Abstract：With the rapid rise of modern drug-derived diseases, the external treatment has received extensive attention at home and abroad, due to its small adverse reactions, convenient application and accurate efficacy.At present, although there are many clinical applications of Chinese medicine external treatment, there are few unified norms and strong arbitrariness in related external treatment techniques, for example, external methods, dosage forms, means, dosage, time, etc.As a result, the development of Chinese medicine external treatment is slow and chaotic, and it can not serve the clinic well.It also hinders the development and expansion of external treatment techniques.This paper discusses the current status of external treatment techniques, and clarifies the development trend of Chinese medicine external treatment, in order to pointing out the direction for the development of Chinese medicine external treatment, it will promote the standardization of Chinese medicine external treatment techniques, and it will be better servicing the clinical practice.
Keywords：external treatment of Chinese medicine;techniques;specification;topical therapy;drug fumigating and washing therapy;medicinal bath therapy
Abstract：The external treatment of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is the earliest known treatment method for diseases. It originated in pre-Qin dynasty, grew up in Han and Tang dynasties, innovated in Song and Yuan dynasties, and developed in Ming and Qing dynasties. It has made outstanding contributions to the human health.With the rapid rise of modern drug-derived diseases, the external treatment of drugs has attracted wide attention at home and abroad due to its small adverse reactions, convenient application and accurate curative effect. With the increasing of TCM for external use drugs, dosage form, method, the clinical application of TCM has been expanding unceasingly, it has been widely applied to the pediatric, gynecological, internal medicine, oncology, however, there has not many specifications for amount, usage, time, and course of treatment, which are more arbitrary. Topical use of TCM can play a direct role in the treatment of local lesions. The external use of TCM is mainly explained by " the principle of external treatment is the principle of internal treatment" , and the internal use function can only be explained from the theoretical part of TCM on its external treatment characteristics, and most can not well guide the corresponding clinical application of TCM. There are few reports on the mechanism of external use of TCM, and most of them are from theory to theory, lacking the confirmation and support of modern studies. There are also related reports on transdermal absorption of scattered TCM for external use. However, most of the external use of TCM are crude preparations such as pulverising, decocting in water and alcohol extraction, and its more random which the dose, dosage type, course of treatment, external use methods, coupled with its complex ingredients and low content, it is difficult to explain the mechanism of external use simply from transdermal absorption, nor does it meet the facts of clinical application of TCM. The mechanism of external use is not clear, and restricted the development of TCM for external use. This article through the extensive experimental research, literature research and database research, and proposed that TCM for external use through adjustment of neural-endocrine-immune network disorders, through local micro effect, micro stimulation, micro absorption, that's the " three fine tuning balances" , and exert external use curative effect, so as to achieve the purpose of treating diseases.
Keywords：external use of traditional Chinese medicine;micro effect;micro stimulus;micro absorption
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Yinhuangshen essential oil in mice of solar dermatitis model by ultraviolet (UVB).Method:Sixty SPF BALB/c female mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, Minlixiao group, and large and small-dose Yinhuangshen essential oil groups. Except for blank group, model group was given 0.25 mL·cm-2 normal saline on the back every day. The Minlixiao group was given Min Lixiao every day. Low-dose Yinhuangshen essential oil group was given 0.125 mL·cm-2, and large-dose group was given 0.25 mL·cm-2, once a day, and the corresponding drugs were given continuously for 8 days. Except for blank group, all of the other groups were irradiated for 1.5 hours at 15 cm away from 308 nm UVB lamp on the 6th day. One hour and 24 hours after irradiation, mice were given corresponding drug once, and skin was observed 48 hours later. Contents of nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in some local skin homogenates were measured. The histopathological changes were observed by htoxylin eosin(HE) staining.Result:Compared with blank group, skin of model group was reddish, swollen and ulcerated, epithelium and adnexal were absent, a large number of inflammatory cells and necrosis were adhered to the surface, the local histopathological changes significantly (P<0.01), and NO, NOS, TNF-α were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, contents of NO, NOS and TNF-α in the skin tissue of Minlixiao group and Yinhuangshen essential oil group were significantly decreased, and it could remarkable reduce the pathological changes in local tissue morphology (P<0.01).Conclusion:Yinhuangshen essential oil has a good effect in preventing and treating solar dermatitis.
Keywords：Yinhuangshen essential oil;altraviolet(UVB);external use of traditional Chinese medicine;solar dermatitis
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Sanshencao essential oil on the model of thromboangiitis obliterans in rats.Method:Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups according to body weight: sham operation group, model group, Tongsaimai group (1.05 g·kg-1), large and small-dose Sanshencao essential oil groups (0.125 mL·cm-2, twice a day, 0.125 mL·cm-2, once a day), with 10 in each group. The model of occlusive vasculitis was established by injecting sodium laurate solution (10 g·L-1) into the left lower limb artery of rats. Sham operation group was injected with the same amount of normal saline at the same position. Large and small doses of Sanshencao essential oil were applied directly to the affected area, and the remaining groups were given corresponding drugs or pure water for 10 days. One hour after the last administration, the pathological changes were graded; the levels of thromboxane B2(TXB2), interleukin-1 (IL-1), 6-oxo-prostaglandinF1α (6-K-PGF1α), endothelin (ET) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of the femoral arteries in the left lower limbs.Result:Compared with sham operation group, the degree, extent, inflammation and thrombosis of the affected limbs in model group increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with model group, large and small-dose Sanshencao essential oil could significantly alleviate the extent, inflammation and thrombosis of the affected limbs (P<0.05, P<0.01), decrease the levels of TXB2, ET and IL-1 in serum (P<0.05, P<0.01), and increase the level of 6-K-PGF1α (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Sanshencao essential oil has a good therapeutic effect on thrombosis angiitis obliterans model in rats, which related to its anti-oxidation and alleviating inflammation of vascular wall.
Keywords：Sanshencao essential oil;thromboangiitis obliterans;external treatment of Chinese medicine;treatment mechanism;aromatherapy
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens(ZRR) on hemorrhoids in mice and rats.Method:Sixty SPF-grade SD rats were divided into blank group, model group, Ma Yinglong Shexiang hemorrhoid ointment group (7.5 g·kg-1), and large and small-dose ZRR paste groups (10, 5 g·kg-1). ZRR paste was applied in Yongquan acupoint to observe the effect of 0.05 mL injection with 75% acetic acid solution on hemorrhoids induced by subcutaneous anus in rats, the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) in the serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the rectal histopathology was detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE). Sixty SPF-grade KM mice were divided into blank group, model group, MA Ying-long Shexiang hemorrhoid ointment group (7.5 g·kg-1), and large and small-dose ginger essential oil groups (0.06, 0.03 mL, three times a day). ZRR paste was applied in crissum to observe the effect of injection of 20% acetic acid solution 0.05 mL (maintaining for 1 min) on hemorrhoids in mice induced by anus. The degree of local swelling ulcer around the anus and score was observed, levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in the serum were determined by ELISA, and the rectal histopathology was detected by HE staining.Result:In the experimental study on treating hemorrhoids with ZRR paste applied on Yongquan point of rats, compared with normal group, serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO in model group were significantly higher (P<0.01). The pathological injury of rectum was serious. Compared with model group, serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO were decreased in each administration group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the degree of rectal tissue injury was relieved (P<0.01). In the experiment of external application of ZRR essential oil around the anus for treating hemorrhoids, compared with normal group, perianal swelling and severe ulcer injury were observed in the model group (P<0.01). The serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in model group were significantly higher (P<0.01), and the pathological injury of rectum was serious. Compared with model group, each administration group showed the alleviation in perianal pathological conditions (P<0.01), the reduction in serum IL-1β, TNF-α levels (P<0.01), and the relief in the extent of rectal tissue injury (P<0.01).Conclusion:External application of ZRR can effectively inhibit perianal swelling and ulcer degree, with a good therapeutic effect on hemorrhoids model in rats and mice.
Abstract：Objective:Intestinal absorption liquid as medicine carriers, one or more kinds of traditional Chinese medicine protecting cardiac injury in Naoxintong capsule will be found through separation and combination of prescription. This study also can expand protecting mechanisms of Naoxintong capsule.Method:Naoxintong intestinal absorption liquids of single, combination and total prescription were prepared. H9c2 cell line exposed to H2O2 was established. Cell survival rate was determined with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT). Cell apoptosis rate was examined by Annexin Ⅴ-FITC /PI staining with a flow cytometer. Aquaporin1(AQP1) expression was detected by Western blot. One or more kinds of traditional Chinese medicine in Naoxintong capsule which exerted protective effect from cardiac injury were screened through separation and combination of prescription.Result:As compared with control group, the protein expression level of AQP1 was significantly increased(P<0.01), and the apoptotic H9c2 cells increased(P<0.05). Compared with model group, Naoxintong intestinal absorption liquid low, medium and high dose group decreased AQP1 expression(P<0.05), and naoxintong intestinal absorption liquid high dose group inhibited cardiac cells apoptosis(P<0.05), thus protected H9c2 cells from oxidative damages. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pheretima, Scorpio are main constituents which had protective actions in total prescription. Protective effect of those three combination prescription in high dose group was the best(P<0.05), and effect of combination prescription without those three was the second(P<0.05).Conclusion:Naoxintong capsule acts as a protective role in myocardial injury through decreasing AQP1 expression and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pheretima, Scorpio are important components in Naoxintong capsule.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect and related mechanism of Shenling Baizhu San on 3%dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mice.Method:Sixty male SPF C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, salazosulfapyridine (SASP, 0.52 g·kg-1), and low, medium and high-dose (31.2, 15.6, 7.8 g·kg-1) Shenling Baizhu San groups. Except for the control group, mice in the other groups were given distilled water containing 3%dextran sulfate sodium salt for a week to establish UC models. The drug was administered once a day for 14 days. The normal group and the model group were administered with 0.9%physiological saline at 20 mL·kg-1. The mice's body weight, fecal traits, and occult blood were observed daily, and the disease activity index (DAI) was scored. After the end of the administration, the blood was collected, mice colons were collected, weighed and measured for length, and pathological sections were prepared. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used to detect the serum levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1β in mice; htoxylin eosin (HE) and alixin blue/schiff periodic acid shiff(AB/PAS) staining were used to observe the pathological changes of colon tissues; Western blot was used to detect the colon tissue of mice nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 (NLPR3), NLPR6 protein expression levels.Result:Compared with the normal group, the DAI score of the model group was increased (P<0.01), the colon weight was increased, and the length was shortened (P<0.01); the pathological damage of the colonic mucosa was severe; the serum IL-1β content increased (P<0.05); NLRP3 protein expression increased, while NLRP6 expression decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the DAI scores of the SASP group and the high-dose group were decreased (P<0.05), the colon weight, length, and pathological conditions were improved; the serum IL-1β concentration was decreased (P<0.05); NLRP3 protein expression decreased (P<0.01), and NLRP6 expression was up-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Shenling Baizhu San has the effect in treating DSS-induced UC mice, which may be related to the regulation of NLRP3, NLRP6 protein and related inflammatory factors, so as to reduce intestinal inflammation and alleviate intestinal mucosal damage.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the protective effect and the preliminary mechanism of Dihuang Yinzi on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.Method:The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established. Totally 90 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham operation group, model group, nimodipine group (0.01 g·kg-1) and high, medium, low-dose Dihuang Yinzi groups (38.80, 19.40, 9.70 g·kg-1), with 20 rats in each group.The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was assayed at the 7th, 14th, 28th days after operation, and the volume of cerebral infarction, pathological changes of brain tissue, the BrdU positive cells and mRNA levels of Notch1, Jagged1 and Hes1 in subventricular zone(SVZ)were observed respectively by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride(TTC) stain, htorylin eastin(HE) stain, immunofluorescence technique and reverse transcriphase polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) methods at the 28th day after the operation.Result:The mNSS on the 7th, 14th, 28th days of high, medium-dose Dihuang Yinzi groups and nimodipine group were significantly lower than that of model group(P<0.05, P<0.01). On the 28th day, the percentage of cerebral infarction volume in brain tissue volume of high, medium-dose Dihuang Yinzi groups and nimodipine group were smaller than that of model group(P<0.01). HE staining showed that the necrosis and softening lesions of brain tissue were not obvious in rats of high, medium-dose Dihuang Yinzi groups and nimodipine group, with neuronal cell and neuroglial cell proliferation. On the 28th day, the BrdU positive cells in SVZ of the above 3 groups were significantly higher than model group(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the high-dose Dihuang Yinzi group was significantly higher than nimodipine group(P<0.05). On the 28th day, the mRNA levels of Notch1, Jagged1 and Hes1 of high, medium-dose Dihuang Yinzi groups and nimodipine group were significantly higher than those of model group(P<0.05, P<0.01), the mRNA level of Hes1 of nimodipine group was higher than that of high, medium, low-dose Dihuang Yinzi groups(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Dihuang Yinzi can improve the nerve function defect of MCAO rat model, and reduce the volume of cerebral infarction and the pathological changes of brain tissue, thus playing a protective role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats. Its mechanism may be related to the activation of the Notch signaling pathway, and the up-regulation of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1 and Hes1 mRNA, thus promoting the proliferation of NSCs.
Abstract：Objective:To observe effect of modified Maimendong Tang combined with cisplatin on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis and the protein expressions of Caspase-3, epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro, so as to investigate their relevant mechanisms in inhibiting cells proliferation, invasion and metastasis and inducing apoptosis of A549 cells.Method:The lung cancer cells A549 were respectively treated with modified Maimendong Tang(15 g·L-1), cisplatin(9 mg·L-1), and combined drugs. Afterwards, they were divided into control group, modified Maimendong Tang group, cisplatin group and modified Maimendong Tang combined with cisplatin group. Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of A549 cells treated with different concentrations of modified Maimendong Tang(0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 g·L-1) and cisplatin(0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 mg·L-1) for 24, 48, 72 h. The proliferation of A549 cells in each group was detected by MTT assay; flow cytometry was used to detect the degree of apoptosis and cycle in the above four groups of cells; scratch test and transwell migration test were performed to observe the abilities of invasion and metastasis of each group; Western blot was used to detect Caspase-3 and EGFR protein expression.Result:The concentration of modified Maimendong Tang and cisplatin and the time of intervention were negatively correlated with the proliferative capacity of A549 cells (P<0.05); compared with control group, modified Maimendong Tang could reduce the expressions of Caspase-3 and EGFR obviously (P<0.05); compared with cisplatin group and modified Maimendong Tang group, the modified Maimendong Tang combined with cisplatin group significantly inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cell and induced its apoptosis, the number of cells in G0/G1 phase increased apparently, and the cells in S phase decreased significantly (P<0.05); compared with other groups, A549 cells treated with the combined drug showed the poorest ability of scar healing, the number of them passing through the transwell chamber significantly reduced, and the protein expressions of Caspase-3 and EGFR down-regulated (P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Maimendong Tang combined with cisplatin can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induce the apoptosis of lung cancer cells. Modified Maimendong Tang can synergistically enhance the action of cisplatin. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of Caspase-3 and EGFR protein expressions.
Keywords：modified Maimendong Tang;cisplatin;A549 cells;apoptosis;cell invasion and metastasis
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effective substance basis and possible mechanism of Huangliantang in treatment of gastritis.Method:Integrated pharmacology platform of traditional Chinese medicine was employed to predict the main active ingredients and functional targets of Huangliantang in treatment of gastritis, network of composition target-disease target of Huangliantang was constructed, key nodes were screened for enrichment analysis of pathways, and the possible mechanism of Huangliantang in treatment of gastritis with multiple ingredients-multiple targets-multiple pathways was explored.Result:A total of 175 predicted active ingredients of Huangliantang interacted with 538 key targets about gastritis, the regulation and treatment of gastritis during its different pathological stages, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric mucosal damage and gastric mucosal atrophy, were involved through chemokine, T cell receptor, estrogen and other signaling pathways.Conclusion:This research may reveal the potential active ingredients of Huangliantang in treatment of gastritis and its possible mechanism, and it also provides a theoretical basis for further experimental research of pharmacodynamic substance basis and mechanism of action.
Keywords：Huangliantang;integrated pharmacology;gastritis;mechanism of action;targets;pathway analysis;interaction network
Abstract：Objective:To investigate clinical efficacy of Duhuo Xuduan Tang in treatment of lumbar disc herniation with different syndrome types and its effect on serum pain factors, bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and Aggrecan.Method:A total of 121 patients with non-emergency lumbar disc herniation admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2017 to June 2018 were randomly divided into observation group (62 cases) and control group (59 cases). The two groups of patients were treated by repositioning maneuver before absolute bed rest. observation group was given Duhuo Xuduan Tang, 150 mL·time-1, 3 times·d-1 orally, while control group was orally given ibuprofen, 300 mg·time-1, vitamin B1, 10 mg·time-1, 2 times·d-1, drugs were taken for 5 days a week, and then stopped for 2 days. Both groups were treated continuously for 4 weeks. changes in visual analogue score (VAS), modified Oswestry dysfunction index (MODI), serum substance P (SP), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), BMP-7 and Aggrecan were observed before and after treatment with enzyme-linked immunosandwich assay (ELISA).Result:Compared with before treatment, VAS and modified Oswestry dysfunction index scores were lower in both groups (P<0.05), BMP-7 and Aggrecan contents were higher, while SP, DA and 5-HT contents were lower (P<0.05). Compared with control group, VAS and modified Oswestry dysfunction index scores of observation group were lower (P<0.05), clinical efficacy was improved (P<0.05), levels of BMP-7 and Aggrecan in serum were higher, whereas contents of SP, DA and 5-HT were lower (P<0.05).Conclusion:Duhuo Xuduan Tang has a certain efficacy on different types of lumbar disc herniation, with best efficacy for patients with liver and kidney yin deficiency.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Xiaofengsan and its effect on cytokines in persistent asthma patients with wind-asthma pattern.Method:The 120 eligible patients with chronic and persistent asthma were randomly divided into control group (60 cases) and treatment group (60 cases). Patients in control group received the budesonide/formoterol (160 μg/4.5 μg, 2 inhales/time, bid). Patients in treatment group additionally received the modified Xiaofengsan combined with budesonide/formoterol (160 μg/4.5 μg). The treatment course was 1 month in both groups. The clinical efficacy of the two groups was observed. Before and 3 months after treatment, asthma control test (ACT) and the average times of acute exacerbation in 6 months before and after treatment between two groups were observed; percentage of forced expiratory volume in first second and its predicted value (FEV1%), variety ratio of Peak expiratory flow (PEF), eosinophilic granulocyte (EOS) count in peripheral blood and the levels of interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-6(IL-6) and interleukin-13(IL-13) in serum were measured before and after treatment respectively. In addition, the safety of the two groups was evaluated.Result:The total effective rate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The levels of ACT value and FEV1% in treatment group were higher(P<0.05), while the average times of acute exacerbation, PEF variety ratio, EOS count in peripheral blood, L-4, IL-6 and IL-13 in serum were lower(P<0.05) than those in control group after treatment. There was no significant difference in incidence of the adverse reactions.Conclusion:Modified Xiaofengsan combined with budesonide/formoterol could relieve symptoms of asthma, improve pulmonary function and lower the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13 in serum.
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the clinical efficacy of modified Tongqiao Huoxuetang combined with 'Huiyang Jiuzhen' in treating post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and its mechanisms in resisting inflammation and oxidant stress and ameliorating hemorheology.Method:One hundred and twenty-two patients were randomly divided into control group (61 cases) and observation group (61 cases) by random number table. Both groups got Donepezil tablets, 10 mg/time, 1 time/day, and Nicergoline tablets, 20 mg/time, 3 times/days. Patients in control group got 'Huiyang Jiuzhen', 1 time/day, 6 times/week. In addition to the therapy in control group, patients in observation group got modified Tongqiao Huoxuetang, 1 dose/day. And a course of treatment was 8 weeks. Before treatment and at the 4th week and 8th week after treatment, scores of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) were discussed. And activity of daily living scale (ADL), syndrome of blood stasis and cerebral collaterals were graded. And levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) before and after treatment, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), hemorheology were detected.Result:According to the rank sum test, the clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=1.976, P<0.05). At the 4th week and 8th week after treatment, score of MMSE and MoCA were higher than that in control group (P<0.05), and the extent of the rise were more than that in control group (P<0.05). And scores of ADL and syndrome of blood stasis and cerebral collaterals were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, DA and Ox-LDL were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), and level of SOD was higher than that in control group (P<0.01). Levels of whole blood viscosity (high-cut, low-cut), plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to the routine therapy of western medicine, modified Tongqiao Huoxuetang combined with 'Huiyangjiuzhen' can improve patients cognitive function and daily life ability, have effects in resisting inflammation and oxidation and ameliorating hemorheology, and can promote the recovery of cognitive function.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma on vascular senescence induced by high glucose in mice from adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase/mechanistic target of rapamycin (AMPK/mTOR) pathway.Method:A total of 130 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group and high glucose group. The high glucose group was intraperitoneally injected with streptozocin(STZ) and fed with a high-fat diet continuously for seven months. Mice were divided into 4 groups: model group, low-dose extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(0.819 g·kg-1) group, high-dose extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma group (1.638 g·kg-1) and metformin group (150 mg·kg-1), and intragastrically administered once a day for nine weeks. The changes in body weight and blood glucose were measured. At the end of the administration, htoxylin eosin(HE) was performed for the detection of aortic morphology, and the expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21), AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR, p-mTOR, liver kinase B1 (LKB1), p-LKB1, Ribosomal protein s6 kinase (p70s6k) and p-p70s6k proteins in mouse aorta were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with blank group, mice in model group had lower body weight and higher blood glucose (P<0.01). After 9 weeks of drug intervention, there was no significant difference in body weight among groups, and the blood glucose level was significantly lower than that in model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Model group showed a severe intima injury and hyperplasia, middle membrane was obviously proliferated and irregularly arranged. After drug intervention, the intimal damage of each group was not obvious, and the middle membrane was slightly proliferated. The protein expressions of p16, p21, mTOR, p-mTOR, p70s6k and p-p70s6k in model group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the protein expressions of AMPK, p-AMPK, LKB1 and p-LKB1 were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). After drug intervention, the protein expressions of p16, p21, mTOR, p-mTOR, p70s6k, p-p70s6k in each group were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the protein expressions of AMPK, p-AMPK, LKB1, p-LKB1 were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:High glucose can induce vascular senescence, and extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma can improve vascular aging induced by high glucose through AMPK/mTOR pathway.
Keywords：high glucose;vascular aging;extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma;AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK);mechanistic target of rapamycin(mTOR)
Abstract：Objective:To prepare Juglone-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (Jug-PLGA-NPs), and investigate their physicochemical properties, release characteristics in vitro and anti-tumor activities on A375 melanoma cells in vitro.Method:Jug-PLGA-NPs were prepared by emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Then the particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading rate and in vitro release characteristics were investigated. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the uptake of PLGA-NPs in vitro. The distribution of PLGA-NPs in BALB/c nude mice after tail vein injection was observed by the small living animal imaging system. Their inhibition effect on proliferation of A375 cells was detected by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis rate and cell cycle detection were performed by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to determine the protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclinD1.Result:The average particle size of the prepared Jug-PLGA-NPs was (149.6±21.5) nm, entrapment rate of (68.39±2.51)%, and drug-loading rate of (5.07±0.98)%, showing good sustained-release characteristics. PLGA-NPs showed good penetration and targeting properties in cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo imaging. Different concentrations of Jug-PLGA-NPs could significantly inhibit the proliferation and promote apoptosis of A375 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner (P<0.05), and its 48 h effect was superior to that of the same concentration of Jug. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of Akt phosphorylation level, down-regulation of cyclinD1 expression (P<0.05) and the cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05).Conclusion:The Jug-PLGA-NPs are easy to prepare and have good sustained-release characteristics, tumor targeting and anti-tumor ability, providing a new pharmaceutical dosage form for the future clinical application of Jug.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of licochalcone A (Lico A) on pulmonary fibrosis (PF).Method:Thirty mice were divided into five group, namely sham, model, Lico A (15, 30 mg·kg-1) and pirfenidone (300 mg·kg-1) groups. All of the groups except for sham group were intratracheally given bleomycin (BLM, 5 mg·kg-1). The sham group was given normal saline. On day 2, the mice were treated with Lico A and pirfenidone, respectively. On day 28, all of the mice were put to death. Then, lung tissues were collected and weighted. Pathological changes in lung tissue were measured by htoxylin eosin(HE) and Masson staining. The α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), Collagen I, fibronectin p-Smad2/3 and Smad2/3 were analyzed by Western blot. Then, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced MRC-5 cells were employed for evaluating the inhibitory activity of Lico A in vitro.Result:Compared with normal group, several pathological changes, including alveolar space collapse, emphysema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and collagen deposition were observed in the BLM-treated mice, and these pathological changes were markedly attenuated by subsequent treatment with Lico A. Lico A could significantly inhibit BLM-induced up-regulation of α-SMA and Collagen I and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in lung tissues of mice(P<0.05, P<0.01). In addition, Lico A could significantly suppressed TGF-β-induced α-SMA and fibronectin expression in MRC-5 cells(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:The preliminary mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis effect of Lico A may inhibit TGF-β/Smad pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To study the inhibitory effect of the medicine group of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis (PBCRS) on breast cancer induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in rats, and screen out and verify key genes based on RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) technology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).Method:Totally 96 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into blank group, DMBA model control group, tamoxifen (TAM) group (1.9 mg·kg-1·d-1), high-dose, middle-dose and low-dose PBCRS groups (12.96, 6.48, 3.24 g·kg-1·d-1). One week after drug intervention, except for the blank group, the DMBA was used to induce the rat model of breast cancer (with an interval of a week, irrigation for two times at the dose of 100 mg·kg-1). After 10 weeks, the changes in tumor weight and tumor volume were observed. The total RNA was extracted by total RNA extraction kit, and three RNA samples were collected from the DMBA model control group and the middle-dose PBCRS group for genetic testing. Based on RNA-seq, key differential genes were screened out and verified by Real-time PCR.Result:Comparing with the DMBA model control group, the tumor volume and tumor weight in middle-dose PBCRS group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Although the tumor weight and tumor volume in high and low-dose PBCRS groups were decreased, there was no statistically significant difference. Based on RNA-seq technology and IPA analysis software, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase1 (FBP1), purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4), myoglobin (MB) key genes were screened out. Compared with the DMBA model control group, the mRNA expressions of FBP1 in the high and middle-dose PBCRS groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). Although the mRNA expressions of PCP4 in the high, middle and low-dose PBCRS groups were increased, there was no statistical significance. The mRNA expression of MB in the low-dose group was decreased, but there was no statistical significance.Conclusion:PBCRS may inhibit the occurrence of breast cancer by interfering with the expression of FBP1 in breast cancer tissue.
Keywords：breast cancer;RNA-Seq;promoting blood circulation and removing stasis;fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase1(FBP1);purkinje cell protein 4(PCP4);myoglobin(MB)
Abstract：Objective:To research the effect of traditional Chinese medicine compound Chaijie Yiganxian (CJYGX) on the hepatic fibrosis in rats and explore the mechanism.Method:Totally 60 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive group (Biejia Jianwan), and low, medium and high-dose CJYGX groups. Except for the normal group, the remaining five groups were involved in establishing the hepatic fibrosis model through the intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA). Fourth weeks after modeling, the positive group was given Biejiajian pill (1 g·kg-1·d-1), and high, medium and low-dose CJYGX groups were given CJYGX(7.96, 3.98, 1.99 g·kg-1·d-1), respectively. The model group was given normal saline once a day for 5 weeks. 24 h after the last intragastric administration with chloral hydrate, the rats were anesthetized slightly. Serum and liver tissues were collected. The liver wet weight was weighed electronically, and the liver index was calculated. Liver function indexes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] and serum markers [laminin (LN), hyaluronidase (HA), Ⅳ collagen (CⅣ), procollagen Ⅲ (PCⅢ)] of hepatic fibrosis were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The degree of hepatic fibrosis by Masson stain, mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), and protein expression levels of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were detected by immunohistochemical or Western blot.Result:Compared with the blank group, the model group liver index was significantly increased; the contents of ALP, AST and ALT were significantly increased; the liver fibrosis indexes LN, HA, Ⅳ-C, PCⅢ and HYP were significantly increased; the degree of liver fibrosis was significantly increased in Masson tissue; the mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4 were significantly increased; and the Smad7 mRNA expression was significantly decreased. The protein expressions of TGF-β1, PDGF and α-SMA increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with model group, different doses of CJYGX can reduce the concentrations of ALP, AST, ALT, and the hepatic fibrosis indexes (LN and HA, Ⅳ-C, PCⅢ) and HYP also were significantly lower. Masson staining show that CJYGX can significantly reduce the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Real-time PCR show that CJYGX can significantly down-regulate mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4 and up-regulate mRNA expression of Smad7.Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis show that, compared with model group, CJYGX could significantly reduce the protein expressions of TGF-β1, PDGF and α-SMA (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Traditional Chinese medicine compound CJYGX may protect TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis injury by interfering with TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the expression changes of mitogen activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway-related genes in ApoE-/- mice and the intervention effect of Huayu Qutan recipe on them, in order to explore the anti-atherosclerotic(AS) effect and possible mechanism of Huayu Qutan recipe.Method:Fifty ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into model group, tanshinone IIA group (30 mg·kg-1·d-1), and high-dose phlegm group (20 g·kg-1·d-1), the middle-dose group (10 g·kg-1·d-1), and the low-dose group (5 g·kg-1·d-1), and 10 C57BL/6/J mice were included in the blank controls group. Automated biochemical analyzer was used to detect serum triglyceride(TG), cholesterol(TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) content; hematoxylin-eosin(HE) was used to detect aortic plaque in each group; oil red O was used to detect liver lipid deposition in each group; enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine vascular cell adhesion protein-1(VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in serum of each group; Western blot was performed to detect c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase(p-JNK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), and expression of p-ERK.Result:Compared with the blank control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels in the model group were significantly increased, while HDL-C levels were significantly decreased; aortic plaques were observed in the aortic lumen, and lots of lipid deposition were observed in the liver cells. Serum inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 increased(P<0.05); and intravascular associated MAPK signaling pathway p-p38 MAPK, p-JNK gene expressions increased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with the model group, TC, TG, LDL-C in the tanshinone IIA group and the phlegm group were significantly decreased, HDL-C was significantly increased, and atherosclerotic plaque area and liver lipid were remarkably reduced in the aortic lumen. The deposition amount was significantly reduced, and the levels of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were decreased. The expressions of p-p38 MAPK and p-JNK genes in intravascular associated MAPK signaling pathway were significantly decreased. p-ERK expression trend was not obvious(P<0.05).Conclusion:Huayu Recipe can inhibit the formation of aortic plaque in ApoE-/- mice, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of vascular MAPK signaling pathway gene expression.
Abstract：Objective:To explore effect of modified Guifu Dihuang Wan (Wenshen Huoxue Fang) on life quality in patients with coronary hear disease (CHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and evaluate the safety of its clinical use.Method:The 147 postoperative patients with PCI in Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital cardiology outpatient and the inpatient departments between June 2017 to May 2018 were selected and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group by random even and odd number. The patients in control group took the basic treatment (western medicine), and the patients in the treatment group additionally received modified Guifu Dihuang Wan based on the treatment in control group, with a course of 4 weeks in both groups. Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) total score, 6 minutes walk test (6 mWT), Seattle Angina Scale (SAQ) score, and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome score were recorded and compared between two groups before and after treatment; their cardiac function was evaluated and adverse reactions were observed to assess the drug safety and quality of life after PCI.Result:The MLHFQ scores in treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment and those in control groups after treatment (P<0.01); 6 mWT walking distance was significantly increased (P<0.01); SAQ scores were improved significantly (P<0.01); TCM syndrome score was reduced significantly (P<0.01); left ventricular ejective fraction (LVEF) and late diastolic/late diastolic maximal blood flow velocity (E/A) in treatment group were also improved after treatment (P<0.05).Conclusion:On the basis of conventional western medicine therapy, the modified Guifu Dihuang Wan can effectively improve the physical strength, mood, TCM symptoms, relieve angina pectoris, and enhance cardiac function with no adverse reactions in PCI postoperative patients. It can achieve the purpose of improving quality of life in postoperative patients, worthy of promotion.
Keywords：modified Guifu Dihuang Wan;percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI);quality of life;safety
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the effect of Dazhu Hongjingtian capsule to unstable carotid plaque (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome), and its mechanisms in resisting oxidation, inflammation and thrombosis.Method:One hundred and twenty-three patients were randomly divided into control group (61 cases) and observation group (62 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 0.1 g/time, 1 time/day, and rosuvastatin calcium capsules, 10 mg/time, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given Dazhu Hongjingtian capsule, 4 grains/days, 3 times/days. And the outpatient follow-up was made once every 2 weeks for continued 16 weeks. Intima-media wall thickness (IMT), and number and size of plaque were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. And levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), homocysteine (Hcy), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), platelet alpha granular membrane protein (GMP-140), P-selectin on surface of platelets (CD62 p), lysosome glycoprotein (CD63), and vascular pseudotumor factor (VWF) were detected. Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome were graded.Result:After treatment, IMT in observation group was thinner than that in control group, number of plaque was less than that in control group, and size of plaque was smaller than those in control group (P<0.01). After treatment, levels of LDL-C, hs-CRP, Hcy, MMP-2, MMP-9, MDA, GMP-140, vWF, CD62 p and CD63 were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), whereas levels of HDL-C and TIMP-2 were higher than those in control group (P<0.01). And scores of Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to the treatment for resisting platelet and regulating blood lipid, Dazhu Hongjingtian capsule can lessen and reduce arterial speckle regulate lipid metabolism, ameliorate symptoms of traditional Chinese medical (TCM) syndrome, with effects in resisting oxidation, inflammation and thrombotic formation.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the removal effect of 5 kinds of common flocculants on 6 kinds of toxic alkaloids in processing wastewater of Aconiti Radix.Method:HPLC was employed to determine contents of 6 kinds of alkaloids in the processing wastewater of Aconiti Radix before and after flocculation.The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran(25∶15)-0.1 mol·L-1 ammonium acetate solution(each 1 L contains 0.5 mL of glacial acetic acid) for gradient elution, volume flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, detection wavelength was 235 nm.The removal characteristics and effects of five common flocculants of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate, polymeric ferric sulfate, polyaluminum chloride/polyacrylamide(PAC/PAM) and sodium polyacrylate were compared and preliminarily optimized.Result:The 5 kinds of flocculants had certain selectivity for different types of alkaloids, and the removal of 6 kinds of alkaloids showed obvious differences.Among them, the PAC/PAM attenuated relative superiority, when the pH 6, adding amount of 0.25 g·L-1 and PAC-PAM dosing ratio of 30∶1, comprehensive removal effect was relatively good, removal rates of mesaconitine and hypaconitine was 85.4%and 58.3%, respectively.Conclusion:The flocculation method can be used as a pretreatment process to reduce the toxicity of processing wastewater of Aconiti Radix.
Keywords：Aconiti Radix;processing wastewater;flocculants;alkaloids;biotoxicity;chemical oxygen demand;orthogonal test
Abstract：Objective:To analyze the dynamic changes of components in the enzymolysis process of raw products of Raphani Semen.Method:HPLC was employed to analysis of characteristic spectra of Raphani Semen at different enzymolysis time with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution for gradient elution and detection wavelength at 225 nm.The characteristic peaks were calibrated, meanwhile, the UV spectra of characterstic peaks were extracted, and the difference between UV spectra and the changes of peak areas were compared, and the dynamic changes of characterstic components in Raphani Semen were analyzed.Result:Eleven characteristic peaks were marked from the characteric spectra of raw products of Raphani Semen at different enzymolysis time, and glucoraphenin and sinapine thiocyanate were assigned.Glucoraphenin was enzymatically hydrolyzed fastly by myrosinase, and an intermediate was generated, and then continue to be decomposed into other components.Sinapine thiocyanate did not change significantly during the enzymolysis process, and sinadiosides was also enzymatically degraded.Conclusion:The enzymolysis of Raphani Semen is not only the glucoraphenin, but also the sinadiosides.This paper can provide reference for the property change of Raphani Semen in processing.
Abstract：Objective:With Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin as the main film-forming materials, Erhuangsan was developed into a sustained-release double-layer membrane for vagina.Method:Taking hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HPMC) and Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin as the film-forming materials of Coptidis Rhizoma-Alumen membrane layer, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC-Na) and Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin as the film-forming materials of Catechu membrane layer, glycerol as plasticizer, Erhuangsan Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin sustained release double-layer membrane was prepared.Central composite design-response surface methodology was used to optimize formulation of this preparation with appearance quality score, adhesion force and in vitro cumulative release as indexes.Result:Optimum formulation of Catechu membrane layer was 1.61% of CMC-Na, 3.81% of Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin and 8.49% of glycerol; optimum formulation of Coptidis Rhizoma-Alumen membrane layer was 1.15% of HPMC, 3.41% of Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin and 10.02% of glycerol.Conclusion:The optimized formulation is stable and feasible.Erhuangsan Bletillae Rhizoma gelatin sustained release double-layer membrane has characteristics of advanced dosage form and convenient use, providing a feasible modern Chinese medicine preparation for treatment of cervical cancer, and accumulating data for the research of Chinese medicine film agent.
Abstract：Objective:To systemically investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Viola yedoensis, and to compare the VOCs differences of V. yedoensis obtained by the needle trap, static headspace and hydrostillation methods.Method:The needle trap, static headspace and hydrostillation methods coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) were developed for isolation and identification of the VOCs in V. yedoensis. The relative content of each component was obtained by peak area normalization with a triple-bed needle packed with Tenax, Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000 sorbents.Result:The 112 compounds were trapped by using needle trap, mainly moderate volatile components, including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenoids and aromatic compounds. The static headspace and hydrodistillation methods were allowed to obtain 37 (mainly the high-volatile components) and 78 compounds (mainly low-volatile components), respectively. Only 13 common volatile components were detected in all these three methods.Conclusion:The results clearly demonstrated that the needle trap method is an alternative method for sampling VOCs of herbs, characterized by fast analysis, simple operation, good enrichment effect and high sensitivity.These three methods for VOCs analysis are complementary for each other.
Abstract：Objective:To establish HPLC specific chromatograms of Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix(PTR), and make a distinction about their species and different habitats of PLR by chemical pattern recognition, provide reliable methods for scientific evaluation and effective control of their quality.Method:HPLC was employed to determine the contents of chemical ingredients in 23 batches of PLR and PTR.The similarity analyzed with "Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Materia Medica" (version of 2004A), then a common pattern was established.Based on its chemical fingerprint information, the quality of PLR and PTR was comprehensively analyzed by three kinds of chemical pattern recognition methods.Result:In addition to sample S22(from Shaanxi province), the similarities of 23 batches of samples were more than 0.9, which showed that similarity of PLR and PTR was good, this method can not differentiate them.Principal component analysis(PCA) could only identify PLR and PTR, but partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) could distinguish PLR from PTR and the producing areas of PLR with model interpretation of 96.4% and prediction of 74.6%.The result of hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) was consistent with PLS-DA.Conclusion:Chemical pattern recognition method can make a distinction between PLR and PTR, as well as different habitats of PLR; it is suitable for quality control of their medicinal materials.
Abstract：Objective:Phellodendri Cortex, one of the "three wood medicine materials" , is a Chinese traditional medicinal material and also a national second-class protected plant in China. Its is considered as excellent trees for the Natural Forest Conservation Program and the Grain-to-Green Program because of its high economic value and ecological value. The Phellodendron Cortex is divided into Phellodendron chinense and P. amurense according to species and origins. The global potential suitable areas predicted by Global Geographic Information System for Medicinal Plant (GMPGIS) can provide data for us to decide which specie can be selected in different areas.Method:Sample ecological information was collected from global genuine areas, main producing areas and wild distribution areas, and a total of 364 sampling sites of P. chinense and 247 sampling sites of P. amurense were used by GMPGIS to analyze the suitable growth areas in the world.Result:A clear geographical line existed between P. chinense and P. amurense. P. chinense was mainly distributed in tropical monsoon climate and had the most suitable areas in Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania, including 65 countries and regions such as China, the United States, France, Brazil, Japan, Italy and New Zealand. P. amurense was mainly distributed in temperate monsoon climate and had the most suitable areas in Asia, Europe, and North America, including 30 countries and regions such as the United States, China, Russia and Canada..Conclusion:The results of GMPGIS can provide scientific data for selecting correct species and cultivation areas for Phellodendris Cortex in future.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Morindae Officinalis Radixe extract from different origins on the vascular growth of damaged internodes of zebra fish, so as to discuss regional differences of Morindae Officinalis Radix from different origins.Method:A zebra fish model of internode vascular injury induced by PTK787 was established to study the effect of Morindae Officinalis Radix extract from Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian on the growth of internode vascular in zebra fish, and detect the number of internode angiogenesis in zebra fish treated with PTK787.On the basis of principal component analysis, relative angiogenesis rate was taken as the index, and the experimental data was analyzed by SPSS 17.0 statistical software.Result:The extract of Morindae Officinalis Radix had a repairing effect on the growth of damaged internode blood vessels of zebra fish, and the extracts of Morindae Officinalis Radix from Guangdong Gaoyao, and Guangdong Yunan, were better than those from other producing areas. The average number of internode angiogenesis was 9, the average length of angiogenesis was 448-504 μm, and the relative rate of angiogenesis was between 7.9% and 8.86%. The results of cluster analysis showed that Morindae Officinalis Radix of 12 different origins were classified into four categories, Guangdong Deqing, and Guangdong Gaoyao, Guangxi Cangwu and Guangxi Cenxi, and Guangdong Yunan, and Guangxi Cangwu could be better clustered.Conclusion:There are obvious regional differences in the pro-angiogenic effect of Morindae Officinalis Radix from different origins. Relevant studies provide basic data for the quality assessment of Morindae Officinalis Radix medicinal materials.
Keywords：different habitats;Morindae Officinalis Radix;angiogenesis;zebra fish
Abstract：Objective:To study the correlation between UPLC fingerprint of anti-inflammatory effect of active components from nonvolatile fraction of Blumea balsamifera, and to provide the basis for clarifying the anti-inflammatory material basis of B. balsamifera.Method:UPLC was used to establish fingerprint of nonvolatile fraction of 12 batches of B. balsamifera and their common fingerprint peaks were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.The corresponding pharmacodynamic data were obtained by auricle swelling and inflammation model mice induced by xylene, and spectrum-effect relationship was established by gray correlation analysis.Result:A total of 14 common peaks in nonvolatile fraction of B. balsamifera were established by UPLC fingerprint and 9 common peaks of them were identified.The correlation between UPLC fingerprint and the anti-inflammatory activity was from 0.717 1 to 0.550 5.The contribution of chemical compositions represented by each characteristic peak to the anti-inflammatory efficacy was in the order of peak 3>peak 9>peak 4>peak 11>peak 2>peak 1>peak 14>peak 7>peak 6>peak 5>peak 12>peak 8>peak 10>peak 13, and the top two peaks with strong contribution to anti-inflammatory effect were peak 3 and peak 9, they were 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid identified by contrast reference substances, respectively.Conclusion:The active substances in nonvolatile fraction of B. balsamifera are obtained through the study on the relationship between spectrum and efficiency, and the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the nonvolatile fraction is the result of combination of various components.It is clear that the caffeoylquinic acid derivates act as predominant anti-inflammatory active substance of nonvolatile fraction of B. balsamifera.
Keywords：Blumea balsamifera;caffeoylquinic acid derivates;anti-inflammation;gray correlation analysis;spectrum-effect relationship;fingerprint;n-butanol site
Abstract：Objective:To identify the chemical compositions and conduct relative content analysis of the essential oil from wild Doellingeria scaber in high altitude area of Dabie mountains, and investigate its antioxidant capacity.Method:The volatile oil of D. scaber was extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) method. Its chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS), and the relative percentage content of each composition was determined by peak area normalization method. The antioxidant activities of the oil were evaluated by reducing ability method, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching assay.Result:A total of 50 components representing 86.91% in this plant were identified. The main chemical compositions were (E)-β-farnesene(20.21%), germacrene D(9.94%), hexadecanoic acid(8.66%), β-terpinene(7.82%), caryophyllene(6.9%) and p-cymen-8-ol(4.48%). The main components of volatile oils include alkenes (56.57%), alcohols (12.24%), fatty acids (11.24%), epoxides(2.93%), esters(1.82%), aldehydes and ketones (1.60%), and aromatics (0.51%). The reduction ability of volatile oil to iron ions increases with the increase of concentration, but the reduction ability is far weaker than that of vitamin C. The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) of volatile oil on DPPH free radicals and in β-carotene/linoleic acid lipid system was 0.72 g·L-1 and 0.10 g·L-1, respectively, indicating that the volatile oil had a certain scavenging capacity on DPPH free radicals and a good inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation.Conclusion:GC-MS was used to identify the chemical compositions of the volatile oil from D. scaber, and antioxidant test in vitro showed that D. scaber had certain antioxidant capacity, providing experimental basis for its development and utilization.
Abstract：Objective:To determine the content of index components in different parts of Gardenia jasminoides (pericarp, seeds, whiskers), study the fingerprint, and compare the contents and compositions differences of different parts of G. jasminoides, in order to provide the theoretical basis for different efficacies of G. jasminoides pericarp and seeds, explore the exploitation and utilization values of G. jasminoides whiskers, and avoid waste of gardenia medicinal resources.Method:The contents of geniposide and crocetin Ⅰ was were determined by HPLC, the content of total iridoid glycosides was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and three index components in different parts of G. jasminoides were analyzed. HPLC fingerprints of different parts of G. jasminoides were collected, the common pattern of HPLC fingerprints of different parts of G. jasminoides of different origins and with different processing methods was established, and the similarity evaluation software was used for data analysis; comparative analysis on fingerprints of different parts of G. jasminoides was conducted.Result:Content change of index components in G. jasminoides pericarp and seeds from Henan, Fujian and Jiangxi were the same. Content of geniposide: Fujian>Henan>Jiangxi, the contents of three components in G. jasminoides pericarp from Fujian were much higher than those from Henan and Jiangxi, the contents of crocetin Ⅰ and total iridoid glycosides: Fujian>Jiangxi>Henan, the contents of total iridoid glycosides from Fujian, Jiangxi were much higher than those from Henan. The order of three index components in G. jasminoides whiskers from different origins from high to low, the content of geniposide and crocetin Ⅰ was Fujian>Jiangxi and Henan, the content of total iridoid glycosides was Fujian>Jiangxi>Henan.In the same part, there were 22 common peaks in the fingerprints of G. jasminoides pericarp, except for S13-S15, the similarity of other samples were more than 0.9; the fingerprints of G. jasminoides seeds had 22 common peaks, except for S22-S30, the similarities of other samples were more than 0.9; the fingerprints of G. jasminoides whiskers had 16 common peaks, except for S7-S9, the similarities of other samples were more than 0.9.In different parts, the fingerprints of G. jasminoides whiskers were significant different from those of pericarp and seeds, the number of peaks in G. jasminoides whiskers reduced, the order of height of peaks 2, 3, 5 of G. jasminoides from high to low were whiskers>gardenia> seeds. There was not peak X in the seeds, the height of peak X of gardenia in whiskers was higher than that in pericarp, except for the peak 17, the height of all peaks in seeds were higher than that in whiskers.Conclusion:There are significant differences in the contents of index components in G. jasminoides pericarp and seeds. The content of total glycosides in gardenia is high, suggesting that it can be used to extract total iridoid glycosides. The fingerprints can reflect the content difference and species distribution of different parts of G. jasminoides, so as to provide theoretical support for the studies for pharmacodynamic material basis of G. jasminoides and the scientificity and rationality of the separate application of G. jasminoides pericarp and seeds.
Keywords：pericarp of Gardenia jasminoides;seeds of Gardenia jasminoides;whiskers of Gardenia jasminoides;content determination;fingerprint
Abstract：Objective:To establish a method for determining arabinose, mannose, fructopyranose and amylaceum in Shenxiong glucose injection by UPLC-MS/MS, so as to provide the basis for the scientific evaluation of the quality of Shenxiong glucose injection, and lay a foundation for the safe use of drugs in clinic.Method:Domestic GDX-403 solid-phase extraction column was used to purify Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH Xbridge Amide column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm)at the column temperature of 35 ℃, and the mobile phase was 0.1%ammonia, 0.1%acetonitrile-0.1%ammonia water and water 85∶15. The contents of arabinose, mannose, fructose and glucose in Shenxiong glucose injection were determined by UPLC-MS/MS with a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min-1.Result:A method was established to determine arabinose, mannose, fructopyranose and amylaceum in Shenxiong glucose injection. The concentration range of arabinose, mannose, fructopyranose and amylaceum showed a good linear relationship with the peak area, with a good repeatability and precision. Recoveries were 98.43%, 102.13%, 100.72%, 101.75%, and RSD were 2.4%, 1.3%, 3.1%, 2.7%. Arabinose and mannose content were stable in five batches of Shenxiong glucose injection.Conclusion:The method is simple and specific. Compared with the determination of total sugar, the method is more scientific and stable, and can be used for the quality control of Shenxiong glucose injection.
Abstract：Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, a traditional Chinese medicine with dual-purpose of drug and food, has a long history of cultivation and application, showing high medicinal, dietetic, ornamental and economic values. Many modern researches have been conducted on the extraction technology, chemical constituents, quality standards and biological activities, but the herbal textual researches were relatively insufficient. The related records of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the ancient Chinese medicinal classics were ambiguous and confusing. By referring to ancient Chinese medicinal classics and modern books, the textual researches of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, including the names, plant morphology, origin, medicinal properties, efficiency and application were systematically reviewed and analyzed in this paper, in order to provide the basis for the confirmation of original source of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. The results showed that Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was usually recorded as 'Xiangyuan’'Juyuan’'Ganyuan’'Xiangyuan’'Foshougan’ etc. in ancient books. After the Ming and Qing dynasties, it became clear that 'Xiangyuan’ was equivalent to 'Juyuan’, but different from 'Foshougan’. Therefore, these two species were recorded separately. From the ancient times to the present day, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was always mainly distributed in south of the Yangtze River, such as Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi provinces. Ancient records and modern reports basically have the same understanding on properties, efficacies and indications of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, considering it was warm in nature with the effectiveness of soothing liver, relieving pain, eliminating dampness and resolving phlegm. 'Baking it into powder on new tiles’and 'steaming’ were the traditional processing methods. The description of 'The longer of storage period, the better of the effect’ was occasionally recorded. These results provide theoretical references for the further study, resource development and comprehensive application of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus.
Keywords：Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus;Citrus medica;name;original plant;efficiency;herbal textual research
Abstract：There are 486 kinds of health food with Puerariae Lobatae Radix as the main raw material, mainly including health food for protecting liver, health food for regulating blood lipid, health food for adjusting blood pressure, health food for regulating blood sugar, and health food for regulating immunity.Based on the establishment of a health food recipe database with Puerariae Lobatae Radix as the main raw material, the Apriori algorithm in association rules was used to explore the formula rule of health food of Puerariae Lobatae Radix.The results showed that among the 174 kinds of hepatoprotective health food, the most used raw materials were Noveniae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus; the common combinations of three raw materials were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Gardeniae Fructus-Paeoniae Radix Alba, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Gynostemmatis Pentaphylli Herba-Cassiae Semen, etc.Among the 91 kinds of health food for regulating blood lipid, the most widely used raw materials were Cassiae Semen and Gynostemmatis Pentaphylli Herba; the common combinations of three raw materials were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Cassiae Semen-Chrysanthemi Flos, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Alismatis Rhizoma-Mori Folium, etc.Among the 41 kinds of health food for regulating blood pressure, the most widely used raw materials were Eucommiae Cortex and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma; the common combinations of the three raw materials were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Cassiae Semen-Ostreae Concha, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Sophorae Flos, etc.Among the 105 kinds of health food for regulating blood sugar, the most widely used raw materials were Dioscoreae Rhizoma and Astragali Radix; the common combinations of three raw materials were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Lycii Cortex, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Dioscoreae Rhizoma-Poria, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Dioscoreae Rhizoma-Lycii Cortex, etc.Among the 75 kinds of health food for regulating immunity, the most widely used raw materials were Astragali Radix and Lycii Fructus; the common combinations of three raw materials were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Gastrodiae Rhizoma-Eucommiae Cortex, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Mori Fructus-Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Panacis Quinquefolii Radix-Crataegi Fructus, etc.
Abstract：Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionary conservative serine/threonine protein kinase. Its biological function is mainly to participate in cell proliferation, growth and differentiation, so as to regulate the body's metabolic process. Many domestic and foreign studies have shown that mTOR is the junction of apoptosis and autophagy signal transduction pathways. Various stimuli, such as nutrition, drugs and oxidative stress, may play a key regulatory role in cell apoptosis and autophagy through mTOR-mediated signaling pathways. At present, many studies have shown that the change in mTOR signaling pathways is closely related to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, such as cancer, metabolic disorders(obesity and type 2 diabetes), cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, age-related diseases and disorders of follicular. In recent years, more and more doctors have studied the regulatory effect of traditional Chinese medicine on apoptosis and autophagy, with the pathways as the starting point and cell apoptosis and autophagy as the research carriers. These studies include experimental studies on the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy by monomers of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese patent medicine, compound prescription of TCM, acupuncture and other drugs and physiotherapy. Starting from the mTOR signaling pathways, this paper discusses the relationship between mTOR, apoptosis and autophagy, and reviews the recent progress of TCM in regulating apoptosis and autophagy through mTOR pathways, so as to provide ideas and references for further studies in this field. In the future, TCM doctors can still explore the time-effect relationship between apoptosis and autophagy based on mTOR signaling pathways under the guidance of the basic theory of Chinese medicine, in order to provide theoretical support and targets for the action mechanism of TCM on bodies.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR);apoptosis;autophagy
Abstract：Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine with a long history. It has the functions of detoxification, heat dissipation and heat dissipation, with a high medicinal value. It is mainly distributed in Henan, Shandong, Guangdong and other places. Researches have shown that the chemical constituents of honeysuckle mainly include organic acids, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, three terpenoid glycosides, three terpenoid glycosides and volatile oils. And the pharmacological effects of honeysuckle are mainly anti-inflammation and antipyretic, anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, anti-virus, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, lowering blood sugar, protecting liver, protecting lung, neuroprotective, enhancing immune function and anti-platelet aggregation. Because of its rich pharmacological effects and high medicinal value, it has been used in a variety of prescriptions, with wide clinical applications and its large social demands. In this paper, we have reviewed the literatures on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of honeysuckle in recent years, and learned that many scholars have studied it, isolated a variety of new chemical components from honeysuckle for the first time and studied the pharmacological effects of honeysuckle in detail. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, providing references for more people to learn related knowledge of honeysuckle and a scientific basis for the development and utilization of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.