Abstract：By consulting literatures of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), comparing data about the morphological description of several species from genus of Salvia, and combining the biological studies in resources, this paper made a textual research for the origin, name, medicinal history, functional dominance and folk application Salviae Yunnanensis Radix. This study aimed to provide a reference for further studies and utilization of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix. The findings revealed that the origin of Zidanshen recorded in ancient Chinese herbal literatures was S. yunnanensis, which were widely used for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation, tumescent pain, limb numbness and many kinds of blood stasis. Relevant clinical application and modern pharmacological evidences of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix are mutually supportive, which indicates that TCM based on clinical experience has a high development value. The herbal literatures revealed that Salviae Yunnanensia Radix has a high research and development value in gynecology, blood stasis and other fields. We shall fully excavate folk experience in clinical application of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix. On this basis, we shall further strengthen relevant researches on material basis, pharmacodynamics and mechanism, in order to promote the utilization of resources and product development of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the differences of chemical constituents of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma and its closely related species, and to provide reference for the clinical application of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma.Method:Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to study the differences of components between Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma and its closely related species, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to compare the differences of water-soluble components between them.Result:There were some differences between Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma and its closely related species acrcording to FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC fingerprint, especially the water-soluble polar components were more abundant in Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma than other species. The chemical components of Salvia trijuga, S. przewalskii and S. bulleyana were more similar in terms of their genetic relationship. The result showed that the Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma and its closely related species can be clearly distinguished by FTIR combined with chemometrics method.Conclusion:Compared with its closely related species, Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma has a unique chemical composition, which has great therapeutic potential for blood stasis. The FTIR combined with chemometrics model can be used for rapid identification of Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma and its closely related species.
Keywords：Salviae Yunnanensis Radix et Rhizoma;closely related species;fourier transform infrared spectroscopy;high performance liquid;chemometrics;component difference
Abstract：Genus Polygonatum, belonging to the Liliaceae family, is mostly medicine food homology species, which have been documented as treating " dry mouth, less food, and internal heat and thirst" in medical ancient books. In traditional Chinese medicine clinic, it was used to treat diabetes, hyperlipemia and asa rehabilitation therapy of cancer. With deepening the basic research and industrial development of this genus, the bioactive component groups and their action mechanisms of prevention and treatment of diabetes and diabetic complication continue to be revealed. By consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicine and modern literature, the research on the herbology, material basis and mechanism of the genus Polygonatum were reviewed. The result indicated that the plants of Polygonatum were used for the treatment of diabetes, based on the ancient herbal literature and modern research, the polysaccharides, flavonoids and saponins were their active ingredients. Among them, the significant chemical constituents of decreasing blood glucose were Polygonatum polysaccharides, and the flavonoids and saponins also have this function. Although some scholars have studied the anti-diabetic efficacy and material basis of genus of Polygonatum, the pharmacodynamics, mechanism and metabolic pathways are not clear. Therefore, further strengthening of the related research of genus of Polygonatum, especially use of modern scientific and technological research to clarify the material basis of its efficacy, and mechanisms, are crucial to accelerate the modernization and development of anti-diabetic drugs and utilization of genus of Polygonatum.
Abstract：Objective:To established an approach of chemical fingerprinting and study the differences of the polysaccharides from three species of Polygonati Rhizoma in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, so as to provide reference for quality evaluation and clinical application of Polygonati Rhizoma.Method:The polysaccharides were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation from Polygonati Rhizoma. After hydrolysis by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and pre-column derivation by PMP, the chromatographic fingerprints of three kinds of Polygonati Rhizoma were established by high performance liquid chromatography. The fingerprinting model and chemometrics method, include similarity analysis (SA), cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for compare the differences among three species.Result:There were some differences in the PMP-HPLC fingerprints and monosaccharide composition from the three species. The D-mannose, L-rhamnose and L-fucose were not detected, but they all contained D-galacturonic acid, D-glucosamine hydrochloride, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-xylose among three species. The PCA and HCA analysis showed that chromatographic fingerprints of P. cyrtonema and P. sibiricum were similar, while P. kingianum and other two species were significantly different.Conclusion:There are differences in fingerprints of polysaccharides among three species of Polygonati Rhizoma. The possible effects of species should be considered in clinical application. The established PMP-HPLC is a simple, accurate and reproducible method, which can be used for the quality evaluation of Polygonati Rhizoma.
Abstract：Objective:To analyze and determine heavy metal content in Paridis Rhizoma from different genus and localities, in order to provide a reference for selecting cultivation areas and establishing the quality standard of Paridis Rhizoma of heavy metals content.Method:Microwave digestion method combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry method (ICP-AES) method were applied to determine the contents of 6 heavy metals, i.e. As, Cu, Hg, Cd, Pb and Cr in 39 samples of Paridis Rhizoma of different genus and localities in Yunnan Province. Cluster analysis, statistical analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to compare the differences of heavy metals contents in different localities and species.Result:The contents of six heavy metals in Paridis Rhizoma met the ISO international standard of Heavy Metal Limit of Traditional Chinese Medicine-traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials. Under the limited value standard of Green Trade Standards of Importing Medicinal Plants and Preparations, the over-standard rate of heavy metal As was 15.4%, the excess rate of Cd was 5.1%, and the excess rate of Pb was 2.6%. The contents of Cu and Hg conformed to relevant requirements. Cluster analysis, statistical analysis and principal component analysis showed that for the same variety, differences in producing places had significant effects on heavy metal content, while differences in species had little effects.Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that the heavy metal content of Paris planted in and around Dali basically conformed to relevant standards. The differences of heavy metal content in Paris were mainly regional differences, which provided a theoretical basis for standardizing the cultivation of medicinal materials and formulating the limit standards of heavy metals for Paridis Rhizoma.
Abstract：Objective:To establish a mathematical model of total statistical moment, information amount and one-time steady-state feeding quantity of HPLC fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and their classical prescriptions, and to carry out experimental verification.Method:The total statistical moment principle, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle and one-time steady-state feeding quantity calculation method were used to study the total statistical moment parameters and one-time steady-state feeding quantity of 15 batches of original medicinal materials, decoction pieces and compound preparations of Taohong Siwutang, these original medicinal materials were from three producing areas.Result:In addition to the total first-order moment, RSD of total zero-order moment, total second-order moment, information entropy and information amount of each medicinal material, decoction piece and compound were all greater than 10%. In the case of single original medicinal material, except for Angelicae Sinensis Radix (142.34 kg), the one-time steady-state feeding quantity calculated according to the RSD change of the accumulated information amount of the whole prescription was the largest (59.10 kg), and according to ratio of the whole prescription, one-time steady-state feeding quantity was the largest (958.57 kg). In the case of processed products, the one-time steady-state feeding quantity of the whole prescription was the largest (73.18 kg) except for Carthami Flos processed with wine (83.28 kg), while according to the whole prescription, one-time steady-state feeding quantity of each processed products was the same as that of the original medicinal material. The one-time steady-state feeding quantity of the compound consisted of the original medicinal materials or processed products was often higher than that of the single medicinal material.Conclusion:The components of TCM are controlled by genetic polymorphism, the chromatographic characteristics (types of components) of Chinese medicine is similar and the intensity of action (content of components) is different. The stability of total first-order moment and information entropy indicates that the overall chemical structure of TCM multi-component system has a stable imprinting trend. The one-time steady-state feeding quantities of each medicinal material in Taohong Siwutang and this compound are far greater than the prescription amount, which can provide reference for the industrial production.
Keywords：classical famous formulas;Taohong Siwutang;total statistical moment;one-time steady-state feeding quantity;uniformity;stability;fingerprint
Abstract：Objective:To observe the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated death domain (TARDD), nuclear transcription factor-κB inhibiting protein α(IκBα)IκB kinase-α (IKKα) and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB p65 protein in the NF-κB signaling pathway of synovial tissues of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) rats after treatment with Xiao Chaihutang (XCHT).Method:In animal experiments, SPF health adult female Wistar rats were used to prepare the CFA animal model of rats with rheumatoid arthritis with Freund's complete adjuvant and cattle Ⅱ collagen type. According to the random number table, the rats were randomly divided into the normal group, the model group, the low-dose XCHT group, the medium-dose XCHT group, the high-dose XCHT group, and the Tripterygium glucosides group. The drugs were given at 7 d after the model was built. Both normal group and model group were given water for injection, and low-dose XCHT group(5.94 g·kg-1), medium-dose XCHT group(11.88 g·kg-1), high-dose XCHT group(23.76 g·kg-1), Tripterygium glucosides group(0.006 3 g·kg-1) were given corresponding drugs by gavage for three times a day, 2 mL/time. The histopathology of rat ankle joint was observed, and the protein expressions of TARDD, IKKα, IκBα, NF-κB p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway in synovial tissue of CFA rats were detected by Western blot.Result:With the increase of the dosage of XCHT, the histopathological score of the right posterior ankle joint of the experimental rats was increased. And in the protein expressions of TARDD, IKKα, IκBα, NF-κB p65 in NF-κB signaling pathway in Synovial Tissue of CFA rats, compared with the model group, the statistical results of the low-dose XCHT group showed decreased protein expressions (P<0.05) and significant differences. However, the statistical results in the medium-dose XCHT group, the high-dose XCHT group and the tripterygium glucosides group showed decreased protein expression (P<0.01) and significant differences. Compared with the normal group, the histopathological score of the right posterior ankle of the model group was significantly increased(P<0.01), and the protein expressions of TARDD, IKKα, IκB α, NF-κB p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, with the increase of dose of Xiao Chaihutang, histopathologic score of posterior ankle of experimental rats significantly reduced (P<0.01). In rats ankle tissue samples, TARDD, IKKα, IκBα, NF-κB p65 key protein expressions in the NF-κB signaling pathway and protein expressions in low-dose XCHT group were obviously lower (P<0.05), and protein expressions in the medium-dose XCHT group, the high-dose XCHT group and the Tripterygium glucosides group were significantly lower (P<0.01).Conclusion:This study shows that as the dose of Xiao Chaihutang increases, it could effectively improve synovitis, and suppress the expressions of key proteins in the inflammatory signaling pathway of NF-κB, thereby preventing inflammation and suppressing bone erosion.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Shenling Baizhu San on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induced by 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice by regulating autophagy of intestinal epithelial cells.Method:The 84 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 7 groups with 12 mice in each group. In addition to the normal group, 5% DSS was freely drunk for 7 days to induce acute inflammatory bowel disease. In the treatment group, high, medium and low doses of shenlingbaishu powder (12, 6, 3 g·kg-1·d-1), mesalazine (2 g·kg-1·d-1) and autophagy inducer rapamycin (4 mg·kg-1·d-1) were given by gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the morphological changes of colon tissues in mice. The autophagosome formation of intestinal epithelial cells was detected by transmission electron microscopy. Western blot was used to detect the ratio of autophagy related protein LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, phosphatidylinositol-3kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ubiquitin-binding protein-1 (p62), Beclin1 phosphorylation, ULK1, 4EBP protein expression.Result:Compared with normal group, model group mice colonic mucosa epithelial cells are widely missed, most incomplete glands, change in colitis, LC3-Ⅱ content decreased significantly (P<0.05), autophagy is not obvious, and an increased level of autophagy, autophagy pathways in the colon tissue protein PI3K, mTOR, p-p62 phosphorylation degree and the ULK1 protein expression increased significantly (P<0.05)), Beclin1 phosphorylation and 4 ebp protein expression significantly decreased (P<0.05)). Compared with model group, Shenling Baizhu San high dose group, salad lamictal and rapamycin group improved colon tissue obviously, LC3-Ⅱ levels were higher significantly (P<0.05), and Shenling Baizhu San high, medium and low dose group, salad oxazine group and its corresponding inhibitor can obviously inhibit PI3K, mTOR, p-p62 phosphorylation, reduce ULK1 protein expression, promote Beclin1 phosphorylation and 4EBP protein expression (P<0.05).Conclusion:The effect of Shenling Baizhu San on DSS-induced IBD is related to the regulation of the phosphorylation of PI3K, mTOR and p62 proteins in the autophagy pathway of intestinal epithelial cells.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of modified Sijunzi Tang on protein and mRNA expressions of Occludin, Claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) in cerebral ischemia rats.Method:Totally 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, edaravone group, small-dose modified Sijunzi Tang group, middle-dose modified Sijunzi Tang group and high-dose modified Sijunzi Tang group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was prepared by suture method. After 7 days of treatment, the modeling group was put to death. Western blot was used to detect the contents of Occludin, Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in the ischemic cerebral cortex of rats. Detection of Occludin, ZO-1, Claudin-1 mRNA expression in the ischemic cortex of rats by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with the sham operation group, protein expressions of Occludin, Claudin-1, and ZO-1 in the model group were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, protein expressions of Occludin, ZO-1, Claudin-1 in the positive control group and modified Sijunzi Tang groups increased significantly, with statistically significant differences (P<0.01). Compared with the Sham operation group, the expression of Occludin, Claudin-1, and ZO-1 mRNA in the model group was down-regulated (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, mRNA expressions of Occludin, Claudin-1, ZO-1 in the positive control group and modified Sijunzi Tang groups increased, with statistically significant differences (P<0.01).Conclusion:Modified Sijunzi Tang may protect the blood-brain barrier and reduce brain edema in ischemic stroke rats by increasing the expression of tight junction proteins Occludin, ZO-1 and Claudin-1.
Keywords：cerebral ischemia;brain edema;modified Sijunzi Tang;invigorating spleen and replenishing Qi and draining water;Occludin;Claudin-1;zonula occludens-1(ZO-1)
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of modified Ditantang on autophagy and relevant proteins in brain cells of rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.Method:The cerebral ischemic reperfusion (CIR) injury model in rats was built by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion artery suture of middle cerebral embolism method, and randomly divided into sham group, model group, high-dose modified Ditantang group(H-dose), low-dose modified Ditantang group (L-dose, 0.384 g·kg-1) and PLXT group (0.1 g·kg-1). Sham and model groups were given normal saline by gastric perfusion, H-dose and L-dose groups were given modified Ditantang, and the PLXT group were given Piracetam tablets, intragastric volume 10 mL·kg-1. The treatment lasted for 7 d. Within 24 hours after administration, the histopathological examination was performed, the volume of cerebral infarction, neuronal apoptosis and serum levels of inflammatory factors were compared, and the expressions of autophagy related microtuble-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3)Ⅱ, Beclin1, B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2) and p62 in brain tissues were determined.Result:Cells and blood vessel necrosis, neuron swelling and interstitial edema were observed in model group, a few neurons died, edema was reduced, swelling of nerve cells was alleviated in H-dose, L-dose and PLXT groups. The volume of cerebral infarction and neuronal apoptosis in H-dose, L-dose and PLXT groups were lower than those in model group (P<0.05). The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intedeukin (IL)-2 and IL-8 in H-dose, L-dose and PLXT groups were lower than those in model group (P<0.05). Compared with sham group, protein and mRNA expressions of LC3 Ⅱ, Bcl-2 and Beclin1 in the ischemic brain tissue of model group were significantly increased, while protein and mRNA expressions of p62 in the ischemic brain tissue of model group were decreased significantly. Compared with the model group, protein and mRNA expressions of LC3 Ⅱ and Beclin1 in H-dose, L-dose and PLXT groups were significantly decreased, while protein and mRNA expressions of p62 were significantly increased, with significant differences (P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Ditantang can improve brain injury and interfere with autophagy after MCAO/R, alleviate inflammation, and regulate autophagic activity, which may be related to the down-regulation of expressions of LC3 Ⅱ, Beclin1 and the up-regulation of expression of p62.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the mechanism of modified Xiaoyaosan on extracellular regulated protein kinase(ERK) signal transduction pathway of central dopamine receptor in hyperprolactinemia(HPRL)model rats by treating them with Shugan Jianpi as the core.Method:The 96 SD female rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Bromocriptine group (0.001 g·kg-1), modified Xiaoyaosan high, medium and low dose group(60, 30, 15 g·kg-1), dopamine D1 receptor(D1R) antagonist group (SCH23390, SCH23390+ modified Xiaoyaosan group, SCH23390+ bromocriptine group), dopamine D2 receptor(D2R) antagonist group (haloperidol group, haloperidol+ modified Xiaoyaosan group, haloperidol+ bromocriptine group). HPRL rat model was established by pituitary transplanta-tion. After 30 days of administration, renin-angiotensinsystem Ras and Raf protein expressions in thypothalamus of rats were detected by Western blot, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 1/2(MEK1/2)mRNA and extracellular signaling regulates kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus of rats were detected by Real-time PCR.The microstructures of mitochondria in ovarian granulosa cells were observed by electron microscopy.Result:The Ras, Raf protein, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 mRNA expression were significantly decreased in model group compared with normal group (P<0.01). After SCH23390 antagonistic DIR was applied, Ras, Raf pprotein, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 mRNA expression in SCH23390 group showed an increased trend compared with model group, and when haloperidol was used to antagonistic D2R, Ras and Raf expression in haloperidol group showed a decreased trend compared with model group, and MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 mRNA expression significantly decreased(P<0.01). The expression of Ras, Raf protein, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 mRNA was significantly increased after using modified Xiaoyaosan(P<0.01), and the expression was significantly increased in the high and medium-dose groups of prescription(P<0.01). The effect was better than that of bromocriptine group.The morphology of granulosa cells and the number and structure of mitochondria in model group were abnormal under electron microscope. After treatment with modified Xiaoyaosan, the morphology and structure of granulosa cells tended to be normal.Conclusion:Modified Xiaoyaosan stimulates D2R, inhibits D1R, regulates ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.It also effectively improve the mitochondrial function of ovarian granulosa cells and promote follicular development.It is suggested that the modified Xiaoyaosan with a multi-target mechanism in treating HPRL.
Keywords：hyperprolactinemia;Shugan Jianpi method;extracellularregulated protein kinase(ERK)signaling pathway;mechanism of action
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Baihe Gujin Tang on lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury (LPS-ALI).Method:KM mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group, model group, dexamethasone 0.002 g·kg-1 group, Baihe Gujin Tang (0.417, 1.25 g·kg-1) group. Except for the blank control group, the other groups were given LPS to induce the mouse ALI model. Except for the blank control group and the model group, the other groups were continuously given intragastric administration for 7 days on the 1st to 7th days before modeling. The lung tissue of the mice was taken 6 h after modeling, and the wet/dry mass ratio (W/D) of the left lung was measured. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS)and nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the mice. Thepathological changes of the lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression levels of nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2), Kelch-likeECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), p62 and autophagy associated proteinsLC3Ⅱ proteins in the lung tissues were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with the blank control group, the W/D of the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01), the MDA level in the serum was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the SOD was significantly decreased (P<0.01), lung tissue lesions were severe, and significantly reduced the expression of lung tissue Nrf2, Keap1, but increased p62, LC3Ⅱ protein expression (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the W/D of dexamethasone group and Baihe Gujin Tang 1.25 g·kg-1 group was significantly lower (P<0.01). Baihe Gujin Tang 1.25 g·kg-1 group and dexamethasone group were able to significantly inhibited MDA levels in serum (P<0.05, P<0.01), improved the expression of SOD (P<0.05, P<0.01), dexamethasone group and Baihe Gujin Tang group have different extents of improvement the pathological changes of the lung tissues the pathological changes of the lung tissues, and the lung tissue Nrf2 and Keap1 were significantly increased, and the protein expression of p62, LC3Ⅱwas decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), each dose group of Baihe Gujin Tang had no effect on LC3B.Conclusion:Baihe Gujin Tang has obvious protective effect on LPS-ALI mice, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of Nrf2/Keap1/autophagy feedback loop.
Keywords：acute lung injury;Baihe Gujin Tang;nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2);Kelch-likeECH-associated protein 1;p62;autophagy
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the expressions of cardiac cycle, myocardial pathology, galectin-3 (Gal-3), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad homologue 3 recombinant protein (Smad3) in rats with heart failure and heart failure after ischemia-reperfusion, and the intervention effect of Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis (DOC) myocardial fibrosis in model rats.Method:A rat model of heart failure and Qi deficiency was established through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into blank group, model group, valsartan group (9.43 mg·kg-1) and DOC group (10 mg·kg-1), with 10 in each group. The blank group and the model group were given an equal volume of physiological saline. The changes in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic dimension(LVESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) of the cardiac cycle of rats in each group were recorded by high-resolution ultrasound system. The carboxyterrninal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and carboxyterrninal propeptide of type Ⅲ procollagen (PIIINP)were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The morphological changes of myocardial cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The changes of myocardial fiber tissue and collagen were observed by Masson staining. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of Gal-3, TGF-β, Smad3.Result:Compared with the blank group, the levels of LVEDD, LVEF, and LVFS were lower in the model group (P<0.05), the levels of LVESD, PICP and PIIINP were increased (P<0.05), while the expression levels of Gal-3, TGF-β, and Smad3 were decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, LVEDD, LVEF, LVFS of the control group and the experimental group were better than the model group (P<0.05), and LVESD, PICP, PIIINP levels of the experimental group were lower than the control group (P<0.05), LVESD, PPIC, PIIINP were lower than those of the model group (P<0.05), expression levels of Gal-3, TGF-β and Smad3 were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05), and the experimental group was lower than the control group (P<0.05). According to HE staining, the morphological changes in myocardial cells in the experimental group were more significant than that in the control group. Masson staining showed that the morphological changes of myocardial fibrous tissue and collagen tissue in the experimental group were more significant than that in the control group.Conclusion:DOC can effectively inhibit myocardial fibrosis in rats with heart failure and heart Qi deficiency syndrome after ischemia-reperfusion. The mechanism may be correlated with the reduction of the expressions of Gal-3, TGF-β and Smad3.
Keywords：Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis;ischemia-reperfusion;heart failure and heart Qi deficiency syndrome;myocardial fibrosis
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the pharmacodynamics and mechanism of Chaijin Sanjie prescription (CJSJP) on rat mammary gland hyperplasia, in order to provide experimental basis for the research and development of new Chinese medicine.Method:SD rat model of mammary gland hyperplasia was established through exogenous intramuscular injection with estrogen and progesterone. After successful establishment of the model, the rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, and low, medium and high-dose CJSJP groups (3.13, 6.26, 12.52 g·kg-1) and Rupixiao (0.517 g·kg-1) group, with 9 rats in each group. After 28 days of administration, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and rolactin (PRL) were measured by radioimmunoassay, uterus and ovary coefficients were calculated; nipple diameter and breast histopathology were observed, estrogen receptor-α(ER-α) expression in mammary gland was measured by immunohistochemistry, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) mRNA expressions in hypothalamus, pituitary were measured by Real-time PCR. ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, low, medium and high-dose CJSJP groups (5.2, 10.4, 20.8 g·kg-1) and Luotongding group (0.038 6 g·kg-1) according to their body weight. Twelve mice in each group were given drugs for 7 days, and 0.6% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally for 30 minutes after the last administration. The writhing times were observed within 15 minutes.Result:Compared with the normal group, the diameter of nipple was widened, serum E2 was significantly increased (P<0.01), breast tissue proliferation and ER-α expression were increased in model group. compared with model group, the diameter of nipple was significantly decreased in high dose group of CJSJP (P<0.05), E2 was decreased in all dose groups of CJSJP, pathological score of breast hyperplasia was decreased in middle and high dose groups of CJSJP, GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus was decreased in all dose groups of CJSJP. The writhing times of mice in high dose group of CJSJP was decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion:Chaijin Sanjie prescription can improve the lesions of breast hyperplasia. The therapeutic mechanism may be related to the regulation of GnRH gene expression in hypothalamus and the decrease of estrogen receptor expression.
Keywords：Chaijin Sanjie prescription;experimental hyperplasia of mammary glands;pharmacodynamics;estrogen receptor-α(ER-α);mechanism of action;Xiaoyaosan
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the renal protective effect of Tangshenping capsule (Tangshenping) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) KKAy mice and its effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.Method:Sixty female Sprague-Dawley KKAy mice aged 10 weeks old were induced with KKAy rat feed for 10 weeks. The DN animal model was successfully determined with blood glucose (>16.7 mmol·L-1) and 24 hour urine protein (>0.4 mg). The model mice were randomly divided into a model group, an irbesartan group, and low, medium and high-dose Tangshenping group, with 10 female C57BL/6J mice as a control group. The treatment groups were given the corresponding drugs by gavage. The normal group and the model group were given an equal volume of deionized water by gavage. The intragastric dose was 0.01 mL·g-1 body weight coefficient once a day. The general conditions of the mice were observed, the body mass was weighed every 4 weeks, and 24 h urine protein was quantified. At the 26th week, the blood was collected from eyeballs, and the mice were put to death. The quality of the kidneys, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expressions of Wnt4, glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) and β-catenin in kidney tissues.Result:Compared with model group, body mass, kidney mass/body mass, and 24 h urine protein were significantly lower in high-dose Tangshenping group (P<0.01). The pathological damage of the kidney was significantly reduced, the serum BUN, SCr, TG and MDA contents were significantly decreased (P<0.01), the contents of NO and SOD were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the protein and mRNA expression levels of Wnt4, Gsk-3β and β-catenin were decreased (P<0.01).Conclusion:Tangshenping may inhibit the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, reverse the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells in DN KKAy mice, delay the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis, and then exert renal protection.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of alkaloid A from Acanthi Ilicifolii Herba seu Radix(AAIA) on liver injury model caused by acetaminophen.Method:Mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive drug group (bifendate, 150 mg·kg-1) and high, medium and low-dose AAIA groups (200, 100, 50 mg·kg-1), with 10 in each group. They were given drugs by gavage for 10 days, and fasted for 8 hours after the last administration. Except the normal group, the other groups were intraperitoneally injected with 275 mg·kg-1 acetaminophen to induce acute liver injury model in mice. Six hours later, blood was taken from the eyeball. The body, liver, spleen, kidney and thymus were weighed, and then the corresponding organ indexes were calculated. The kits were used to detect the contents of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum. The contents of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver homogenate were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and the expressions of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated extracellular regulatory protein kinase (p-ERK1/2) were determined by Western blot.Result:Compared with the normal group, the liver index, serum AST and ALT levels, the production of NO and iNOS in liver homogenate, the expression of p-ERK1/2 protein in liver of the model group increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, all of drug groups could reduce the liver index of mice with acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen, the levels of serum AST and ALT, the production of NO and iNOS in liver and homogenate and the expression of p-ERK1/2 protein in liver (P<0.01). however, it had no significant effect on spleen, kidney and thymus of all acetaminophen injection groups.Conclusion:AAIA may protect mice from drug-induced liver injury by reducing AST and ALT levels, down-regulating the expressions of NO and iNOS, and reducing the expression of protein p-ERK1/2.
Keywords：alkaloid A from Acanthi Ilicifolii Herba seu Radix;acute liver injury;acetaminophen
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the mechanism of Shugan Wendan decoction in treating atherosclerosis based on liver X receptor α(LXRα)/nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) signal.Method:A New Zealand rabbit model of atherosclerosis with liver-Qi stagnation was established by using calf serum albumin immune injury, high fat feeding and bondage emotional stress method. Theses rabbits are randomly divided into 6 groups, control group, model group, atorvastatin group, Shugan Wendan decoction low, medium and high dose group(2.18, 6.54, 19.62 g·kg-1·d-1). After successful modeling, the rabbits were treated by injecting drugs with Atorvastatin and low, middle and high dose Shugan Wendan decoction to gastric.The control group and the model group were given intragastric administration of saline in the same volume. The period of gavage is 6 weeks. The pathological changes of the rabbits were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining.Serum levels of totalcholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low density extremityprotein(LDL-C), high density extremity protein(HDL-C), nitric oxide(NO), and endothelin-1(ET-1) of the rabbits were detected by enzyme method, nitrate reductase method, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), respectively.The gene expression of CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 in the aorta was detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) method.The protein expression of LXRα/NF-κB signaling pathway wasdetected by Western blot.Result:Compared with normal control group, in model group, the lumen of the blood vessels was significantly narrowed, atheromatous plaques were formed, and a large number of intracellular foam-like changes were seen. In atorvastatin group and Shugan Wendan decoction group, the blood vessels in high, middle, and low concentration groups were narrowed. Atherosclerotic plaques and foam-like changes were all lower than the model group.Compared with the normal control group, the TG, TC, and LDL-C levels in the model groupincreased(P<0.05), HDL decreased (P<0.05), NO decreased (P<0.05), ET-1 increased (P<0.05), the expression levels of hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 all increased(P<0.05), the expression of LXRα protein in the model group was decreased(P<0.05), and the protein expression of NF-κB was increased(P<0.05). Compared with model group, the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C the atorvastatin group andlow, medium, and highdose Shugan Wendan decoction group decreased, (P<0.05), NO in the atorvastatin group and the highdose Shugan Wendan decoction group increased and ET-1 decreased(P<0.05). In group comparison, the expression levels of CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 in the atorvastatin group, the low, middle and high dose Shugan Wendan decoction groups all decreased(P<0.05). The expression of LXRα protein in the group was increased(P<0.05) and the protein expression of NF-κB was decreased(P<0.05).Conclusion:Shugan Wendan decoction can inhance the function of vascular endothelial cells and the stability of atherosclerotic plaque by regulating LXRα/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Keywords：Shugan Wendan decoction;atherosclerosis;liver X receptor α;nuclear factor-κB
Abstract：Objective:To explore the hepatoprotective effect and its mechanism of the geraniin on mice with acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN).Method:A total of 60 Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Silymarin group (positive group 180 mg·kg-1), and low, medium and high-dose geraniin groups (50, 100, 200 mg·kg-1). All the mice were given with saline or corresponding dose of drugs (10 mL·kg-1) by gavage once a day for 10 d. After 2 h of the last administration, except the normal group, the mice of other groups were injected intraperitoneally with D-GalN (500 mg·kg-1) to induce the acute liver injury. After 16 h, the eye balls of mice were removed to take blood, and all mice were put to death to collect samples of liver. Activity or content of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver were determined by biochemical method. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), γ-interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and expressions of Toll-like receptor-4(TLR-4) and nuclear factor(NF)-κB proteins were detected by Western blot. Liver histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.Result:Compared with the normal group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TBIL and liver MDA in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, geraniin can reduce activities or contents of ALT, AST, ALP, TBIL in serum and MDA in liver of mice (P<0.05, P<0.01), but increase activities of T-SOD and GSH-Px in liver (P<0.05, P<0.01), while inhibiting the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and the expressions of TLR-4 and NF-κB proteins in serum (P<0.05, P<0.01). HE staining showed that acute liver injury of mice was alleviated obviously by geraniin.Conclusion:Geraniin has an obvious protective effective on acute liver injuries induced by D-GalN in mice. Its mechanism may be correlated with oxidative stress, inflammation and TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To obtain the regulatory relationship between genes by screening the differentially expressed long non-coding ribonucleic acid(lncRNA), microRNA(miRNA) and messenger RNA(mRNA) in serum of patients with Yin and Yang syndromes of acute ischemic stroke, and to discuss the material basis and biological mechanism of formation of Yin and Yang syndromes of acute ischemic stroke from the transcriptome level.Method:The microarray chips were adopted to detect expression of lncRNA, mRNA and miRNA in serum of ischemic stroke patients with Yin and Yang syndromes and non-stroke subjects(10 cases each). Differential expression profiles related to Yin and Yang syndromes were selected by conjoint analysis. Further, the obtained differential genes were subjected to antisense lncRNA and mRNA co-expression analysis, gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) functional pathway analysis, and the intergenic regulatory relationship was obtained to predict the target genes of lncRNA. Partial differential genes in 40 patients(10 with Yang syndrome and 30 with Yin syndrome) were verified by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR).Result:The expression of 227 lncRNA, 54 mRNA and 4 miRNA were closely related to Yang syndrome, 394 lncRNA and 206 mRNA were closely related to Yin syndrome. Antisense lncRNA RP11-647P12.1 and RP11-677M14.2 may regulate the expression of neuron-derived neurotrophic factor(NDNF) and neurogranin(NRGN) by up-regulating the expression level in Yang syndrome. The differential expression of mRNA between Yin syndrome and Yang syndrome was mainly related to neurotransmitter receptor activity regulation, endocrine hormone regulation, inflammatory response, renin-angiotensin system and other pathways.Conclusion:There are differences in the expression profiles of lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA between Yin syndrome and Yang syndrome in acute ischemic stroke, which may be regulated by multiple pathways, such as blood pressure regulation, adrenergic receptor regulation, renin-angiotensin system and γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA). The transcriptome characteristics provide scientific basis for studying the biological basis of Yin syndrome and Yang syndrome in acute ischemic stroke.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Whenshen prescription on hepatic encephalopathy in patients with HBV-related hepatic cirrhosis and kidney Yang deficiency syndrome and the content of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).Method:The 66 patients treated in the Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from August 2013 to January 2015 were included. A prospective, parallel controlled design was used. The 66 cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group according to 1∶1 ratio, with 33 cases in each group.The control group was treated with comprehensive therapy, colon dialysis and placebo enema, while treatment group was treated with comprehensive therapy, colon dialysis and Whenshen prescription enema for 10 days. Finally, liver function, number connect test (NCT), digit-symbol test (SDT), awake time, the total effective rate and content of HMGB1 and TLR4 were analyzed.Result:There was no significant difference between two groups at baseline. The total effective rate in treatment group was 93.9%, which was higher than 72.7% in control group (P<0.05). Plasma ammonia, liver function, awake time, NCT and SDT in treatment group were better than those in control group (P<0.05). The contents of HMGB1 and TLR4 in treatment group were lower than those in the control group.Conclusion:Whenshen prescription can significantly improve the clinical efficacy by inhibiting the contents of HMGB1 and TLR4.
Keywords：Whenshen prescription;hepatic encephalopathy;HBV-related hepatic cirrhosis;high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1);Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4);NH3;Haoqin Qingdantang
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical effect of modified Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang on patient with lower-extremity arterial disease (LEAD) with deficiency of Qi and Yin and blood stasis syndrome, and study the antioxidant mechanism.Method:One hundred and twenty-eight patients were randomly divided into control group (64 cases) and observation group (64 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group was treated for controlling blood sugar, blood pressure and blood fat, and got probucol in the morning and evening, 0.5 g/time, 2 times/days, aspirin enteric-coated tablets for 3 months, 100 mg·d-1, and alprostadil injection diluted with 10 mL normal saline for 15 days, 10 μg·d-1, 1 time/day. A course of the treatment in control group was 15 days, and there were 4 courses. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were additionally given modified Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang, 1 dose/day, for 3 months. Before and after treatment, ankle brachial index (ABI) and toe branch index (TBI) were detected, and internal diameter of dorsal artery of foot, peak velocity and blood flow were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. Main symptoms and sign were scored. And levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), Homocysteine (Hcy), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), cystatin C (CysC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OX-LDL) were detected.Result:According to the rank test, clinical effect in observation group was better than that in control group (P<0.05). And levels of ABI, TBI and SOD were higher than those in control group (P<0.01). The ameliorate of internal diameter of dorsal artery of foot, peak velocity and blood flow were better than those in control group, and scores of intermittent postscript, lower extremity pain, dorsalis pedis artery pulsation, skin color, skin temperature, numbness of limbs, swelling of extremities and the sign and levels of IL-1, Hcy TNF-α, hs-CRP, Cys-C and Ox-LDL were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Modified Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang can relieve symptoms and signs, lower limb vascular function and hemodynamic, with certain anti-inflammatory effect and oxidative stress. It can also reduce vascular endothelial cell injury, and relieve and postpone the progress of LEAD
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of modified Shaofu Zhuyutang combined with Zheng's Rebuzhen therapy on pain caused by adenomyosis (cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome) and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) and prostaglandin.Method:One hundred and twenty-eight patients were randomly divided into control group (63 cases) and observation group (65 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got desogestrel and ethinylestradiol tablets since the first day of menstruation for consecutive 21 days, 1 granule/time, 1 time/day, and Zheng's Rebuzhen therapy for consecutive 10 days during the menstruation, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given Shaofu Zhuyutang, 1 dose/day. A course of treatment was 3 menstrual cycles. Before and after treatment, cox menstrual symptom scale (CMSS) of COX, visual simulation of dysmenorrheal (VAS), chronic pelvic pain, pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) and cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome were scored. And uterine volume and endometrial thickness were evaluated by B-mode ultrasonography. And levels of VEGF, MMP-9, TIMP-1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and cancer antigen were detected.Result:After treatment, the clinical efficacy in observation group was superior to that in control group (Z=2.445, P<0.05). After treatment, scores of VAS, dysmenorrhea time of COX, dysmenorrheal of COX, chronic pelvic pain, PBAC and cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And uterine volume and endometrial thickness were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And levels of VEGF, MMP-9, MMP-9/TIMP-1, PGF2α and CA125 were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of TIMP-1 and PGE2 were higher than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to desogestrel and ethinylestradiol tablets combined with Zheng's Rebuzhen therapy, modified Shaofu Zhuyutang can relieve pain and hemorrhage and improve the clinical efficacy. The mechanism may be correlated with the regulation of expression levels of VEGF, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and prostaglandin.
Keywords：adenomyosis;cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome;Zheng's Rebuzhen therapy;Shaofu Zhuyutang;pain
Abstract：Objective:To study on the correlation between integrated pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of five active components(oxidized paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin, quercetin, gallic acid, paeonol) in Moutan Cortex.Method:Rats were divided into blank group, model group(syndrome of blood-heat and blood stasis) and drug-administered group.The concentration of five active components in serum were detected with UPLC-MS at different time points after being administrated ethanol extract of Moutan Cortex.The integrated concentrations were calculated according to area under the curve(AUC) self-defined weighting coefficiency.At the same time, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine the contents of thromboxane B2(TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α(6-keto-PGF1α) in serum at different time points, and then correlation between pharmacodynamics and integrated pharmacokinetics of these five active ingredients was analyzed.Result:At different time points(0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 h), the integrated plasma concentrations of these five active ingredients in Moutan Cortex(158.65, 174.60, 220.13, 227.23, 244.31, 251.51, 404.28, 654.39, 472.62, 355.04, 231.56, 199.40 mg·L-1) had a good correlation with concentration of TXB2(264.44, 261.03, 284.93, 273.30, 264.04, 278.90, 274.83, 303.58, 260.03, 264.78, 264.40, 256.62 μg·L-1) and value of TXB2/6-keto-PGFlα(4.50, 4.47, 3.66, 3.37, 3.29, 3.66, 3.71, 4.30, 3.63, 3.65, 3.75, 3.66).Conclusion:There is a good correlation between the dynamic changes in vivo of active components from Moutan Cortex and pharmacodynamic effects of activating blood circulation of this herb.
Keywords：Moutan Cortex;integrated pharmacokinetics;pharmacodynamics;correlation analysis;enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay;pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics;syndrome of blood-heat and blood stasis
Abstract：Objective:To explore the absorption and transport properties of flavanomarein in the Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) monolayer cell model.Method:Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay was used to investigate the toxicity of flavanomarein in MDCK cells. The resistance value of MDCK monolayer cell model was detected by Millicell-ERS-2 cell resistometer. The effects of mass concentration of flavanomarein, administration time, sodium-glucose cotransporter(SGLTs) inhibitor and glucose transporter 2(GLUT2) inhibitor on the transmembrane transport of flavanomarein were investigated. The concentration of flavanomarein was determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the apparent permeability coefficient(Papp) and the efflux ratio(ER) were calculated.Result:When the concentration of flavanomarein was 5.625-120 mg·L-1, there was no significant toxic effect on MDCK cells. The transport of flavanomarein in MDCK monolayer cell model was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. The Papp values of flavanomarein were basically between 1×10-6 cm·s-1 to 10×10-6 cm·s-1. Compared with the blank group, the phlorizin group significantly reduced the transport of flavanomarein on the MDCK monolayer cell model at 60 min and 90 min.Conclusion:Flavanomarein is a moderately absorbed drug in the intestine, its transmembrane transport mechanism is dominated by passive transport along with active transport. SGLTs may be involved in mediating the transport of flavanomarein on the MDCK monolayer cell model.
Keywords：flavanomarein;Madin-Darby canine kidney cells;monolayer cell model;transmembrane transport;phlorizin;phloretin;efflux ratio
Abstract：Objective:To establish a HPLC fingerprint detection method of Plantaginis Semen, and analyze the samples from different producing areas in Jiangxi province by combining with chemical pattern recognition method, and the contents of five ingredients in Plantaginis Semen were determined.Method:A total of 34 batches of Plantaginis Semen medicinal materials were detected by HPLC. The similarity evaluation was carried out by the 2012 edition of similarity evaluation system of chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine. The chromatographic peak information was used as the data source, and three chemical pattern recognition methods were used to comprehensively analyze the quality of this medicinal herb. Quantitative analysis was performed on the 5 active components, including geniposidic acid, plantamajoside, acteoside, galuteolin and isoacteoside.Result:The similarities between Plantaginis Semen samples from different producing areas in Jiangxi province were >0.86. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) could distinguish samples from different producing areas, and be used to determine the chemical components, which had strong correlation with the quality of Plantaginis Semen. The contents of 5 active components in samples from different producing areas were different to some degree, especially in the content of plantamajoside.Conclusion:The established HPLC fingerprint of Plantaginis Semen has strong characteristics, combined with chemical pattern recognition method, it can effectively evaluate the quality of Plantaginis Semen and distinguish its producing areas.
Abstract：Objective:Stems, petioles, stem sections with axillary and leaves of Scrophularia ningpoensis were taken as the material in vitro to screen out the suitable plantlet regeneration system and optimal exercising seedling conditions.Method:Different explants, hormones and concentrations on the induction and proliferation of cluster bud were studied by L16(45) orthogonal test. One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was made on the induction of adventitious buds rooted with different concentrations of hormones. At the same time, different substrates, watering cycles and transition modes were selected to optimize key technologies of exercising seedlings of S. ningpoensis.Result:Stem sections with axillary was the best explant, which was followed by stems, leaves and petioles. The suitable media for the induction of adventitious buds was MS+ 6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+ NAA 0.2 mg·L-1, with the induction rate of 100.0% and the proliferation multiple of 9.84.The suitable media for root induction was 1/2 MS+ IBA 0.2 mg·L-1, with the rooting rate of 100.0% and the number of roots of 39.45.For matrix, they were transplanted with nutrient soil, vermiculite and perlite (5∶2∶1) as the media, to keep proper matching of fertility, permeability and water retention. The container seedlings can grow well, and the survival rate was more than 95% when they were watered every 2 days, the acclimatization of plantlets took 20 days indoor and 10 days in shaded greenhouses.Conclusion:The clonal propagation system of S. ningpoensis was established to provide an effective way for the efficient, rapid and steady plantlet regeneration, the breeding of high-quality seedlings and the suitable exercising seedling conditions of S. ningpoensis.
Keywords：Scrophularia ningpoensis;stem section with axillary;exercising seedlings;clonal propagation;plantlet regeneration
Abstract：Objective:To establish the gray relational analysis for quality evaluation of the samples of Curcumae Radix introduced in Zhongshan.Method:With volatile oil and curcumin as Q-markers, and alcohol extract, germacrone, germacr-1(10)-ene-5, 8-dione and curcumin as comprehensive evaluation index, the contents of the four main components in 72 samples of Curcumae Radix of 3 different varieties introduced in Zhongshan from 3 different regions were determined. The grey relational method was used to build the gray correlation evaluation model for Curcumae Radix introduced in Zhongshan.Result:The relative correlation degree (γi) of 72 samples was between 0.262 and 0.697, in which γi was above 0.450 for 10 samples, and below 0.300 for 37 samples, indicating great differences in the quality of Curcumae Radix after introduction. The γi was 0.697 and 0.525 respectively for No.MY-W-4 and No.MY-W-1 from Curcumae Radix in Mayu with the best quality. The average values of γi for the samples of 3 different varieties from 3 different regions were between 0.281 and 0.420, and Mayu samples had the maximum average value, indicating that Mayu samples had the highest overall quality of, and could be introduced as excellent resources.Conclusion:The evaluation method combined with GRA method and multi-index quantification was simple, objective and comprehensive, and could be used to evaluate the quality of Curcumae Radix introduced in Zhongshan, so as to provide references for screening high-quality provenance.
Keywords：Curcumae Radix introduced in Zhongshan;gray relational method;alcohol extract;germacrone;germacr-1(10)-ene-5, 8-dio-ne;curcumin
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate and compare the identification of several DNA barcoding candidate sequences on Illicium difengpi and its fake I. jiadifengpi.Method:Samples from different origins of I. difengpi and I. jiadifengpi, were collect extraction of total DNA, nuclear gene ITS2 sequence, chloroplast rbcL, matK gene sequence were selected for PCR amplification, product purification and sequencing, and CondonCode Aligner V3.7.1 was used to proofread stitching.Result:PCR amplification and sequencing of rbcL sequences of I. difengpi and I. jiadifengpi were not satisfactory. It is assumed that their rbcL sequences were too long with slow evolution, which was unsuitable for interbreeding. The success rate of matK sequencing of I. difengpi and I. jiadifengpi was 0 and 76.8%, which may be because primer standards were different for matK sequences of different groups. The results of PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS2 on I. difengpi and I. jiadifengpi were successful, with the success rate of sequencing was 89.3% and 91.2%. Analysis sequencing results, the total length of ITS2 sequences was 268 bases, and there were 2 variation sites of I. difengpi. The total length of ITS2 sequences was 430 bases, and there were 4 or 3 variation sites of I. jiadifengpi. It shows that ITS2 sequences of I. difengpi and I. jiadifengpi were short and has obvious variability and can be amplify, that ITS2 sequence was better than rbcL and matK sequence in molecular identification of I. difengpi and I. jiadifengpi.Conclusion:DNA barcoding based on ITS2 sequence was a powerful and efficient tool for identification of I. difengpi and its fake I. jiadifengpi.
Abstract：Objective:Through database search and network pharmacology to explore the potential mechanism of " Fu Zheng" rule of ulcerative colitis.Method:Search for ulcerative colitis related prescriptions from the Chinese medicine E database, Screening the retrieved prescriptions and conducting statistical analysis of the types and frequency of drugs, and selecting the objective drugs for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Search for the chemical composition and target of drugs on the Digsee platform, then constructing a compound-target interaction network map. Screening for ulcerative colitis related targets through the Digsee database and construct a disease-target interaction network map. Filter the core targets of the two network maps and using the DAVID tool to perform enrichment analysis on the core targets.Result:About 731 prescriptions of ulcerative colitis were retrieved from the database, 304 prescriptions and 220 Chinese medicines were received based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Representative drugs of " Fu Zheng" Rule of ulcerative colitis is Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. Screening for chemical constituents of the drug based on ADME parameters, and then target prediction, we received a total of 137 protein targets. Merge the compound-target interaction network map and the disease-target interaction network map, with " Degree" " betweenness " and " closeness" as the evaluation criteria, we found 129 common targets. Perform KEGG enrichment analysis on the selected targets, find out the top 20 pathways with P values has an effect on ulcerative colitis.Conclusion:The role of FuZheng Chinese medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis is the overall effect of multiple targets and multiple pathways, excavating the potential mechanism of " Fu Zheng" rule of ulcerative colitis and provide a theoretical basis for further experimental research.
Abstract：The clinical value is the core factor for determining the products of Chinese patent medicines on the market. It is clear that defining the clinical positioning of Chinese patent medicines and maximizing their clinical efficacy and value are of great practical significance for each Chinese patent medicine. Precise clinical positioning not only requires systematic analysis and summarization of existing literature and clinical practice data, but also requires verification and proof from detailed experimental data, thus to provide scientific support for basic research. In this research, a three-dimensional integration strategy of " traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory-clinical practice-basic research" was proposed to play a vital role in clinical positioning and evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. Yixinshu capsule was taken as an example to discuss clinical positioning of Chinese patent medicines under the guidance of TCM theory. Based on the interpretation of the evolution of the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (thoracic obstruction), combined with the core efficacy of the drug composition, the effect of Yixinshu capsule in benefiting Zongqi, calming midnd, improving blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis was identified, which was suitable for treatment for the recurrent episodes of angina pectoris, and emergency of symptoms of chronic heart failure. At the level of TCM theory, the clinical positioning of Yixinshu capsule was further defined, and the key points of in-depth research were proposed to provide reference for the mechanism research and clinical application of Yixinshu capsule. Based on the prescription and its score functions, precise analysis of clinical positioning of large varieties of TCM under the guidance of TCM theory, on the one hand will give full play to the value of TCM original knowledge and guide the basic research of Chinese patent medicines, on the other hand the research results will enrich, benefit and sublimate the TCM theory, and finally provide a critical paradigmatic for the clinical positioning of large varieties of TCM under the guidance of TCM theory.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine theory;clinical positioning;large varieties of traditional Chinese medicine;Yixinshu capsule
Abstract：Research and development of classical prescription of Chinese medicine has become one of the hot spots in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the successful development of the primary standard is crucial to the application of the classical prescription of Chinese medicine. Primary standard of classical prescription is not only the benchmark to measure the quality of preparation of classical prescription, but also the material basis of whole prescription. The development and quality control mode of single component of western medicine is not suitable for the development of TCM preparation with integral medicinal function. Thus, it is very urgent to develop an exclusive research and development model for TCM. In order to break through the quality control technology of primary standard of classical prescription, and comprehensively and accurately elucidate the transmission rule of the component group value of medicinal materials-decoction pieces-primary standard of classical prescription with the present modern science and technology, the genetic polymorphism of TCM, extraction kinetics, total quantum statistical moment (similarity) method of fingerprint and supramolecular imprinting template were combined and applied to the development of primary standard of classical prescription. In this way, the development and quality control of TCM will be realized in a real sense and the development of classical prescription of Chinese medicine will be accelerated and promoted.
Abstract：The common diseases in pediatrics department include respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, immune system diseases, and skin system diseases. Bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia and other respiratory diseases are common pediatric diseases, mainly with the symptoms of fever, cough, and runny nose, and are mostly related to children's physical weakness. Pediatric digestive diseases mainly include anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. Skin system diseases mainly include tinea diseases such as tinea capitis, tinea pedis, and tinea corporis, allergic diseases such as urticaria and eczema, scorpions, sunburn and other skin diseases. Children are special groups for drug use, as their body is in the stage of growth and development and their organs are not yet mature, with strong susceptibility to disease, low stress ability, and not sensitive to drug reactions. Therefore, special requirements shall be noticed on the drug use and dosage. Children are the future of the country, but we have so many problems in pediatric drug use. It is worth pondering about pediatric drug use. Chinese patent medicine is a traditional Chinese medicine preparation in the forms of pills, powder, cream, pellet, and oral liquid, which is processed according to the laws and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine and the rule of syndrome differentiation and treatment experience, mostly of a compound preparation. This is the essence of medical practice after thousands of years of experience. At present, the commonly used dosage forms for Chinese patent medicine are tablets, pills, capsules, oral liquids and powders. Pediatric Chinese patent medicines have the advantages of mild nature, ease of use, stable content, controllable dose-effect, and exact curative effect, so they are widely used in clinical applications. In order to ensure the effectiveness and safety of pediatric Chinese patent medicine, we should strictly grasp some considerations on pediatric Chinese patent medicine due to the particularity of pediatric patients. This paper would analyze the problems in the application of pediatric Chinese patent medicines and the corresponding countermeasures to improve the accessibility of pediatric medication.
Keywords：pediatric;Chinese patent medicine;clinical problem
Abstract：Hypertension has become a major public health problem in the world. Entrusted by Society of Cardiovascular Diseases, China Association of Chinese Medicine, the experts reached consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) based on the theory of TCM syndrome differentiation, evidence-based medicine, review of previous literatures, experience of famous prestigious Chinese physician, and expert consultation. The key pathogenesis, the characteristics of syndrome, and the regularity of medication of traditional famous formulas for hypertension were collected and summarized. This consensus could be used for reference of TCM and integrative medicine doctors.
Keywords：hypertension;traditional Chinese medicine;expert consensus
Abstract：Eugenia caryophyllata, a plant of Myrtle family, has a long history of cultivation and application in China.It is a medicinal and edible homologous plant with rich pharmacological activities.At present, there have been reports on the pharmacological effects and chemical components of Caryophylli Flos, but the clinical research progress was less.Therefore, this paper was to summarize the studies on the chemical composition and pharmacological action of Caryophylli Flos, through literature review, this paper introduced the record of Caryophylli Flos in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and Mongolian medicine, the application frequency of Caryophylli Flos in traditional Mongolian medicine and its compatibility of drug-pair were analyzed with computer software.In addition, the use of Caryophylli Flos in Mongolian medicine was discussed from the aspects of their medicinal property, functional treatment and clinical application, so as to provide reference for the subsequent studies on Caryophylli Flos.
Keywords：Caryophylli Flos;medicinal property;functional indications;clinical application;chemical composition;pharmacological activity;frequency of medication
Abstract：Hepatic fibrosis is a repair process of the liver in response to various chronic injuries. The unbalanced proliferation and decomposition of fibrous tissue in the liver causes the excessive deposition of fibrous connective tissue in the liver. Hepatic fibrosis is a common intermediate link in a variety of chronic liver diseases. In this pathological process, the interaction between cells and cytokines leads to the disorder of liver extracellular matrix metabolism, which results in excessive deposition of fibrous tissue in the liver, and eventually causes liver fibrosis. After continuous deterioration, it would gradually develop into liver cirrhosis and even liver cancer. Because liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis can be reversed in the early stage, it is very important to control the reversible process of liver fibrosis for the prevention and treatment of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Cordyceps, as one of valuable medicinal fungi in China, has been given widespread attention from scientific workers, with broad pharmacological actions. Cordyceps polysaccharide is the highest content of bioactive substances in Cordyceps. Recent studies have found that it has an anti-hepatic fibrosis effect. With the application of molecular biology technology, researches on the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine at home and abroad have been gradually deepened into the cellular and molecular levels. This paper will investigate the preventive effect of Cordyceps polysaccharide in terms of cell basis, cytokines, collagenase and lipid peroxidation level that are related to liver fibrosis, so as to clarify the specific action mechanism on anti-hepatic fibrosis, and provide a reference for the development of anti-hepatic fibrosis drugs.