Abstract：As the essential part of tratidional Chinese medicine(TCM), the research and development of classic formula have become a hot spot in TCM industry. However, with the change of the age, the species, medical part and origin of TCM have more or less changed. It is of great significance for the safety and effectiveness of the classical prescription to clarify the varieties and medicinal parts of TCM. In this paper, based on the discussion of the methods of textual research on the Chinese herbs, the species and medical parts, origin of Chinese herbs in a list of 100 famous classical formulas which promulgated by the state administration of TCM were analyzed. The textual research of Chinese herbs shows that most of the herbs involved in the classical formula have the problems of species, medical part, and origin. Therefore, it is of great significance for the selection of the species and medical parts, origin of the Chinese herbs in the research and development process of the classical formula.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Chinese herbs;species and medical part;origin;textual research
Abstract：Objective:To systematically review the evolution of Biejia Jianwan in Medical Treasures of the Golden Chamber and its clinical application in ancient and modern times, in order to analyze its application and transformation in modern times. For one thing, it provided ideas for the secondary development of Biejia Jianwan, for another, it provided reference for the transformation and application of classical famous prescriptions.Method:Ancient and modern literature of Biejia Jianwan were collected and summarized to study the ancient and modern clinical application of Biejia Jianwan, and its origin, evolution of prescription meanings and changes of main indications. Based on market research, the market transformation of Biejia Jianwan, and its research and development process and market application were analyzed.Result:Biejia Jianwan has been applied in past dynasties since the Medical Treasures of the Golden Chamber, but with insignificant changes and simple indications. In fact, Biejia Jianwan was specially developed for the treatment of malaria with abdominal mass. According to the drug dosage ratio, Trinycis Carapax and Chixiao are the main drugs in Biejia Jianwan, and insect drugs are also used. Modern literature analysis shows that Biejia Jianwan is mainly used to treat liver diseases, such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer, whether in clinical or experimental studies. It was found that when Biejia Jianwan was transformed from a classical prescription into a Chinese patent medicine mainly based on its composition, dosage and preparation of the original prescription recorded in the Medical Treasures of the Golden Chamber. Chinese patent medicine preparations have been included in many diseases diagnosis and treatment, medication guidelines and expert consensus. Compared with other traditional Chinese medicines, Biejia Jianwan is more widely used in clinic with lower costs.Conclusion:Biejia Jianwan is used to treat malaria with abdominal mass in ancient times, but in modern times it is mostly used to treat liver diseases, such as liver fibrosis, with a definite efficacy. In addition, Biejia Jianwan have been successfully transformed into a modern Chinese patent medicine preparation, and achieved a better response in the market, providing a reference for the transformation and application of other classical prescriptions.
Keywords：Biejia Jianwan;clinical application;literature research;Medical Treasures of the Golden Chamber;Chinese patent medicine
Abstract：Objective:To explore the mechanism of Suanzaoren Tang in improving learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation based on Toll-like receptor (TLR4)/nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway.Method:The experimental rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, melatonin group (2.5×10-4 g·kg-1·d-1) and Suanzaoren Tang group (12.96 g·kg-1·d-1). Except the blank group, the chronic sleep deprivation model was established in other groups. After 28 days of continuous administration, the learning and memory of the rats were assessed by Morris water maze. The expressions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB p65 and nuclear transcription factor inhibitory protein α (IκBα) in the hippocampus of rats were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), and the protein expressions of TLR4, IκBα, p-IκBα and NF-κB p65 in the hippocampus of rats were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC).Result:Compared with the blank group, the platform latency, total swimming distance and the first landing time of the model group increased significantly (P<0.01), while the number of crossing platforms and target quadrant time decreased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the platform latency, total swimming distance and the first platform time were reduced in the melatonin group and the Suanzaoren group (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the number of crossing platforms and target quadrants time were increased(P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum of melatonin group and Suanzaoren Tang group decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in the hippocampus of the model group were increased (P<0.01), while mRNA and protein expression levels of IκBα were decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in the hippocampus of melatonin group and Suanzaoren Tang group decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the mRNA and protein expression levels of IκBα increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the protein expression level of p-IκBα in the hippocampus of the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the protein expression level of IκBα in the hippocampus of melatonin group and Suanzaoren Tang group was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Suanzaoren Tang can improve learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation in rats, and its mechanism may be related to its inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in hippocampus.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Hei Xiaoyaosan on the expression of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ alpha(CaMKⅡα) and its phosphorylation in hippocampus and cortex of mice with Alzheimer's disease.Method:After weighing, 30 APP/PSI transgenic male mice were divided into model group, donepezil hydrochloride group and Hei Xiaoyaosan group according to random principle and 10 in each group.At the same age, wild-type C57BL/6 10 mice of the same species were treated as blank group. Donepezil hydrochloride group (6 g·kg-1) and Hei Xiaoyaosan group (3.25 mg·kg-1) were administered for 90 days, then the behavior of all the mice were detected by Morris water maze, the expression of CaMKⅡα, p-CaMKⅡα proteins in hippocampus and cortex by immunohistochemical technique and Western blot.Result:After intervention 3 months, compared with blank group, the average escaping latency periods prolonged significantly and the number of cross-platform and effective areas were decreased distinctly in model group mice(P<0.01), CaMKⅡα protein relative expression decreased significantly(P<0.01), p-CaMKⅡα protein relative expression increased significantly(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the escape latency of donepezil hydrochloride and Hei Xiaoyaosan group were significantly shortened, and the number of crossing platforms and effective areas was significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the expression of CaMKⅡα protein in the hippocampus and cortex of drug groups was significantly increased (P<0.01), p-CaMKⅡα protein in the hippocampus and cortex of drug groups was significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Hei Xiaoyaosan can improve the learning and memory ability of AD mice by regulating the expression of CaMKⅡα and its phosphorylation, which are key proteins involved in the mechanism of cell memory formation in different brain regions of AD mice.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Huangjingwan (HW) on antioxidant functions and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) expressions in the brain of Alzheimer' s disease (AD) rats.Method:SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, sham model control group, AD model group, and low, medium, high-dose (equivalent raw drug dose 1, 3, 9 g·kg-1·d-1) HW groups.The AD models were established through intraperitoneal injection with 1.25% D-galactose (120 mg·kg-1·d-1, 6 consecutive weeks) and then one-time right ventricular injection with Aβ1-42 (10 μg). Two weeks after modeling, the rats in each HW group received corresponding drugs through intragastric administration, once a day, while the rats in sham model control group, AD model group were given normal saline 1 mL through intragastric administration, once a day.Gastric perfusion lasted for 8 weeks.At the end of the experiment, learning and memory abilities of the rats were assessed by Platform Jumping Test.The changes of physical endurance in rats were tested by 10% weight swimming under load.The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) antioxidant enzymes and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat brain tissue were detected by colorimetry.The changes of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Aβ1-42 and APP protein in rat brain tissues were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression of APP protein in rat brain.Result:Compared with the normal control group, rats in AD model group showed an obvious dementia state, that is more lying and less movement, longer learning response time, significant increase in the number of learning and memory errors, significant attenuation in physical fitness, significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GR, GSH-Px) and anti-inflammatory factors GSH in brain, significant rise in the levels of inflammatory factors MDA, IL-1β and TNF-α and the content of Aβ1-42 protein, and significant reduction in the content of APP protein in brain (P<0.01). Low, medium and high-dose HW could ameliorate dementia symptoms in AD rats, improve the achievement of learning and memory, antagonize body weakness and increase physical fitness, promote SOD, GR, GSH-Px activities and anti-inflammatory factor GSH level in the brain, reduce the levels of MDA, IL-1β and TNF-α in the brain, decrease the level of Aβ1-42 and increase the level of APP protein in the brains of AD rats compared with the AD model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), besides, within the dose range of 1-9 g·kg-1·d-1, HW has a more obvious effect with the increase of dose.Conclusion:HW has the effects in preventing and treating AD, which is related to the HW' s mechanisms in enhancing the function of antioxidant system in brain, reducing neuroinflammatory reaction and deposition of Aβ1-42 induced by oxidative stress, and maintaining the expression level of APP protein.
Keywords：Huangjingwan;Alzheimer's disease;antioxidant;β-amyloid 1-42(Aβ1-42);amyloid precursor protein(APP) protein
Abstract：Objective:To explore the protective effect of Huoxue Dingtong prescription on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in animal model based on nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signal pathway.Method:In compound Danshen dropping pill group, SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, compound salvia miltiorrhiza dropping pill group, high-dose Huoxue Dingtong group low-dose Huoxue Dingtong group, high-dose Huoxue Dingtong+ NF-κB inhibitor group. The rats in each group were administered continuously for 2 weeks. The rats in high-dose Huoxue Dingtong group+ pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate(PDTC) group were intraperitoneally administered the next day after modeling. Injection with PDTC and ligation of anterior descending branch of left coronary artery were performed to detect left ventricular function and Na+ -K+ -ATPase activity. Blood was collected from each animal abdominal aorta, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), troponin T (cTnT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), superoxide gasification enzyme (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Western blot was used to detect the expressions of NF-κB, NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα) and IκB kinase(IκκB) in myocardium.Result:Compared with model group, compound Danshen dropping pill group, high-dose Huoxue Dingtong group and low-dose Huoxue Dingtong group could reduce serum CK-MB, cTnT, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MDA, increase SOD and GSH-Px contents, increase the protein expressions of IκBα and IκB in myocardial tissue, and increase the activity of Na+ -K+ -ATPase in myocardial energy metabolism in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model rats (P<0.05). However, high-dose Huoxue Dingtong group+ PDTC did not decrease serum CK-MB, cTnT, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and MDA, increase SOD, GSH-Px, and increase the protein expression levels of IκBα and IκκB in myocardial tissue. There was no significant difference between high-dose Huoxue Dingtong group+ PDTC and model group.Conclusion:Huoxue Dingtang prescription can inhibit the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, reduce the expression of inflammatory mediators and the production of free radicals, and increase the activity of Na+ -K+ -ATPase in the process of myocardial energy metabolism by up-regulating the expressions of IκBα and IκκB proteins in myocardial tissue of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of evodia on lipid metabolism and low-density lipoprotein-receptor(LDL-R) mRNA expression in hyperlipidemia mice.Method:Kunming mice (n=80) were randomly divided into normal control group (n=20) and model group (n=60). Serum lipids of the model group were measured after 3 weeks.After successful modeling, the mice can be randomly divided into 5 groups (with 10 in each group): model group (equivalent normal saline), positive control group (simvastatin, 5 mg·kg-1·d-1), drug group (evodia of 5.25, 10.5, 21 mg·kg- 1·d- 1). The mice were given drugs for 3 weeks.Htoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the liver cell structure and the change of aortic arch atherosclerosis in the mice.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to test the contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total serum adiponectin (ADPN) in serum of the mice.The expression of LDL-R mRNA in liver of each group was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Result:Liver HE staining showed hepatocyte swelling with steatosis in the model group, and alleviated liver steatosis in high-dose, medium-dose evodia and simvastatin groups.HE staining showed damages on the aortict arch wall in the model group, with obvious intima thickening and inflammatory cell infiltration.The intima was thickened obviously in the low-dose group, and the structure of aortic vessel wall was clear in the high-dose group.Compared with the normal group, TC, TG and HDL-C levels in serum of the model group were increased, while HDL-C level was decreased (P<0.01). Serum TC and TG levels of mice in the medium and high-dose groups decreased, whereas LDL-C and HDLl-C levels increased in low, medium and high-dose groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the normal group, the adiponectin level in the model group was decreased, while the serum adiponectin levels in medium and high-dose groups were significantly increased (P<0.01). The LDL-R mRNA expression in the liver of mice in the model group was significantly reduced compared with the normal group (P<0.01). The LDL-R mRNA expression in medium and high-dose evodia groups was significantly increased compared with the model group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Evodia can improve the tendency of hepatic lesions and aortic atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia mice, which may be related to the regulation of adiponectin level, the reduction of lipid content in mice and the up-regulation of LDL-R mRNA expression in mice liver.
Keywords：evodia;hyperlipidemia;lipid metabolism;low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R)
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide on the expressions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) gene protein and its mediated cytokines interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in gastric tissue of rats with gastric ulcer (GU).Method:Sixty SPF Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group and model group.The GU model was replicated by direct acetic acid cauterization in model group.The GU model rats were randomly divided into five groups: model group, positive control group, and large, medium and small-dose Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide groups, with 10 rats in each group.Rats in blank group and GU model group were given 10 mL·kg-1·d-1 distilled water by gavage, rats in large, medium and small-dose groups were given 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 g·kg-1·d-1 Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide by gavage, while rats in positive control group were given 0.3 g·kg-1·d-1 ranitidine by gavage for 15 days.Serum nitric oxide (NO) content, pepsinase activity and cytokines IL-2R and IL-4 levels in rats of each group were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PI3K and Akt mRNA expressions were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), and PI3K and Akt protein expressions were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with the blank group, the contents and gene expressions of cytokines IL-2R and IL-4 in gastric tissue were significantly increased, and the PI3K and Akt genes and protein expressions were significantly increased, with statistical significance (P<0.01). Compared with GU model group, the content and gene expressions of IL-2R and IL-4 in large, medium and small-dose Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide groups were decreased significantly, and the PI3K and Akt gene and protein expressions were decreased significantly in large-dose Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide group, while those in large and medium-dose Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Bletillae Rhizoma polysaccharide can protect gastric mucosa by down-regulating PI3K and Akt gene and protein expressions and inhibiting abnormal secretion of cytokines IL-2R and IL-4.
Abstract：Objective:To study the therapeutic and inflammatory effects of gentiopicroside(GPS) on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats.Method:The 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely the model group, GPS groups (low, medium and high dose), and the methotrexate (MTX) group, with six rats in each group. AA rats were induced through intradermal injection with 0.1 mL complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the right hind paw, except the normal group. After modeling, rats in each group were treated with drugs for 7 days, once a day. The doses were 30, 60, 120 mg·kg-1 in the GPS groups, and 0.2 mg·kg-1 in the MTX group. The normal group and the model group were intragastrically treated with the same volume of normal saline. During the experiment, the paw thickness and paw volume of rats were recorded everyday by the digital vernier calipers and the toe volume measuring instrument. On the seventh day, X-ray and histopathological examination of the ankle joints were performed by the small animal living imaging instrument and hematoxylin eosin stain. Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta at the end of the experiment to determine the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kits. The mRNA levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in synovial tissues were determined by Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with the normal group, the results of each index in the model group were significantly different (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the results of paw volume and paw thickness decreased significantly (P<0.01), TNF-α level decreased significantly (P<0.01), and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) in drug treated groups. The results of X-ray and histopathological examinations indicated that GPS had a protective effect on the ankle joints of AA rats.Conclusion:GPS has the therapeutic effect on AA rats by inhibiting levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and relevant mRNA levels in synovial tissues.
Abstract：Objective:The effects of three different doses of borneol on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model rats and the effects on oxidative stress factors were compared to provide reference for elucidation of the dose-effect relationship and mechanism of anti-myocardial infarction.Method:Healthy adult male SPF SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, solvation model group, nitroglycerin group, Borneolum high, medium and low dose(0.6, 0.3, 0.15 g·kg-1) group, l-Borneolum and Borneolum syntheticum high, medium, low dose(0.2, 0.1, 0.05 g·kg-1) group, a total of 13 groups, 20 in each group. Gavage was performed at 20 mL·kg-1 once a day for 3 days of continuous preventive administration. The sham operation group and the model group were given the same volume of distilled water, and the solvation model group was given the same volume of 5% polysorbate 80.On the third day of the pre-administration, 30 minutes after the last dose, the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated to make a model, and the successful rats were treated for 3 days. BL-420N biological system analyzer was used to record the ST-segment amplitude and hemodynamic changes. Rat body weight and cardiac weight were weighed to calculate cardiac viscera coefficients, 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to calculate the myocardial infarction rate. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the degree of myocardial pathological damage. According to the kit requirements, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino-transaminase (AST), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and oxidative stress factors superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected.Result:Compared with the sham operation group, the ST segment amplitude of the model group significantly increased after 5 minutes, the left ventricular diastolic blood pressure (LVDP) value increased significantly, and the measured maximum shortening velocity (Vpm) value of the left ventricular myocardial contraction component significantly decreased. The organ coefficient and myocardial infarction rate were extremely significantly increased, and the myocardial pathological tissue was severely damaged. The serum CK-MB, AST, LDH, and MDA contents were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the solvation model group, the Borneolum and l-Borneolum in the middle and low, and the Borneolum syntheticum high dose groups could significantly inhibited the abnormal elevation of ST segments at different time points. The Borneolum and l-Borneolum high, medium, low, and Borneolum syntheticum high dose groups significantly increased the left ventricular systolic blood pressure (LVSP) value and decrease the LVDP value (P<0.01). The Borneolum medium, low, and l-Borneolum high, medium, Borneolum syntheticum high dose groups significantly increased the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (dp/dt max) and Vpm value (P<0.05, P<0.01). The Borneolum and l-Borneolum medium, low dose groups significantly reduced rat cardiac organ coefficients. The Borneolum high, medium, low and l-Borneolum, Borneolum syntheticum medium, low dose groups significantly improved myocardial infarction in rats (P< 0.05, P<0.01). The Borneolum low, l-Borneolum high, medium, and Borneolum syntheticum high groups also significantly improved the degree of pathological damage (P<0.01). High dose of l-Borneolum significantly reduced CK-MB content, medium and low dose of l-Borneolum significantly reduced AST activity, medium and low dose of l-Borneolum, high, medium and low dose of Borneolum syntheticum significantly reduced LDH activity (P<0.05, P<0.01). Serum SOD activity of rats in l-Borneolum high, medium, and Borneolum syntheticum high dose groups increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01). Serum MDA levels in Borneolum high, medium, low, and l-Borneolum high, middle dose groups significantly decreased (P<0.01).Conclusion:Three kinds of borneol in different dose groups can play different degrees of myocardial protection. Under the experimental conditions, there was a trend of l-Borneolum>Borneolum>Borneolum syntheticum in improving the efficacy of myocardial infarction, the dose-effect of Borneolum was negatively correlated, Borneolum syntheticum was positively correlated, and no significant dose-effect relationship between l-Borneolum.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of bergapten on the apoptosis of HepG2 and Hep3B cells through phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) pathway.Method:Bergamot (5, 50, 200 μmol·L-1) groups and blank group were set up. The effect of bergapten at different concentrations on proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells for 24, 48 h were detected by thiazolyl blue(MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining. Quantitative real-time fluorescence reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot assay were used to detect relevant mRNA and proteins expressions. The clone formation rate and the effect of HepG2 and Hep3B cells in each group were evaluated by plate cell clone formation.Result:MTT assay showed that bergapten could significantly inhibit the proliferation activity of HepG2 and Hep3B cells in a time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis showed that bergapten in 200 μmol·L-1 concentration groups had significant pro-apoptotic effect on HepG2 and Hep3B cells after 48 h (P<0.05). Western blot results showed that bergamolactone could up-regulate the protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 (P<0.05), and down-regulate protein expressions of B-lymphocytoma-2 (Bcl-2), PI3K (P<0.05). Real-time PCR results showed that mRNA expressions of PI3K and Akt were decreased(P<0.05). The results of plate cell clone formation experiment showed that with the increase of the concentration of bergamolide, the cell clone formation rate of each group showed a decreasing trend, particularly in 200 μmol·L-1 concentration group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Bergapten can inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells, which may be induced through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Keywords：bergapten;hepatocellular carcinoma;phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt);apoptosis;signal pathway
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of modified Tongqiao Huoxuetang combined with stent thrombectomy in treating acute cerebrovascular occlusion.Method:A total of 120 cases were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 60 cases in each group. The control group received stent thrombectomy, while the observation group received modified Tongqiao Huoxuetang combined with stent thrombectomy. The clinical symptoms [health neural function defect scale stroke scale scores(NIHSS), activities of daily living(ADL), mini mental state examination(MMSE)], hemodynamic indexes [high-shear reduction viscosity(HSRV), medium-shear reduction viscosity(MSRV), low-shear reduction viscosity(LSRV), whole blood plasma viscosity(WBV)], vascular endothelial functions [serum nitric oxide synthase(NOS), endothelin-1(ET-1), vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)] were observed. The clinical efficacy and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between two groups. The blood routine, urine routine, heart, liver and kidney function, incidence of cerebral hemorrhage in two groups were observed during the treatment.Result:There were 4 cases were shed in control group and 2 cases in observation group during the study period. The total effective rate in observation group was 94.8%(55/58), which was higher than 83.9% of the control group(47/56)(P<0.05). The NIHSS in observation group was lower than that in control group(P<0.05), whereas ADL and MMSE were higher than those in control group(P<0.05). The hemorheological indexes in observation group were lower than those in control group(P<0.05), NOS and VEGF in observation group were higher than those in control group(P<0.05), and ET-1 score was lower than that in control group(P<0.05). During the study period, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage was 7.14%(4/56) in control group and 8.6%(5/58) in observation group, with no significant difference.Conclusion:Modified Tongqiao Huoxuetang combined with stent thrombectomy could significantly improve the clinical symptoms, hemorheology and vascular endothelial function of patients with acute cerebrovascular occlusion, and so is worthy of clinical promotion and application.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of Longdan Xiegantang in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory infertility with damp-heat phlegm and phlegm, in order to explore its mechanism of action.Method:Totally 150 patients with phlegm and inflammatory pelvic inflammatory infertility admitted to First Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine from January 2017 to December 2018 were enrolled in the study. According to the random number, the patients were divided into control group and observation group, with 75 cases in each group. Control group was given antibiotics combined with Gandan Shuangqing granule, and observation group was given Longdan Xiegantang combined with antibiotics. Both groups were treated for 6 weeks. The clinical efficacy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, blood rheology and serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory factor levels and immune function indexes of the two groups were compared.Result:The total effective rate of observation group was 93.33%, which was higher than 78.67% of control group (χ2=6.480, P<0.05). The pregnancy rate of observation group was 58.33%, which was significantly higher than 33.82% of control group (χ2=8.862, P<0.01). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in TCM syndrome score, hemorheology, serum biochemical index, inflammatory factor level and immune function between the two groups. Compared with before treatment, the TCM syndrome scores of lower abdominal pain, anal bulge, lumbosacral pain, abnormal bandage and menstrual disorders were significantly reduced, the levels of plasma viscosity, hematocrit, high and low-shear whole blood viscosity were significantly reduced, the level of inhibin-A (INH-A) was significantly increased, the level of progesterone (P) and beita chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) were significantly reduced, the levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly decreased, the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ were significantly increased, and the levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were significantly decreased (P<0.05). After treatment, in observation group, TCM syndrome scores of the lower abdominal pain, anal bulge, lumbosacral pain, abnormal bandage and menstrual disorders were significantly reduced, the levels of plasma viscosity, hematocrit, high and low-shear whole blood viscosity were significantly reduced, the level of INH-A was significantly increased, and the level of P and β-HCG were significantly reduced, the levels of serum CRP, IL-6, TNF-α were significantly decreased, the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ were significantly increased, and the levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were significantly decreased (P<0.05). There was no obvious adverse reaction in two groups during the treatment.Conclusion:Longdan Xiegantang has a good clinical effect in treating pelvic inflammatory infertility with damp-heat phlegm and phlegm, and can reduce TCM syndrome scores, and increase pregnancy rate. The mechanism may be correlated with the improvement of blood rheology and serum biochemical indicators, the inhibition of inflammatory factors and the enhancement of immune function.
Keywords：pelvic inflammatory infertility;damp-heat phlegm;Longdan Xiegantang;blood rheology;serum biochemistry;inflammatory factor;immune function
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate theclinical efficacy of Zhiwei pills combined with Hperadication programme for gastritis with liver and stomach Qi stagnation syndrome caused by helicobacter pylori (Hp) and to investigate its effect on antioxidant stress.Method:One hundred and sixty patients were randomly divided into control group (80 cases) and observation group (80 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group gotHperadication programme, and esomeprazole magnesium enteric-coated tablets, 20 mg/time, 1 time/day. Bismuth potassium citrate tablets, 0.3 g/time, 2 times/days. Amoxicillin capsules, 1.0 g/time, 2 times/days. Furazolidone tablets, 0.1 g/time, 2 times/days, all for 14 days. Based on the treatment in control group, the patients in observation group additionally got Zhiwei pills, 6 g/time, 3 times/day. The course of treatment was 8 weeks in both groups. After treatment, eradication of Hp was detected. Before and after treatment, scores of liver and stomach Qi stagnation syndrome were graded. After treatment, patients received gastroscopy and pathological review, and patient report outcome indicators (PRO) both before and after treatment were discussed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, oxidative dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected both before and after treatment.Result:Negative conversion rate of Hp was(70/75) 93.33% in observation group, higher than(58/71) 81.69% in control group (P<0.05). In the analysis of rank sum test, effect of traditional Chinese medical(TCM) syndrome in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.183, P<0.05), and clinical efficacy was also better than that in control group (Z=2.175, P<0.05). Scores of liver and stomach Qi stagnation syndrome and total PRO score in observation group were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MDA were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Zhiwei pills combined with Hperadication programme can improve the eradication rate of Hp, alleviate clinical symptoms, improve the quality of life of patients, inhibit inflammatory reaction and anti-oxidative stress, and improve the curative effect and clinical efficacy of TCM syndromes in the treatment of gastritis with liver and stomach Qi stagnation syndrome, so it is worth for further study and use.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Simiaosan on synovitis of knee joint with damp-heat obstruction collateral syndrome and the effect on inflammatory factors and neuropeptide substances in synovial fluid.Method:One hundred and thirty-five patients were randomly divided into control group(67 cases) and observation group(68 cases) by random number table. Patients' intra-articular effusion was drawn out. Triamcinolone acetonide was injected into arthrosis for 2 times, 1 time/week, and aceclofenac sustained-release tablets were given for 4 weeks, 0.2 g/time, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given modified Simiaosan for 4 weeks, 1 dose/day. Before and after treatment, pain, swelling of knee joint and were scored, Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) were adopted for scoring knee score, and damp-heat obstruction syndrome and local signs of knee joint were also assessed. And levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were detected.Result:After treatment, scores of pain and swelling of knee joint in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Scores of WOMAC, the total score, integral of damp-heat obstruction collateral syndrome, knee flexion-extension range score and floating patella test were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP, SP, CGRP, NPY and VIP were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Analyzed by rank sum test, the clinical efficacy in observation group was better than those in control group (Z=2.089, P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Simiaosan can significantly alleviate pain and swelling symptoms, promote the recovery of knee joint function, and inhibit the expressions of proinflammatory factors and neuropeptides in synovial fluid, with a better clinical efficacy.
Abstract：Objective:To analyze and identify the metabolites of major components of Shaoyao Gancaotang in urine and feces of normal and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats, and to explore the effect of PCOS on the metabolism of Shaoyao Gancaotang.Method:Female SD rats were randomly divided into normal group and PCOS group. PCOS rat model was prepared by administration of letrozole solution for 21 days, and the estrous cycle of rats was observed. UHPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS technique and LightSight 2.3 software were used to analyze and identify the metabolites of major components of Shaoyao Gancaotang in urine and feces of normal and PCOS rats. The mobile phase was water-methanol for gradient elution, the flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1, electrospray ion source was employed under negative ion mode.Result:Phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ reactions mainly occurred in drug metabolism. A total of 27 metabolites were detected in urine of normal rats, and 34 metabolites were detected in urine of PCOS rats. A total of 29 metabolites were detected in feces of normal rats, and 27 metabolites were detected in feces of PCOS rats.Conclusion:The metabolites in the urine of PCOS rats are more diverse than those of normal rats, and the disease status of PCOS may affect the in vivo metabolic pathway of active ingredients in Shaoyao Gancaotang.
Abstract：Objective:To compare the adsorption characteristics of different macroporous adsorption resins for the total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium, clarify the adsorption mechanism, and screen the optimal resin for the purification of total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium.Method:Taking the adsorption and desorption capacities of the total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium and five representative flavonoids (epimedin A, epimendin B, epimendin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅰ) as indexes, static adsorption and dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to compare the adsorption characteristics of five macroporous including HPD100, HPD600, AB-8, X-5 and D101.The adsorption kinetics of the selected resin was studied by using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model, and the thermodynamic process was analyzed by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption models, which explored the adsorption mechanism of resin from the perspective of physical chemistry.Result:HPD100 macroporous resin had a better adsorption and desorption properties than the others. The adsorption process of HPD100 macroporous resin for total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium and five representative flavonoids conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption thermodynamic process of HPD100 resin for total flavonoids of Epimedii Folium conformed to the Freundlich model, and for the sum of five representative flavonoids conformed to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process of HPD100 resin for total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium was the exothermic process dominated by physical adsorption, and the optimal adsorption temperature was 25 ℃.Conclusion:HPD100 macroporous resin has large adsorption capacity, easy desorption and clear adsorption mechanism, it is suitable for isolation and purification of total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium.
Abstract：Objective:To rapidly characterize and identify the components of Siwei Tumuxiang San by using high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS).Method:Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was adopted and 5 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate+ 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile were used as mobile phase. According to the separation and structure identification results of chemical components based on the methods of ChemSpider and ChemicalBook database retrieval, a local database of molecular formula, molecular weight, structural formula and MS/MS spectrum information of chemical components in Siwei Tumuxiang San was established. An HPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS analysis method was established. The complex compounds of Siwei Tumuxiang San were identified rapidly by using Xcalibar 3.0 software, comparison of reference materials and studies on MS/MS fragment pathways.Result:A total of 110 compounds were identified from the Siwei Tumuxiang San by HPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS technology, including 3 sesquiterpene compounds from Inulae Radix, 16 alkaloid compunds and 38 isoprene flavonoid compounds from Sophorae Radix flavescentis, 12 triterpenoid saponin compounds, 1 catechin compounds and 4 flavonoid glycoside compounds from Rubus sachalinensis. The fragment pathways of the main types of compounds were summarized. Among them, mass spectrometry information of 31 compounds was reported for the first time.Conclusion:This study can be used to identify the target compounds and non-target compounds in Siwei Tumuxiang San systematically, accurately and quickly, which will lay a foundation for the in vivo analysis and pharmacokinetic study of the formulation.
Abstract：Objective:To study on the feasibility of a new method for determination of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix.Method:By summarizing the literatures about the method for determining the content of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix and analyzing the results of the preliminary test, a new method for preparing a test solution of astragaloside was established, named " Reflow alkalization derivatization method" . The content determination test was carried out, and the content data of astragaloside Ⅳ in different batches of Astragali Radix measured by the pharmacopoeia method were compared with that by the Reflow alkalization derivatization method.Result:The new method for the determination of astragaloside Ⅳ conformed to the corresponding regulations. The content of astragaloside Ⅳ in astragali radix determined by the new method was higher than that by the pharmacopoeia method. The standard curve was Y=1.315X+ 6.311 2(r=0.999 7, n=6, linear range is 0.044 6-8.92 μg). The RSDs of intraday precision and daytime precision were 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. The RSD of the repetitive experiment was 1.2%. The RSD of the 48 h stability test was 2.1%, and the RSD of the recovery test was 2.0%. The contents of astragaloside Ⅳ in 16 batches of Astragali Radix determined by Reflow alkalization derivatization method and pharmacopoeia method were 0.371%, 0.203%, 0.315%, 0.218%, 0.386%, 0.221%, 0.353%, 0.192%, 0.303%, 0.197%, 0.373%, 0.188%, 0.361%, 0.114%, 0.349%, 0.112%; 0.243%, 0.152%, 0.214%, 0.168%, 0.274%, 0.157%, 0.221%, 0.133%, 0.203%, 0.141%, 0.257%, 0.132%, 0.238%, 0.084%, 0.242%, and 0.096%.Conclusion:The Reflow alkalization derivatization method can be used to determine the content of astragaloside Ⅳ in Astragali Radix. This method is simpler to operate than the pharmacopoeia method, and the conversion efficiency of astragalus glycosides derivatives is better and reproducible. This method can provide reference for the formation of a fast, scientific and accurate method for the determination of astragalus Ⅳ.
Abstract：Objective:To established fingerprint of Acanthopanacix Cortex by UPLC method, in order to provide reference for quality control and evaluation.Method:UPLC method was performed on Waters BEH C18 (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), with acetonitrile-0.1% glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase for gradient elution.The detection wavelength was 282 nm, the flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 25 ℃, and the injection volume was 2 μL.With syringin as reference substance, the fingerprint of 20 batches Acanthopanacix Cortex were analyzed under the same chromatographic conditions.The Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Materia Media (version 2012) was used to analyze the similarity of 20 batches of Acanthopanacix Cortex, and the SPSS 21.0 was applied for cluster analysis.Result:The UPLC fingerprint of the Acanthopanacix Cortex was established.The similarity results showed that the 7 batches of the 20 batches of Acanthopanacix Cortex was less than 0.800, and the remaining medicinal materials were similar within the range from 0.800 to 0.924.Besides, 12 common fingerprint peaks were calibrated and 4 components were identified, namely protocatechuic acid (peak 1), chlorogenic acid (peak 3), syringin (peak 4), and 4-methoxysalicylaldehyde (peak 12). The clustering results showed that the 20 batches of Acanthopanacix Cortex were divided into four groups.Among these batches, S1, S3, S9, S13 and S20 were clustered into one category, S11 was a category, S14 was a category, and the remaining samples belonged to a category.Conclusion:With a good precision, repeatability and stability, short analysis time as well as superior specificity, the method will provide a scientific basis to evaluate and control the quality of Acanthopanacix Cortex.
Keywords：Acanthopanacix Cortex;syringin protocatechuic acid;chlorogenic acid;4-methoxysalicylaldehyde;different area
Abstract：Objective:Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprint was used to evaluate the storage effect of different packaging and storage conditions on Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix pieces.Method:UPLC fingerprints of Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix pieces with different storage time and packaging conditions were established under following chromatographic conditions: Waters UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase 0.3%phosphoric acid solution(A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 90%-47%A; 4-8 min, 47%A, ; 8-12 min, 47%-20%A; 12-16 min, 20%A; 16-18 min, 20%-90%A), flow rate of 0.2 mL·min-1, column temperature at 35 ℃, detection wavelength of 246 nm, and injection volume of 1.0 μL. The fingerprints were evaluated in terms of similarity, cluster analysis and principal component analysis.Result:The similarity evaluation showed that the UPLC fingerprint patterns of Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix pieces with different storage time and different packaging and storage treatments were basically the same, and the similarity was above 0.95.Systematic clustering shows that Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix pieces packaged in plastic bags, stored under light and shade and the initial live-action pieces were clustered into one group. Principal component analysis showed that Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix pieces packaged in plastic bags, stored under light and shade had the highest comprehensive scores.Conclusion:Storage time, packaging material and storage temperature will not cause the increase or decrease of internal components of Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix, but only affect the content of specific components. Plastic bag packaging, light and cool storage conditions are more suitable for the preservation of non-volatile oil components of Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix.
Keywords：Notopterygh Rhizoma et Radix pieces;package;storage;UPLC;fingerprints
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents from Paeonia veitchii.Method:P. veitchii samples (30 kg) were extracted with 95% ethanol for four times and then filtrated, and the combined filtrates were concentrated under vacuum to get the extracts. After suspension with water, exaction was conducted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water successively to obtain five corresponding fractions. The compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatography and prep-HPLC, and the structures of these compounds were determined by such spectrum technologies as infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectroscopy (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).Result:Sixteen compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as follows (1S, 5R, 6R)-1, 8-dihydroxypin-2-en-4-one (1), (2-hydroxyl)-phenyl-methyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (2), flufuran (3), 6′-O-vanillylpaeoniflorin (4), methyl 2, 5-dihydroxycinnamate (5), (1S, 2S, 5R, 6R)-1, 8-dihydroxypin-4-one (6), palbinone (7), 4-O-methylpaeoniflorin (8), 4-O-ethylpaeoniflorin (9), benzoyloxypaeoniflorin (10), benzoic acid (11), gallic acid (12), methyl gallate (13), ethyl gallate (14), β-sitosterol (15), and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (16).Conclusion:Compounds 1, 2 were new natural compounds; compound 3 was isolated from genus Paeonia for the first time, and compounds 4-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
Abstract：Objective:To construct the color matching template irrelevant to size and rotation according to the types and distribution characteristics of colors in images of Chinese herbal pieces, in order to establish color characterization and image identification methods for Chinese herbal pieces.Method:Totally 20 types of Chinese herbal pieces were selected, including rhizomes, flowers, seeds and fruits.For each sample, two observation surfaces were selected to extract color parameters in foreground through image processing such as image segmentation, model transformation from RGB to L*a*b*.Color vectors of the two observation surfaces were sequenced in a descending order, scaled to a certain size by interpolating, and combined into an integrated color vector in a weight ratio of 1∶1.As for centripetally distributed observation surface images(e.g.transverse section), corrosion operation was conducted to extract the color components of each ring from outer to inner by circles, which were then ordered and scaled.The integrated color vector was used as initial template for training, the correlation coefficient between each sample and the template was calculated, and the interval estimation of positive samples were carried out by t test.With the total recognition rate as an indicator, the optimal template dimensions, width of ring and training volume were ultimately determined.Result:The visualization results of the trained templates of the varied herbal pieces were easy to be visually distinguished.After 260 samples of the herbal pieces were tested, the template of a and b components was better than that of L*, a* and b* in terms of recognition performance, with a* recognition accuracy of 95.8%(249/200).Conclusion:Color characteristics of images from two observation surfaces of Chinese herbal pieces are integrated to obtain the combined color feature vector, so as to achieve preferable recognition results for samples from both the same and different medicinal parts.This method boasts a strong anti-interference ability of random variation of sample shape, sampling part and color.
Keywords：Chinese herbal pieces;L*a*b* color model;MATLAB;image processing;template matching
Abstract：Objective:To clone the cDNA sequence of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) in Glycyrrhiza glabra and analyze its sequence, so as to explore the potential relationship between the UGE gene and the molecular regulatory mechanisms of glycyrrhizic acid biosynthesis.Method:The cDNA sequence of UGE was cloned from the root of G. glabra by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics software.Results:A GgUGE cDNA sequence with the full length of 1 121 bp was obtained. The open reading fame (ORF) of GgUGE was 1 053 bp, encoding 350 amino acid residues. The GgUGE cDNA sequence was submitted to GenBank, and the accession No. was MK638908. Sequence analysis showed that GgUGE was an unstable hydrophilic protein, its average relative molecular weight was 39.02 kDa, and isoelectric point was 6.13. It contained no signal peptides or transmembrane domains. Its secondary structure mainly constituted of α-helix and had a conversed domain of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase superfamily. The homologoue analysis showed that the cDNA and amino acid sequences of GgUGE had the closest evolutionary relationship to Leguminosae and relatively distant evolutionary relationship to Salicaceae.Conclusion:In this study, GgUGE cDNA sequence is successfully cloned from G. glabra for the very first time, which will provide reference for studying the function of GgUGE and explaining the molecular regulatory mechanisms of glycyrrhizic acid biosynthesis in G. glabra.
Abstract：With the improvement of living standard and enhancement of health consciousness, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, as a common medicinal material that can be widely used in health food, is focused an increasing number of scholars′ attention at home and abroad. Based on Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma health food published by the food website of National Medical Products Administration (NMPA), this paper combs and analyzes their dosage forms, functional components, health-care functions and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Meanwhile, the Apriori algorithm module in SPSS Modeler 15.0 is used to explore the formulation rules of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma health food. The results showed that capsules was the most common (about 55.34%), and the infusions and beverages were rare. In the aspect of health-care function, it is mainly used to auxiliary hypolipidemic, auxiliary protective function to chemical liver injury, enhance immunity and dispel chloasma. Among 92 cases of the health food with auxiliary hypolipidemic, the common combination of TCM was Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Gynostemmatis Pentaphylli Herba-Puerariae Lobatae Radix. Among 55 cases of the health food with auxiliary protective function to chemical liver injury, the common combination of TCM was Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus. Among 54 cases of the health food with immune-enhancing, the common combination of TCM was Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix-Lycii Fructus. Among 46 cases of the health food with dispelling chloasma, the common combination of TCM was Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix-grape seeds. The selection of prescription compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma health food with different health-care functions is basically consistent with the TCM treatment with syndrome differentiation theory and modern medical theory. This article interprets the application of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma health food from the perspective of dosage forms, functional components, health-care functions and compatibility of prescriptions, which can provide a basis and reference for precise and efficient research and development of this kind of health food.
Keywords：Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma;health food;health-care function;dosage form;auxiliary hypolipidemic;dispelling chloasma;immune-enhancing
Abstract：There are many different opinions on dose conversion of famous classical formulas from Treatise on Febrile Diseases or Synopsis of the Golden Chamber, which has become a difficult point in research and development of famous classical formulas. At present, the clinical application dose of Banxia Houpotang is similar to the viewpoint that 1 Liang is equivalent to 3 g, in order to provide scientific basis for this conversion method, this paper systematically evaluated the effectiveness of Banxia Houpotang in intervening globus hystericus. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Banxia Houpotang in intervening globus hystericus from CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, China Biology Medicine (CBM), Web of Science and PubMed databases were collected online, the retrieval time was from inception to April 1, 2019. Two reviewers independently screened the literature, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Then, Meta analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 17 RCTs involving 1 575 patients were included. The effective rate [relative risk (RR)=1.24, 95%confidence interval (CI) (1.18, 1.30), P<0.000 01] and the curative rate [RR=1.76, 95%CI (1.45, 2.15), P<0.000 01] of Banxia Houpotang in intervening globus hystericus were all better than the control group. Current evidence shows that Banxia Houpotang under the conversion of 3 g in 1 Liang has a significant effect on intervention of globus hystericus. Due to the limitations of quantity and quality of the included studies, the above conclusions need to be verified by more high-quality studies, but the author suggests that such dose conversion should be considered in the research and development of famous classical formulas.
Abstract：Objective:This paper aims to explore the potential anti-neoplasm targets and mechanism of Danggui Sinitang on hepatocellular carcinoma by analyzing the prescription of Danggui Sinitang with the method of network pharmacology, in order to provide targeted guidance for further studies.Method:The Traditional Chinese Medicine System Platform (TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction database were adopted to establish the database of Danggui Sinitang' s effective ingredients and targets. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) were used to build the hepatocellular carcinoma target database, which was then matched with Danggui Sinitang' s target database. Based on the matching results, STRING database was applied to analyze the interactions between the targets and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was utilized for the enrichment analysis on gene ontology (GO) biological process and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway. Then Cytoscape 3.6.0 software was used for networks analysis.Result:A total of 56 significant targets of Danggui Sinitang were found for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The 106 cellular biological processes were obtained through GO biological process enrichment analysis and 23 related pathways were obtained by KEGG enrichment analysis, mainly including TNF signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway, AMP activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathway, Janus kinase(JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription(STAT) signaling pathway, et al.Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of Danggui Sinitang on hepatocellular carcinoma may be multi-target, multi-channel and multi-level. It can be inferred that quercetin and kaempferol may be two important active components, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway may be two important signaling pathways. This study not only makes a contribution to a better understanding of the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma mechanism of Danggui Sinitang, but also proposes a strategy to develop new TCM candidates at a network pharmacology level.
Abstract：Lingnan region is located in the southernmost part of China. Under the influence of its unique regional conditions, climate environment, humanistic concepts and other factors, Lingnan region has formed its unique processing methods and characteristic varieties of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction pieces. Through literature searching, the formation of Lingnan characteristic processing of TCM was expounded from the aspects of Lingnan climate, physical characteristics of Lingnan people and pharmaceutical characteristics of Lingnan medicine, etc. By comparing the similarities and differences of processing technologies between the all edition of Guangdong processing specifications and the 2015 edition of China Pharmacopoeia, characteristic varieties of Lingnan TCM decoction pieces were excavated and sorted out, which were prepared by steaming, wine steaming, salt steaming, vinegar steaming and other methods. TCM preparation of Lingnan region has distinctive local characteristics and profound cultural deposits, to sort out these TCM preparation is conducive to the inheritance, development and innovation of Lingnan characteristic processing, and at the same time, it can provide basis for the clinical service of TCM and the development of clinical new drugs of TCM.
Keywords：processing of traditional Chinese medicine;Lingnan processing;Lingnan medicine;steaming method
Abstract：China is rich in herbs that can be used as medicine and food. The application of this kind of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as raw material is the basis for guiding the development of TCM healthcare food. TCM healthcare food has advantages in keeping in good health and reducing the risk of disease. At the same time, with the implementation of " Healthy China 2030" , it is urgent to develop a series of herbal compound healthcare food with the characteristics of TCM to meet the national and social needs. With the development of scientific research, however, there is a lack of research on the scientific evaluation of the safety of TCM healthcare food raw materials, which results in insufficient risk assessment theory and technology of healthcare food at present. Therefore, the prediction and evaluation of the toxicity of important components in this kind of raw materials has become an urgent task of food safety. Toxicology plays an important role in human health risk assessment, and its sub-disciplines have been constantly emerging. Computational toxicology, monolayer culture cell model technology, in vitro induced activity screening engineering cell technology, microfluidic chip technology and in vivo toxicology technology have become important research tools for toxicity prediction and evaluation in this field. With the rapid development of toxicology technology, food safety and human life and health can be effectively guaranteed. It will effectively promote the safety production of healthcare food industry in China and guarantee the quality and safety of terminal products. It has a great social significance, plays a positive leading role in the technological progress of the whole industry, and generates considerable economic benefits. This paper reviews recent advances and applications of new toxicological methods and models for predicting and evaluating important ingredients in TCM healthcare food raw materials.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine functional food;toxicology;computational toxicology;in vitro model;animal model
Abstract：Tibetan medicine Edgeworthia gardneri is the flower bud of Edgeworthia gardneri, mainly distributed in the eastern Tibet as well as the northwest and west parts of Yunnan. It is called one of the " Eighteen treasures of Qinghai-Tibet" and has been used in many Tibetan secret recipes for a long time. Nowadays, the local people often drink E. gardneri Meisn tea for blood glucose regulation and health care. In this study, the related papers were searched in CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu, PubMed and other databases by using the keywords " Lv luo hua" and " flower of E. gardneri Meisn" . Then the status quo of the flower of E. gardneri was summarized from three aspects: provenance, chemical compositions and extraction method, as well as efficacy and function. It is found that E. gardneri mainly contains coumarins, flavonoids, polysaccharides and polyphenols. The extraction methods of E. gardneri include ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, and bio-enzyme-assisted extraction method, et al. The extraction of flavonoids and polyphenols is more common. In terms of medicinal efficacy, it has many medicinal effects such as regulating blood sugar, lowering blood fat, anti-oxidation, enhancing immunity and anti-tumor. The flower of E. gardneri has broad pharmacological effect, attracting more and more scholars to research it. However, studies on its medicinal effectiveness both at home and abroad are mainly focusing on it' s crude extractions or extracts, with no in-depth studies on action mechanism. This review aims to summarize the provenance, main chemical compositions and extraction methods, efficacy and effect of the flower of E. gardneri, especially focusing on the research on the medicinal efficacy and mechanism of the flower of E. gardneri, and provide a reference for the further research of the flower of E. gardneri.
Keywords：Tibetan medicine;flower of Edgeworthia gardneri;glycolipid metabolism;pharmacological action;antioxidation
Abstract：Shaoyao Gancaotang, first seen in Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, is composed of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle in equal proportion.It has the functions of preserving Yin to nourish blood, harmonizing liver and spleen, relieving spasm and pain.This formula is applied in leg and foot spasm and abdominal pain caused by blood deficiency, body fluid consuming and the unmoistened muscles and veins.It has been highly praised and used by medical experts throughout the ages and has extended its application scope.Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Shaoyao Gancaotang has significant effects in antispasmodic, analgesic, antitussive and other areas, and is used to treat spastic diseases, painful diseases, inflammatory diseases and so on.This paper will systematically elaborate the historical evolution, compatibility analysis, pharmacological and pharmacodynamic studies, modern clinical application of Shaoyao Gancaotang, in order to provide theoretical basis and reference for the development of this famous classical formula.
Keywords：Shaoyao Gancaotang;famous classical formulas;relieving spasm and pain;historical evolution;clinical application;pharmacology and efficacy;Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases
Abstract：Butyrate-producing bacteria are specific intestinal bacteria with butyrate as the main metabolite, and most of them are Firmicutes.Butyrate-producing bacteria can synthesize butyrate with non-digestible carbohydrates in the diet, and then regulate intestinal microecology and microenvironment, thereby supplying energy to intestinal epithelial cells, affecting intestinal mucosal barrier, adjusting intestinal flora structure and regulating host immunity, so as to alleviate obesity, hypertension and other diseases.Therefore, the targeted regulation of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate has become a potential vital method for the prevention and treatment of many diseases.After oral administration, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) enters the body, and first contacts gastrointestinal tract, so the interaction between CHM and microbiota existing in the intestine is an inevitable important process.It has been confirmed that CHM could regulate intestinal flora; and due to its complex composition and numerous components, CHM can exert interventional effects at multiple levels, in multiple pathways and on multiple targets.Its effect on the butyrate-producing bacteria is as follows.In the intestinal tract, CHM can play a " prebiotic" role, and enrich the beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria, and polysaccharides in CHM can be used as a fermentation substrate to promote the synthesis of butyrate, so as to achieve the effective regulation of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate.Based on that, this paper explored the relationship among butyrate-producing bacteria, butyrate and intestinal microecology, and reviewed relevant researches about the intervention of CHM on butyrate-producing bacteria to regulate intestinal microecology in recent years, in order to provide new research ideas for the application of CHM to prevent and treat diseases, as well as drug development.
Keywords：butyrate-producing bacteria;butyrate;intestinal microecology;Chinese herbal medicine
Abstract：Piperis Fructus is the dried nearly ripe or ripe fruit of Piperaceae, which is an important spice material and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it is widely used in the world. It is recorded to possess the efficacy of warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold, depressing Qi and dissolving phlegm. Piperis Fructus mainly contains amide alkaloids with piperine as the main ingredient and volatile oil dominated by monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, which have a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, etc. By referring to relevant papers at home and abroad, the researches on chemical compositions from different parts and pharmacological effects of Piperis Fructus in recent 5 years were summarized and analyzed. It was found that Piperis Fructus has great potential for drug development as a TCM with homology of medicine and food, which can provide a reference for further research and comprehensive utilization of Piperis Fructus.
Keywords：Piperis Fructus;homology of medicine and food;different parts;amide alkaloids;terpenoids;pharmacological effects;condiments
Abstract：Depression is a psychiatric disease that seriously affects human life in the context of rapid social development and increased living pressure, and brings serious healthproblems and economic burdens to human society.Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in the treatment of depression, and Xiaoyaosan has been repeatedly confirmed as a classic prescription for the intervention in depression, but its antidepressant mechanism and its active ingredients are still unclear.Through the search of China Knowledge Network(CNKI) and PubMed database, the literature and data on the clinical and mechanism research of Xiaoyaosan and its analogous prescriptions on depression in the past 10 years are systematically sorted out.It is found that Xiaoyao San and its analogous prescriptions are mainly focusing on the following aspects: regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, affecting 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), norepinephrine(NE) neurotransmitters in hippocampus, interfering with inflammatory reaction process, modulating the BDNF/CREB signaling pathway, regulating intestinal flora and gastrointestinal function, regulating endothelial window foramen of hepatic sinus, repairing chronic stress-induced blood-brain barrier permeability, affecting autophagy to reduce neuronal apoptosis, and regulating the leukoplakia-nuclear adrenal gland (LC-NE) system to play an antidepressant role.The main active ingredient including, saikosaponin A which could down-regulate interleukin expression level, saikosaponin D which alleviates HPA axis dysfunction, quercetin which inhibits corticotropin-releasing-factor(CRF) mRNA expression, paeoniflorin which regulates neurotransmitters, and paeoni lactone which inhibits hyperfunction of HPA axis Glycosides, reduce inflammatory cytokines, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide Il, atractylenolide Ill, which could reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and inhibit NF-κB activated, curcumin which could play the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles, L-menthol which could suppress the HPA axis overactivation, liquiritin isoliquiritin which could regulate the monoamine neurotransmitters, and isoliquiritigenin which could inhibit the monoamine oxidase.
Keywords：Xiaoyaosan;antidepressant;pathway of action;active ingredients;research progress