643, P<0.05) and the warm acupuncture group (χ2cure rate=4.458, χ2effective rate=9.251, P<0.05). The recurrence rate of the combination group was lower than that of the TCM group (χ2=4.599, P<0.05) and the warm acupuncture group (χ2=4.518, P<0.05).ConclusionModified Juanbitang and the warm acupuncture has a good clinical efficacy in the treatment of EH wind cold and blocking collaterals syndrome and is worthy of clinical promotion.
Keywords：Juanbitang;external epicondylitis of humerus;iontophoresis;warming acupuncture
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the efficacy of modified Huading Loulutang on postoperative recovery of chronic rhinosinusitis with secretory otitis media due to toxic heat syndromes and the effect of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in serum, nasal secretion and otitis media.MethodAccording to the random number table method, 90 cases were divided into control group and observation group, with 45 cases in each group. All patients were given ceftriaxone sodium + hydroxymezoline after nasal endoscopy. In addition, control group was given Biyuan Tongqiao granule, while observation group was given modified Huading Loulutang for 6 weeks. Lund-Kennedy nasal assessment scale, traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and threshold of hearing at different frequencies were observed in two groups before and after treatment and during 6-week and 18-week follow-up visits. The levels of ECP, IgE and ICAM-1 in serum, nasal and ear secretions were detected before and after treatment. Clinical symptoms, adverse reactions and 12-month recurrence rate were compared.ResultTotal control rate was 97.7%(43/44, 95%CI [95.6，98.6]) in observation group, which was higher than 78.6% (33/42, 95%CI [72.4，83.5]) in control group (χ2=6.946, P<0.05). During the 12-month follow-up visit, the recurrence rate was 4.5% (2/44, 95%CI [3.7，5.8]) in observation group, which was lower than 19.0% (8/42, 95%CI[16.8，21.3]) in control group (P<0.05). After treatment, Lund-Kennedy and traditional Chinese medicine symptoms score during 6-week and 18-week follow-up visits in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). Hearing threshold in observation group at different frequencies was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). ECP, IgE and ICAM-1 levels in serum, nasal and auricular secretions in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions was 6.8% (3/44, 95%CI [5.3，8.1]) in observation group, which was lower than 28.6% (12/42,95%CI [25.3，30.2]) in control group (P<0.05).ConclusionModified Huading Loulutang can significantly improve postoperative clinical symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis and otitis media due to toxic heat syndromes with secretion, with a low recurrence rate and fewer complications.
Keywords：modified Huading Loulutang;nasal endoscopy;chronic rhinosinusitis;otitis media with secretion;toxic heat syndromes
Abstract：ObjectiveTo discuss the efficacy of addition and subtraction therapy of Zhishi Xiebai Guizhitang and Lizhongtang for stable angina (SAP) with syndrome of Yin-cold stagnation and investigate its effects on inflammatory factors and endothelial function.MethodOne hundred and thirty- eight patients were randomly divided into control group (69 cases) and observation group (69 cases) by random number table. During the study period, there were 3 drop-out cases, 3 excluded cases, and 63 completed cases in the control group. There were 3 drop-out cases, 1 excluded case, and 65 completed cases in the observation group. Basic therapy was given in both groups. Patients in both groups got metoprolol tartrate tablets, 50 mg/time, 2 times/days. Aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 100 mg/time, 1 time/day. Trimetazidine dihydrochloride tablets, 1 tablet/time, 3 times/days In case of angina pectoris attacks, nitroglycerin tablets under the tongue, 0.25-0.5 mg, for every 5 minutes until the angina is relieved. And they also got treatment to control blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Based on the above treatment, the patients in control group additionally received Guanxin Suhe pills, chewed for administration, 1 pill/time, twice a day. The patients in observation group additionally received addition and subtraction therapy of Zhishi Xiebai Guizhitang and Lizhongtang, 1 dose/day. The course of treatment was 12 weeks in both groups. One week before treatment and one week after treatment, the number of times and duration of anginal attacks and dosage of nitroglycerin were recorded. Before treatment and after treatment, electrocardiogram was checked, and scores of Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) and syndrome of Yin-cold stagnation were graded; levels of serum phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), homocysteine (Hcy), D-dimer (D-D), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET-1) were detected.ResultThe number of times of angina attacks and Nitroglycerin consumption in observation group were less than those in control group (P<0.01), and the duration of angina attacks was shorter than that in control group (P<0.01). Score of syndrome of Yin-cold stagnation in observation group was lower than that in control group (P<0.01), and score of SAQ was higher than that in control group (P<0.01). Levels of Lp-PLA2, D-D, Hcy, IL-6, hs-CRP, TNF-α and ET-1 in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), and level of NO was higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The efficacy shown in electrocardiogram was also better than that in control group (Z=2.043, P<0.05； Z=2.003, P<0.05).ConclusionOn the basis of routine treatment of western medicine, addition and subtraction therapy of Zhishi Xiebai Guizhitang and Lizhongtang can further alleviate symptoms, reduce ischemic attack, improve the quality of life in patients with SAP and syndrome of Yin-cold stagnation. It has anti-inflammatory effect and can improve the function of blood vessels and stabilize plaque, showing better clinical effects and electrocardiographic results than Western medicine alone.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of modified Zhibo Dihuangwan on henoch-schonlein purpura nephritis with deficiency of liver and kidney yin in children (HSPN) and its effect on immune inflammatory response and hypercoagulable state.MethodTotally 120 patients were randomly divided into observation group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) by random number table. Patients in two group was orally given prednisolone acetate tablets, 1.5-2 mg·kg-1·d-1, 2 times. Four weeks later, the drug was taken orally every other day, and the dosage decreased gradually after 4 weeks. Besides, patients in control group was intravenously dripped with cyclophosphamide, 8-12 mg·kg-1·d-1, for 2 days, and stopped for 2 weeks before another treatment course. The treatment lasted for 6 months. In the control group,Dabuyin Wan was taken orally,3 g/time,3 times/d.Patients in observation group was also added with modified Zhibo Dihuang Wan, 1 doe/day. The treatment lasted for 6 months. Urine routine was tested once a month, and disappearance time and rate of hematuria and albuminuria were recorded. The 24 h urine protein quantification, levels of microalbuminuria (mAlb) and urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) were assessed before and after treatment. Furthermore, deficiency of liver and kidney Yin was scored, and levels of T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), fibrin degradation products (FDP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were detected.ResultThe clinical efficacy in observation group was superior to that in control group (Z=2.078，P<0.05). Disappearance times of hematuria and albuminuria of children in observation group were shorter than those in control group (P<0.01). The disappearance rate of proteinuria in observation group was 90.48%（38/42）, which was higher than 69.77%（30/43） in control group (χ2=5.694，P<0.05). The 24 h urinary protein quantity, mAlb and levels of β2-MG, FIB, D-D and FDP in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The levels of CD3+, CD4+, IL-2 and IFN-γ and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in observation group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while the CD8+, IL-4 and IL-10 were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.106，P<0.05).ConclusionIn addition to conventional western medicine therapy, modified Zhibo Dihuang Wan have an effect on HSPN with deficiency of liver and kidney Yin in children by promoting the disappearance of albuminuria and hematuria, shortening the course of disease, improving T lymphocyte subpopulation, reducing inflammatory reaction and correcting hypercoagulable state of blood, with better clinical efficacy and syndrome effect of traditional Chinese medicine.
Keywords：henoch-schonlein purpura nephritis;deficiency of liver and kidney Yin;Zhibo Dihuangwan;T lymphocyte subsets;inflammatory factors;coagulation function
Abstract：ObjectiveThe chemical differences of Lycii Fructus samples from Qinghai, Ningxia, Gansu, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia provinces were compared based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance(1H-NMR) plant metabolomics.MethodA total of 97 Lycii Fructus samples from five provinces were collected, including 61 samples in Qinghai, and extracted by 50% methanol for detecting. 1H-NMR spectra were obtained and compared by multivariate statistical analysis for investigating the chemical differences of samples from Qinghai and other production areas. And the content of Lycii Fructus polysaccharides in all samples was determined with the wavelength of 490 nm (calculated by anhydrous glucose).ResultA total of 32 chemical components were detected in the Lycii Fructus extract by 1H-NMR. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference among the samples from five provinces. The difference between Lycii Fructus from Qinghai and Ningxia, as well as the samples among the six regions of Qinghai province were relatively small. The similarity values of the majority of samples were >0.85. Univariate analysis showed that no significant difference was observed for the most metabolites in Lycii Fructus collected from five provinces, except for sucrose, glucose, proline and so on. There was no significant difference in the content of Lycii Fructus polysaccharides between Qinghai and other provinces. And the correlation coefficient between the content of Lycii Fructus polysaccharides and the small molecular compounds identified by 1H-NMR was -0.2-0.4.ConclusionIn this study, chemical characteristics of Lycii Fructus in Qinghai province are analyzed from the holistic view by 1H-NMR plant metabolomics, in combination of polysaccharide determination, and the results show that there is no significant difference between samples from Qinghai and other four provinces. The quality evaluation method based on 1H-NMR established in this study can provide scientific basis for improving quality control level and selecting planting areas of Lycii Fructus.
Keywords：Lycii Fructus;proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR);chemical difference;metabolomics;similarity;polysaccharides;Pearson correlation
Abstract：ObjectiveTo identify the quality differential markers of different processed products of Glycyrrhiza uralensis dry roots and rhizomes.MethodUltra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE) was used to collect high-precision mass-charge ratio and ion response strength information of the components in G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes before and after processing by negative ion mode. The data set collected after pretreatment was analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to quickly search the differential components in different processed products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes. Differential components were identified according to the relative molecular weight, fragment ion, mass spectrum database and related literature information, then the migration of components before and after processing was studied.ResultA total of 10 quality differential markers were searched from raw products, roasted products and honey-roasted products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes, mainly derivatives of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid. Among them, the contents of 6''-O-acetylliquiritin apioside, 6''-O-acetylliquiritin apioside isomer, 6''-O-acetylliquiritin, formononetin and 11-deoxo-18β-glycyrrhetic acid were the highest in the raw products, the contents of 6''-O-acetylisoliquiritin apioside, 6''-O-acetylisoliquiritin, isoliquiritin and glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide were the highest in the roasted products, the content of liquiritin was the lowest in the honey-roasted products.ConclusionThere are some chemical differences among the three products. This study can provide material basis for the quality control and pharmacodynamic research of processed products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes.
Keywords：Glycyrrhiza uralensis dry roots and rhizomes;processed products;plant metabolomics;quality differential markers;ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE);chemical compositions;liquiritin
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish the quality evaluation methods of Asparagi Radix decoction pieces and its standard decoction.MethodTen batches of Asparagi Radix standard decoction were prepared. High performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection method (HPLC-ELSD) was established for the determination of protodioscin and protoneodioscin in Asparagi Radix decoction pieces and its standard decoction, and the fingerprint detection of Asparagi Radix decoction pieces with acetonitrile-water as mobile phase for gradient elution. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS was used to identify ten main common peaks in the fingerprint with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution as mobile phase for gradient elution, electrospray ionization (ESI) and positive and negative ion mode scanning were employed, the detection range was m/z 100-1 400.ResultThe total content of protodioscin and protoneodioscin in Asparagi Radix decoction pieces was 0.41%-0.72%, and their total content in Asparagi Radix standard decoction was 0.33%-0.59%, the transfer rate of these two components was 73.6%-98.3%. The dry extract yield of the standard decoction was 59.0%-73.0%, and its pH was 4.9-5.6. There were 10 common peaks in the fingerprint, and all of them were saponins, including protoneodioscin, protodioscin, aspacochioside A and its isomer, methyl protodioscin, asparagoside F, (25R)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furostan-5, 20-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furostan-20 (22)-ene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)]-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, pseudodiosgenin, aspacochioside C.ConclusionIn this paper, the quality evaluation methods of Asparagi Radix decoction pieces and its standard decoction are established, and these methods are stable and feasible, which can provide reference for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing Asparagi Radix.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the components with urate anion transporter 1（URAT1） regulation effect and their combination mechanisms of Lagotis brevituba by integrating techniques of HK-2 cell capture，UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and molecular docking，so as to provide material and theory bases for the development of new hypouricemic medicines based on L. brevituba.MethodThe HK-2 cells were applied to capture the components of L. brevituba. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify those components. The molecular docking technique was adopted to study the interaction mechanism between the compounds and URAT1.ResultEight components were successfully screened and identified as hyperoside，plantamajoside，kaempferol-3-O-glucoside，lugrandoside，nepitrin，isolugrandoside，homoplantaginin，luteolin，respectively. Those components could combine with URAT1 mainly through hydrogen bond，van der Waals force and hydrophobic action，which were closely related to structure and compound types. Furthermore，the LibDock score of phenylethanoids was higher than that of flavonoids.ConclusionThe integration of target cell capture，UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and molecular docking techniques could be successfully used to identify captured compounds of L. brevituba with URAT1 regulation effects and illustrate their potential combination mechanisms as well as the structure-activity relationships. The findings may provide material and theory bases for the development of new hypouricemic medicines based on L. brevituba.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry （UPLC-MS/MS） for the analysis of 18 components of five categories, namely spirosteroid saponins （timosaponin AⅠ，timosaponin AⅡ，timosaponin AⅢ，anemarrhenasaponin Ⅲ，sarsasapogenin），furostane saponins（anemarrhenasaponin Ⅰ，anemarrhenasaponin Ⅰa，anemarsaponin E，officinalisinin I，timosaponin B-Ⅱ，timosaponin B-Ⅲ，anemarsaponin C），flavonoids（icarisin I，baohuoside I），bisphenone（meomangiferin，mangiferin，isomangiferin），and hydroquinone glycoside （β-arbutin）,in order to analyze the differences between the main root and fibrous root of Anemarrhena asphodeloides from different sources and provide reference for the sustainable development of A. asphodeloides resources.Method0.25 g sample was refluxed and extracted with 25 mL dilute ethanol for 30 min. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters Acquity Uplc BEHHILI C18 column（2.1 mm×100 mm，1.7 μm），with 0.1% formic acid water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution，and the volume flow rate was 0.2 mL·min-1. Electrospray ion source（ESI+，ESI-），and multi-reaction ion monitoring（MRM） were used for detection，external standard method was used to calculate the content of the tested components in medicinal samples，and SMICA14.1 software was used to analyze the differences between the main root and fibrous root samples of A. asphodeloides.ResultThe tested components showed a good linear relationship in their respective linear ranges，with a good precision，repeatability and stability. The recovery rate of samples was between 95.22%-101.42%，and RSD was less than 4%. The experimental results showed great differences between the main root and fibrous root of A. asphodeloides, when the multivariate statistical analysis was carried out with 18 main components.ConclusionThis study provides experimental basis for the reuse of fibrous root of A. asphodeloides resources and the quality control of A. asphodeloides.
Keywords：main root of Anemarrhena asphodeloides;fibrous root of A. asphodeloides;UPLC-MS
Abstract：ObjectiveThe chemical constituents of ethanol extracts from Paederia scandens，P. scandens var.tomentosa，P. stenophylla and P. foetida used in folk were identified. And the differences of chemical constituents among the four kinds of ethanol extracts were compared.MethodThe chemical constituents of four species of Paederia were qualitatively and rapidly analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The data were analyzed manually and matched through databases to determine the differences among the chemical constituents of four species of Paederia.ResultTwenty-three compounds were identified from four species, including 12 iridoid glycosides，such as paederoside，paederosidic acid，asperuloside，asperulosidic acid，paederosidic acid methyl ester and monotropein.5 quinic acid derivatives, such as 1-O-caffeoylquinic acid，chlorogenic acid，cryptochlorogenic acid,and 5 flavonoid glycosides，such as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside,quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-xyloside，rutin and simple compoundkinsenoside.ConclusionBased on the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of the chemical components of four kinds of Paederia，the four peaks with the highest response intensity were paederoside，paederosidic acid，asperuloside and asperulosidic acid，all of which were iridoid glycosides.
Keywords：Paederia scandens;P. scandens var. tomentosa;P. stenophylla;P. foetida;chemical constituents;UPLC-Q-TOF-MS
Abstract：ObjectiveFive popular DNA barcoding sequences，namely ITS，ITS2，rbcL，matK and psbA-trnH，were employed to evaluate the identification efficiency of multi-source ethnodrug Rodgersiae Rhizoma，and the most suitable sequence was then screened out.MethodEfficiency of polymerase chain reaction（PCR） amplification，success rate of sequencing，intra- and inter-specific distances calculated by rank sum test，phylogenetic tree constructed with neighbor-joining（NJ） method and identification efficiency assessed by Blast 1 and NJ method were adopted in this study.ResultEfficiency of PCR amplification and success rate of sequencing for ITS，ITS2，psbA-trnH，rbcL and matK were 100%，96.61% ，100%，98.31%，100%，100%，100%，100%，98.31% and 98.31%，respectively. Intra- and inter-specific genetic distances and identification achievement rate for psbA-trnH were the highest among the five candidate sequences. Besides，the average coalescent depth was less than the smallest interspecific distance for psbA-trnH. Phylogenetic tree also illustrated that Rodgersiae Rhizoma could be distinguished based on psbA-trnH.ConclusionAccording to the findings，psbA-trnH was superior to other DNA barcodes. Therefore， psbA-trnH was recommended as the ideal DNA barcode for the identification of multi-source ethnodrug Rodgersiae Rhizoma.
Abstract：ObjectiveBy means of network pharmacology, the active ingredients, targets and molecular pathways of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) were studied, in order to reveal the molecular mechanism of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) in the treatment of ASCVD, and provide the rational explanation of the compatibility of the combination.MethodThe main chemical components of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) were obtained by means of SymMap database, traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform（TCMSP）platform and BATMAN-TCM platform. Compound targets were retrieved by SymMap and the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine （ETCM）, and disease targets were retrieved by DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. The intersections of compound targets and disease targets were used to obtain the predicted targets of song-decoction on ASCVD. The Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network diagram was constructed through STRING database, and key compounds and targets of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) acting on ASCVD were obtained through Cytoscape. Finally, the enriched key targets were put for Gene Ontology (GO) biological process analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis through the Database for Annotation，Visualization and Integrated Discovery（DAVID）.ResultThere were 33 key compounds and 25 key targets of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) for ASCVD. The GO analysis showed that the biological functions of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) in the treatment of key ASCVD targets mainly involved biological processes, such as the regulation of apoptosis, inflammatory response, regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and regulation of insulin secretion. The KEGG pathway was mainly enriched in 20 signaling pathways, including tumor necrosis factor(TNF) signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, apoptosis signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathway.ConclusionThrough network pharmacology, this study explored active ingredients and potential targets of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription) in the treatment of ASCVD at the molecular level, preliminarily verified the mechanism of action of Shengmaiyin (Dangshen prescription), and laid a theoretical foundation for further study on the mechanism of action.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo predict the anti-inflammatory targets and relevant signaling pathways of Epimedii Folium in the treatment of depression by network pharmacology，in order to explore the potential mechanism of its anti-depression effect.MethodThe active constituents of Epimedii Folium were collected and screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform（TCMSP） database. PharmMapper server and TCMSP database were used to predict and screen out protein targets. OMIM database，CTD database and GeneCards database were used to screen out relevant targets and anti-inflammatory targets of depression. Enrichment analysis of the gene ontology （GO） function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes（KEGG） signaling pathway for the key anti-inflammatory targets of Epimedii Folium were carried out by DAVID database. Cytoscape 3.6.0 was used to construct the network diagram of "active component-action target-signal pathway" of Epimedii Folium and analyze the topological structure of the network. GOLD molecular docking software was used to verify the results of active components and key anti-inflammatory targets.ResultA total of 12 active components，30 targets and 5 key anti-inflammatory targets of Epimedii Folium were screened out， 65 biological processes，4 cell components and 1 molecular function were enriched with GO function， and 41 KEGG pathways were enriched and analyzed，including 9 inflammation-related signaling pathways. Molecular docking verified that icariin and key anti-inflammatory targets could form the optimal binding structure.ConclusionThe study preliminarily reveals the molecular mechanism of Epimedii Folium on depression through its anti-inflammatory target and its relevant signaling pathway network，so as to provide a basis for further study on the antidepressant effect of Epimedii Folium.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the mechanism of Shengmaisan in treating atrial fibrillation by regulating relative genes and signaling pathways based on network pharmacology.MethodTarget genes of Shengmaisan were obtained using Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of TCM（BATMAN-TCM） database，and target genes of atrial fibrillation were obtained through GeneCards，OMIM and DisGeNET databases. The target genes of Shengmaisan-atrial fibrillation intersection protein were obtained through the integration of the two groups of genes. STRING was used to build the protein-protein interaction network and visualize the results. The drug-disease intersection genes were introduced into the DAVID 6.8 database for gene ontology （GO） analysis and enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Geomes （KEGG）.ResultA total of 159 active ingredients for Shengmai powder for atrial fibrillation were obtained. After the drug targets and the disease targets were intersected，206 common targets were obtained. PPI protein interaction network analysis showed that AKT1，TP53，PRKACA，IL-1B，TNF，INS，PPAR，RXR，F2，CACAN1C PKC might be the core targets of Shengmaisan in treating AF. GO enrichment analysis was used to identify 175 items （P<0.05），among which biological processes mainly included regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction，membrane depolarization during action potential；cell components mainly included voltage-gated sodium/ potassium/calcium channel complex；molecular functions mainly included high-voltage-gated calcium channel activity，steroid hormone receptor activity. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analysis，100 signaling pathways were identified，mainly including cGMP/PKG signaling pathway，cAMP signaling pathway，serotonergic synapse，renin secretion，calcium signaling pathway.ConclusionBased on the network pharmacology，Shengmaisan has multiple mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation. This study explores relevant signaling pathways，advantages and research directions of Shengmaisan in treatment of atrial fibrillation，so as to lay the foundation for further experimental verification.
Abstract：Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as the unique health resources, huge potential economic resources, scientific and technological resources with original advantages, excellent cultural resources and important ecological resources, has made remarkable achievements in Chinese economic and social development in recent years. However, there are still some problems in the reform and development of TCM, especially the lack of willingness to innovate and low ability in commercialization of research and development findings in such companies. Meanwhile, the globalization level of TCM is not high. All these problems have seriously restricted the overall development of TCM. Taking TCM enterprises as the research object, this paper uses SWOT analysis to carry out comprehensive strategic analysis on its advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and risks. It is concluded that TCM enterprises in China should focus on research and development of classical formula compound preparations and innovative TCM products, and then propose product development and innovation strategies.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) enterprises;classical famous formulae;product research and development;development strategy;TCM;resource utilization;new drugs
Abstract：The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) concept that "different diseases may share the same TCM syndrome" is a unique theory explaining the relationship between diseases and TCM syndromes, which originally means that different diseases sharing the same TCM pathogenesis may develop the same syndrome. It accords with the theory of treatment based on syndrome differentiation. In clinical practices, this concept explains why the same herbal formula can be used to treat different diseases. With the development of a novel strategy to integrate the disease diagnosis and TCM syndrome differentiation, the meaning of "different diseases may share the same TCM syndrome" has also changed. It means that different diseases share the same TCM pathogenesis during their progression may show the same syndrome. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head （ONFH）, hip osteoarthritis (HOA), and hip rheumatoid arthritis (HRA) are three different diseases that occur in the bones, cartilage, and synovium of the hip joint, respectively. However, they share similar clinical symptoms and TCM symptoms if they had progressed to the end-stage. In the end-stage of the disease, hip pain, restricted activity, signs of waist and knee pain, and weakened walking function, whether it is symptoms or signs or TCM syndromes, all show their similarities, reflecting the concept of different diseases may share the same TCM syndrome. This article discusses the similarity of the three diseases from the aspects of syndrome characteristics, radiographic findings, syndrome differentiation, etiology and pathogenesis, as well as clinical treatments. We found that, in addition to similar clinical signs and symptoms, the three hip osteoarthropathies in the end-stage see articular cartilage degeneration, joint space stenosis, joint effusion, synovial thickening, bone hyperplasia, and subchondral bone cystic degeneration, etc. similar X-ray performance， kidney sperm, bone marrow, only kidney sufficiency, muscles and bones can be filled with bone marrow, liver blood, main muscles, liver and blood are sufficient to support the muscles and bones, and the disease is in the advanced stage， ONFH， HOA and HRA are closely related to liver and kidney dysfunction. Insufficient liver and kidney, meridian muscle, and bone malnutrition are three common pathological mechanisms of late hip bone disease. Deficiency, waist and knee weakness, and weakness in walking have also become common symptoms. It not only provides a theoretical basis for the "same syndrome",but also helps the differential diagnosis of "different diseases", improves the fracture level of hip diseases, and enriches the connotation of "different diseases sharing the same syndrome" in Chinese medicine.
Keywords：osteonecrosis of the femoral head;hip osteoarthritis;rheumatoid hip arthritis;hip disease;different diseases sharing the same syndrome
Abstract：Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a pathological condition characterized by central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. With the increase of poor dietary habits and lifestyles in modern society, especially the poor living habits of sedentariness and less movement, the prevalence of MS has increased year by year. According to relevant data, the number of MS patients worldwide will reach about 2.568 billion by 2040, which will seriously endanger human life and health. Huanglian Wendantang, as a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription for clearing away heat and drying dampness, regulating Qi and resolving phlegm, and benefiting the stomach and gall, has been proved to have significant pharmacological effects in lowering blood fat, reducing blood sugar and resisting inflammation by modern pharmacological studies, and widely used in the treatment of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases and other systemic diseases. In recent years, a large number of studies have proved that Huanglian Wendantang has a significant effect on MS. In terms of clinical efficacy, it could significantly improve the pathological state of obesity, dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and hypertension in MS patients. Meanwhile, it could also interfere with the inflammatory state, prethrombotic state, abnormal vascular regulation and other potential risk factors in the body, with a high safety and fewer side effects. In terms of experimental study, it could enhance the insulin sensitivity, and improve the insulin resistance of MS animal models and cell models through interventions in insulin signal transduction, inflammatory response, and antioxidant stress. By retrieving PubMed, CNKI, Weipu, Wanfang and other databases, the author summarized the study reports of Huanglian Wendantang on MS in recent years in three aspects: theoretical study, clinical efficacy study and experimental mechanism study, in the expectation of provide some scientific references for in-depth study of the mechanism of Huanglian Wendantang in treating MS and the development and clinical promotion of the prescription.
Abstract：Breast cancer mainly occurs in woman's mammary epithelial tissues, with a complex and unclear pathogenesis. The mortality rate is high and increasing year by year, and the patients become younger and younger, which seriously threatens woman's health. Therefore, it's urgent to find high-efficiency and low-toxicity medicines against breast cancer. The breast is not an essential organ for life support, but the cancer cells can easily fall off and metastasize throughout the body with blood or lymph fluid. It's a main cause of death. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, molecular targeting, endocrine therapy, immunity therapy have certain limitations due to serious toxicity and side effects and the difficulty in controlling the invasion and metastasis of the cancer cell. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine（TCM）has been widely studied and valued by researchers at home and abroad due to its unique advantages, such as multiple pathways, multiple targets, low toxicity and fewer side effects, and a lot of TCMs and their active ingredients with the anti-breast cancer activity have been studied by the researchers. Based on flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenes and other TCM ingredients, the mechanism in inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation, inducing it apoptosis, inhibiting it invasion and migration in vitro were taken as the main content, which was supplemented by the summary of main relevant signal pathways targeted by the ingredients. This study reviewed the mechanism of ingredients in suppressing breast cancer in vitro by viewing and screening relevant literature at home and abroad in the past 10 years. The in-depth study of effective ingredients of TCM is expected to provide a reference for the development of effective targeting preparations for treating breast cancer. On the basis of in-depth excavation of active ingredients of TCM, relevant studies in the future are suggested to apply the ingredients of TCM acting on the same or similar pathways, factors, proteins, and make use of the basic theory of TCM, so as to achieve the effect in against breast cancer.
Keywords：active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine;breast cancer;in vitro;mechanism of action;signal pathway
Abstract：Traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） has the characteristics of multiple ingredients, multiple targets, and complex action pathways. Under the guidance of the holistic view and syndrome differentiation treatment, TCM and its compound have great advantages in the treatment of diseases, and its material basis and molecular mechanism of action is not clear, so there are great challenges in the research of TCM. Network pharmacology has become a new research method and technical means for the modernization of TCM. It is a research discipline derived from the study of the mechanism of TCM treatment of diseases with multi-component drugs and multiple targets under the guidance of system biology theory. It conforms to the systematic and holistic thinking mode of Chinese medicine. At present, there have been many researches on the application of Internet pharmacology in Chinese medicine, including the research on the basis and mechanism of the Chinese medicine single drug, drug pair and compound pharmacodynamics, the methods and applications of Internet pharmacology for Chinese medicine research application of combining pharmacology with other technologies. However, the rapid data update, the emergence of new databases, the types of algorithms and the use of tools have made the development of network pharmacology too fast. People have neglected to update the databases, tools and algorithms and compare the advantages of each database. This article summarizes and compares the database, tools and algorithms of the network pharmacology in the past three years, and describes the network through the substance basis of TCM, the pharmacological mechanism of TCM, the development of new drugs, the quality control of TCM, and the formulating rules of TCM. The application and problems of pharmacology in the field of TCM are expected to provide a reference for the research and application of network pharmacology in TCM.
Keywords：network pharmacology;research of traditional Chinese medicine（TCM）;compatibility of compound prescriptions;substance basis of efficacy;database of TCM
Abstract：In recent years, with the rapid development of economy and the change of life style, the prevalence rate of diabetes has increased year by year, which has become a worldwide problem threatening the health of all mankind. According to epidemiological studies, most patients with diabetes are mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM), accompanied by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion. The interaction of many factors such as inflammation, obesity, oxidative stress and apoptosis leads to the occurrence of insulin resistance. At present, the commonly used hypoglycemic drugs include insulin and related preparations, biguanides, sulfonylureas, α-glycosidase inhibitors, glinids, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-Ⅳinhibitors and so on. Although appropriate exercise, lifestyle changes and oral hypoglycemic drugs are effective in the treatment of mild T2DM. However, long-term and combined medication is needed for patients with severe diabetes or with related complications, which increases the risk of drug side effects and adverse reactions. Chinese herbal medicine has been used in China for thousands of years, such as Huanglian jiedutang and Yangyin Jianpitang. Similarly, many single traditional Chinese medicines also have their own advantages in the treatment of T2DM, such as Ophiopogonis Radix，Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma，Momordica Charantia，Euodiae Fructus，Alismatis Rhizoma，Astragali Radix，Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma，Anemarrhenae Rhizoma，Dioscoreae Rhizoma and other traditional Chinese medicines have ideal effects in reducing blood sugar and improving insulin resistance. However, the active substances and targets in a considerable number of prescriptions or single medicines are not clear. Recently, more and more natural products have been proved to have anti-T2DM properties, and their possible therapeutic mechanisms have been explored. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively review the effects and related targets of natural active substances such as flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and quinones on T2DM, and to provide theoretical support for better research and development of drugs for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.
Keywords：natural products;type 2 diabetes mellitus;treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus;insulin resistance;pathogenesis
Abstract：The pathogenesis of chloasma is complex and diverse. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） believes that it is mostly related to liver, spleen and kidney, with hematogenous impassability as the standard and pigmentation on the face or body surface as the main symptom. Western medicine believes that it is closely related to family inheritance, ethnic differences and ultraviolet radiation. At present, there are various clinical therapies, mainly including prevention of ultraviolet radiation, local whitening agent and chemical skin. In addition, TCM plays an important role in the treatment of chloasma, often involving internal use, topical use, acupuncture and moxibustion. Modern studies have shown that TCM therapies mainly regulate the metabolism of antioxidant, endocrine and melanin in vivo. Although the mechanism of action could not explained to some extent, there are still some restriction in the discussions on the mechanism of external use of TCM in controlling chloasma. As the skin nerve-endocrine-immune (NEI) network is proposed and further studied, the role of NEI network in realizing overall functional regulation with cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters as information molecules has been widely verified and recognized. This paper symmetrically reviewed the pathogenesis of chloasma and the progress of the regulatory effect of TCM, and proposed the possible local efficacy of TCM for external use in treating chloasma by regulating surface NEI network. This is worth further study and exploration in the expectation of providing new ideas for the treatment of chloasma and the studies on the mechanisms of action of TCM for external use.
Keywords：chloasma;mechanism;traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) regulation;neural-endocrine- immune network
Abstract：Pathological scar is a kind of skin fibrotic disease caused by abnormal wound healing, including hypertrophic scar and keloid. Pathological scar may lead to aesthetic flaws, limb dysfunction and local discomfort in patients. Due to the complexity of the wound healing process, the formation of scar is affected by many factors. In addition to traditional surgical, laser, cryostatic and hormone injection methods for the treatment of pathological scar, there are new therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cell therapy, fat transplantation, interferon, and botulinum toxin. They are widely used in clinical practice, but with such problems as high prices and many side effect. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history in treating pathological scar. In recent years, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that TCM has effect IN reducing inflammation, inhibiting fibroblast proliferation, regulating fibroblast activation and migration, inducing fibroblast apoptosis and autophagy, promoting the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and reducing angiogenesis in general. Besides, TCM has also a certain regulatory role in the signaling pathways, such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smads, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) and sonic hedgehog (Shh). There are still some contradictions in relevant studies, and specific mechanisms remain to be further improved. This paper summarizes the study content, findings and relevant mechanisms of different TCM based on in vivo and in vitro experiments, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of TCM in the prevention and treatment of pathological scar, and its prospects in clinical application, so as to provide basis and ideas for future scar studies.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;pathological scar;wound healing;fibroblast;extracellular matrix