Abstract：Objective:To observe the changes of behavior and mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease(AD) rats, and to explore the mechanism of Sijunzi Tang in the treatment of AD rats′ behavior and the changes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in hippocampal neurons.Method:The 60 male SPF grade rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, low, medium and high dose group of Sijunzi Tang(3.24, 6.48, 12.56 g·kg-1), and dihydroergot group (0.27 mg·kg-1), 10 rats in each group. The normal group received no intervention and had a normal diet. The rest of the rats were injected with D-galactose to the abdomen at a dose of 200 mg·kg-1 once a day for 6 weeks. Morris water maze experiment was used to detect the cognitive function of rats. Tm-Vision behavioral experiment system was used to observe the behavioral changes of rats, and the hippocampal neuronal line structure was observed by transmission electron microscope. Mitochondrial complex colorimetry was adopted to detect rats CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ, CⅣ activity.Western blot was used to detect the expression of mitochondrial adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK) protein in the hippocampus.Result:Compared with normal group, model group rats latent escape period time increasing, through fewer, movement distance, movement time increasing, center residence time increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), mitochondria CⅡ, CⅢ, CⅣ activity decline (P<0.05, P<0.01), The AMPK protein expression increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with model group, Sijunzi Tang medium and high dose group and dihydroergot decoction group showed decreased latency, increased crossing times, decreased exercise distance, decreased exercise time, and decreased center residence time (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with model group C Ⅱ, mitochondrial complex CⅣ activity increases, AMPK protein expression lowered (P<0.05, P<0.01), Sijunzi Tang high dose group of mitochondrial complex C Ⅱ, C Ⅲ activity increased significantly, AMPK protein expression significantly lowered (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:The abnormal behavior of AD rats may be related to the decrease of central hippocampal energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Sijunzi Tang has therapeutic effect.
Keywords：Alzheimer's disease;behavior;hippocampus;mitochondria;monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK);Sijunzi Tang
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Shaoyaotang on mRNA and protein expressions of colon tissue activated protein-1 (AP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of hot and humid-type intrinsic ulcerative colitis (UC) model in rats, in order to explore the mechanism of action of herbaceous peony decoction in the treatment of UC.Method:Totally 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, SASP group, and low, medium and high-dose Shaoyaotang groups. The damp-heat intrinsic UC rat model was replicated based on integrated disease and syndrome, namely, high-fat and high-sugar spicy food and immune complex method combined with 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfolnic acid (TNBS) and ethanol complex method. After the successful modeling, low, medium and high-dose Shaoyaotang (6, 12, 24 g·kg-1) was given by gavage, and 1 g·kg-1 dose of salazol sulfadiazine was given to by gavage. The blank group was given constant volume normal saline for 21 d. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) was used to detect mRNA expressions of AP-1 and TNF-α in colon tissues, and Western blot was used to detect protein expressions of AP-1 and TNF-α in colon tissues.Result:Compared with the blank group, relative mRNA and protein expressions of AP-1, TNF-α in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, mRNA and protein expressions of AP-1, TNF-α in the treatment groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion:Shaoyaotang can inhibit the expression of TNF-α and stimulate AP-1 protein expression in rats with damp-heat UC.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the protective effect of Danggui Buxue Tang(DGBX)with Angelicae Sinensis Radix(AS) and Astragali Radix(AR)at different radios on impaired functional activity of endothelial cells(ECs)exposed to low-fluid shear stress (FSS).Method:Low FSS was loaded by a parallel plate flow chamber, and ECs were divided into normal FSS group, low FSS group(each preincubated with M199 medium for 2 h), simvastatin group(preincubated with 0.1 μmol·L-1 simvastatin for 2 h), and 3 DGBX groups(preincubated with 3 g·L-1 AS and AR at 1∶1, 1∶3, 1∶5 for 2 h, respectively). Then, the normal group was exposed to 1.2 Pa FSS, while the rest groups were all exposed to low FSS. At time points of 30, 60, 360 min, the proliferation was detected by methyl thiazoly tetrazolium(MTT), the secretion of nitric oxide(NO) was detected by nitrase reduction test, and the mRNA and protein expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) were detected by Real-time fluorescence guantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) and Western blot, respectively.Result:Compared with the normal group, the secretion of NO and the expression of eNOS in ECs were both increased significantly at 60 min (P<0.01), then decreased at 360 min. Compared with the model group, there was no significant change in proliferation in DGBX groups, but DGBX could promote the NO secretion and the expression of eNOS in ECs exposed to low FSS at 360 min respectively, whereas the function of DGBX(AS and AR at 1∶3, 1∶5)was obviously observed.Conclusion:DGBX could protect the functional activity of ECs exposed to low FSS.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of dodder total flavone on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat models induced by letrozole.Method:Except the blank group, the other rats were given letrozole 1 mg·kg-1 for 21 consecutive days to replicate PCOS animal model. On the 16th day of the modeling, the estrous cycle was detected by vaginal smear, and rat with persistent keratinization of vaginal epithelial cells were selected as the PCOS model rat. The model rats were randomly divided into model group, Dacin-35 group, and high, middle, low-dose dodder total flavonoids groups. The corresponding drugs were given for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the administration, materials were collected to calculate ovary index, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure estrogen (E2), testosterone (T), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of serum. The right ovary of rats was stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE), and the pathological changes were observed by optical microscope. Androgen receptor(AR) expressions in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary were detected by mmunohistochemistry.Result:Compared with the blank group, serum T, GnRH and LH levels, ovarian index and LH/FSH ratio were significantly increased, while FSH and E2 levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Ovarian tissue follicular atresia increased, and the cell layers of follicular membrane were thickened significantly. AR expressions in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovarian tissues were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, serum E2, T, GnRH and LH levels, ovarian index and LH/FSH ratio were significantly decreased in high, middle and low-dose dodder total flavonoids groups (P<0.01); Serum E2 level was significantly increased (P<0.01), and FSH level was obviously increased (P<0.05) in high and middle-dose dodder total flavonoids group. Serum E2 level in PCOS model rats was obviously increased in low-dose dodder total flavonoids group (P<0.05). The pathological changes of ovarian tissue of cortical thickening and collagenization, atresia follicle increase and corpus luteum decrease of PCOS model rats were alleviated to different degrees in high, middle and low-dose dodder total flavonoids groups. Immunohistochemical results showed that high, middle and low-dose dodder total flavonoids groups could significantly reduce AR expressions in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary (P<0.01).Conclusion:Dodder total flavonoids may play a protective role in PCOS model rats by regulating the secretion of estrogen and androgen and affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis pathway.
Keywords：polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS);dodder total flavone;hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis;pathological changes
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the effect of Juantong decoction on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin(PI3K/Akt/mTOR)signaling pathway proteins in rats with endometriosis (EMS).Method:The EMS Rat model was established by autologous endometrial transplantation. And 48 rats were randomly divided into 6 group, namely the sham operation group, the model group, the low-dose Juantong decoction group, the middle-dose Juantong decoction group, high-dose Juantong decoction group, and the PI3K pathway blocker group (LY294002). Then, the high-dose Juantong decoction group, the middle-dose Juantong decoction group and the low-dose Juantong decoction group were given different doses (42.9, 14.3, 4.8 g·kg-1). The pathway blocker group (LY294002) was given LY294002 (0.04 g·kg-1) through peritoneal injection weekly. The sham operation group and the model group were given saline irrigation (10 mL·kg-1). The administration lasted for 28 days. At last, the ectopic endometrial tissues in rats were observed by transmission electron microscope, the proteins of PI3K, Akt and mTOR in the tissue were detected by immunohistochemical method, and the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) mRNA expression of ectopic endometrial tissue was tested by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) method.Result:Compared with the normal group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt and mTOR and the mRNA expression of p70S6K of ectopic endometrium in the model group increased significantly (P<0.05). And compared with the model group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt and mTOR and the mRNA expression of p70S6K decreased significantly after the intervention with middle and high doses of Juantong decoction and Western medicine Group (P<0.05). Under the lens, the glandular epithelial cells in middle and high-dose Juantong decoction and western medicine groups were atrophy or untidy, the microvilli decreased or disappeared, the cell nuclei were shrunk, the mitochondria were visible, and there were apoptotic mesenchymal cells. The glandular epithelial cells in low-dose Juantong decoction group were irregular, the microvilli were decreased, and the mitochondrial swelling was visible in the cytoplasm.Conclusion:The proteins of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway participate in the occurrence of endometriosis. Juantong decoction can inhibit the activity of epithelial mesenchymal cells and promote apoptosis by reducing the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt and mTOR and the mRNA expression of P70S6K in endometriotic tissues of model rats, thus inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the treatment of endometriosis.
Abstract：Objective:To study the protective effect of Huayu Qutan decoction on vascular dementia (VD) gerbils and to explore whether its mechanism is related to Calcium ion-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMKⅡ)/cyclic adenosine effect element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway.Method:Forty healthy gerbils were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, low, medium and high dose groups (5.35, 10.7, 21.4 g·kg-1) of removing blood stasis and expelling phlegm. Eight gerbils in each group were divided into model group and removing blood stasis and expelling phlegm group. Gerbils were given corresponding drugs twice a day after operation. Water maze experiment was conducted 21 days later to investigate the spatial learning and memory ability of gerbils. The expression of p-CaMKⅡ/CaMKⅡ, p-CREB/CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus of gerbils were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.Result:Compared with sham operation group, the incubation period and the number of platform trips of gerbil in the model group were significantly reduced, p-CaMKⅡ/CaMKⅡ, p-CREB/CREB, and BDNF protein expression were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the incubation period and the number of platform shuttling of gerbil in Huayu Qutan decoction group were significantly increased, among which the high-dose phlegm dispelling prescription had the most significant effect (P<0.01). The phlegm dispelling prescription could effectively protect pyramidal cells in CA1 region, significantly up-regulating the expression of p-CaMKⅡ/CaMKⅡ, p-CREB/CREB and BDNF protein (P<0.01).Conclusion:Huayu Qutan decoction improves the learning and memory abilities of gerbils with vascular dementia, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of CaMKⅡ/CREB/BDNF signaling pathway.
Keywords：Huayu Qutan decoction;vascular dementia;calcium ion-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMKⅡ);cyclic adenosine effect element binding protein (CREB);brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF);Si Junzitang
Abstract：Objective:To observe the inhibitory effect of astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor in nude mice and its effect on the apoptosis of tumor cells, in order to study the effect of APS on growth and induction of apoptosis of triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and its possible molecular mechanism.Method:Human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 was inoculated into the right axillary subcutaneous of BALB/c-nu female nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor model of breast cancer. Eighteen nude mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: model group (saline per day), low-dose APS group (200 mg·kg-1 APS per day), and high-dose APS group (400 mg·kg-1 APS per day), with 6 rats in each group. The drug was administered by gavage (200 μL) daily for 21 days. In the experiment, the length and diameter of breast cancer transplanted tumor were measured every two days, and the tumor volume was recorded and calculated. At the end of the experiment, the changes of tumor mass and tumor volume of the low and high-dose APS groups and the model group were observed and compared, and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The cell morphology in tumor tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and Terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to verify the apoptosis of breast cancer tissues. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 protein (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), Caspase in tumor tissues was detected by Western blot.Result:The tumor volume of breast cancer decreased in the low and high-dose APS groups, and the tumor inhibition rates were 37.9%and 57.57%, respectively, with statistically significant differences from the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). HE of tumor tissue cells showed that APS led to obvious morphological changes, with apoptosis in the tissue cells. TUNEL staining showed that the apoptosis rate of tumor cells in APS intervention groups was higher than that in control group. Western blot showed that expression of Bcl-2 protein decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01), and expressions of Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-7 were up-regulated(P<0.05, P<0.01)in tumor tissue of APS intervention groups.Conclusion:APS can effectively inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts in nude mice and induce apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The mechanism may be related to the effect of APS on expressions of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-7 in breast cancer cells.
Keywords：astragalus polysaccharide;breast cancer;MDA-MB-231 transplanted tumor in nude mice;tumor inhibition;apoptosis
Abstract：Objective:To carry out the studies of pharmacological action for extracts of Aconiti Radix and Aconiti Radix Cocta, and evaluate the selection of raw materials in prescriptions, in order to promote the development and clinical application of preparations.Method:The mixed extracts of Aconiti Radix and Aconiti Radix Cocta were prepared respectively according to the technique of aconitum injection, and different dose groups of Aconiti Radix and Aconiti Radix Cocta were established based on the dose of Aconiti Radix 0.152 5 mg·g-1, and then applied in such pharmacodynamic tests as analgesia, heart rate reduction, antitumor effect and toxicology tests, such as acute toxicity and organ observation. The data were analyzed systematically on the basis of literatures.Result:Compared with blank group, the extracts of both Aconiti Radix and Aconiti Radix Cocta had a significantly analgesic effect. At the same dose, the pain inhibition rate of Aconiti Radix injection (60.91%) was higher than that of Aconiti Radix Cocta injection (53.42%), and the pain inhibition rate of Aconiti Radix extract for oral administration(73.94%) was also much higher than that of Aconiti Radix Cocta extract (29.97%), with significant differences (P<0.01). In terms of heart rate reduction test, the heart rate of rats at 0 min was compared with that at 30th min after administration, the heart rate of the Aconiti Radix group was decreased first, then stabilized, and finally increased with the rise of the dose, while for the Aconiti Radix Cocta group showed a different trend of first stability, then decrease and finally increase. The result indicated the Aconiti Radix group had the effect in reducing heart rate in rats at a low dose. The survival inhibition rate was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The extracts of both Aconiti Radix and Aconiti Radix Cocta had a significantly inhibitory effect on the proliferation of AGS gastric cancer cells, in which Aconiti Radix was stronger than that of Aconiti Radix Cocta at the same dose. In the acute toxicity test of rats, lethal dose 50%(LD50) of Aconiti Radix and Aconiti Radix Cocta were 3.9 g·kg-1 and 21.0 g·kg-1 respectively, which were equivalent to 4 times and 20 times of the clinical dose. LD50 of the extract of Aconiti Radix Cocta was 5 times than that of Aconiti Radix. The liver and kidney of dead rats were dark with obvious symptoms of poisoning after dissection, while all the organs of rats at the clinical and lower dose were normal.Conclusion:The safety of Aconiti Radix is lower than that of Aconiti Radix Cocta, but with greater analgesic, bradycardic and anticancerous effect. Therefore, it is suggested that the preparations, such as aconitum injection, should be prepared with Aconiti Radix in the treatment of severe pain of patients with advanced gastric and liver cancer, and the preparations for general pain can be prepared with Aconiti Radix Cocta, so as to achieve a truly safe and effective dialectical treatment.
Keywords：Aconiti Radix injection;Aconiti Radix;Aconiti Radix Cocta;safety and effectiveness;prescription evaluation
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma on blood sugar, inflammatory factors and protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor 4(ATF4)/CCAAT/enhace-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) pathway in type 2 diabetic mellitus rats.Method:The 80 SPF grade male rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, metformin hydrochloride group, Coptidis Rhizoma group, with 20 rats in each group.The rats in the abnormal group were given " 10-week high-sugar and high-fat diet+ intraperitoneal injection of low dose streptozotocin (STZ)" regimen. Metformin hydrochloride group was given 0.2 g·kg-1·d-1, while rhizoma coptidis group was given 0.4 g·kg-1·d-1. Both model group and normal group were given the same amount of distilled water once a day.Fasting blood glucose (FBG), C reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at an acute stage after 5-week intervention were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Immunohistochemistry method was perforined with proteins glucoseregulated protein 78 (GRP78), ATF4, CHOP.Western blot assay was used to detect PERK, phosphorylated PKR like endoplasmic reticulum regulating kinase(p-PERK).Result:Compared with normal group, the FBG, CRP, TNF-α, p-PERK, GRP78, ATF4 and CHOP of model group improved(P<0.05). The Coptidis Rhizoma group and positive control group could lower serum FBG, CRP, TNF-α, p-PERK, GRP78, ATF4, CHOP in contrast with model group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Coptidis Rhizoma can reduce blood sugar and reduce the levels of inflammatory factors, inhibit plasmic reticulum stress PERK/ATF4/CH0P pathway, and reduce CHOP, ATF4, GRP78, p-PERK expression in rats.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of Wumeiwan combined with Bazhentang in the treatment of obesity type 2 diabetes with Qi and Yin deficiencies, phlegm and stasis.Method:Totally 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. Observation group was given Wumeiwan combined with modified Bazhentang in addition to Western medicine (metformin hydrochloride). The control group was treated with traditional Western medicine (metformin hydrochloride). The course of treatment is eight weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FPG), 2 hPG (2 hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerin (TG), body mass index (BMI), safety indicators (three major routine, liver and kidney functions) and clinical symptoms before and after treatment between two groups were compared. The clinical efficacy of two groups was evaluated.Result:The observation group had an effective rate of 93.3% (28/30), which was significantly higher than 73.3% (22/30) of the control group, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the levels of FPG, 2 hPG and HbA1c were significantly lower in two groups after treatment, and the treatment group was lower than control group (P<0.05). The levels of TC, TG, BMI and TCM syndromes were significantly reduced after treatment in two groups (P<0.05), and the levels of TC, TG, BMI and TCM syndromes were significantly lower than those in control group. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Wumeiwan combined with Bazhentang is safe and effective in treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with Qi and Yin deficiencies, phlegm and stasis, and can reduce blood sugar, blood lipid, BMI level and relieve clinical symptoms of patients, and so worth promotion.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of Yinchenhao Tang combined with Sinisan(YCSN) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).Method:Totally 126 cases of NAFLD with HHcy in Beijing Shichahai Community Health Service Center were randomly divided into NAFLD control group, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) group, and modern medicine group, with 42 cases in each group. The TCM group was treated with YCSN orally, the modern medicine group was treated with polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules and folic acid tablets, and the NAFLD control group was treated with placebo. The course of treatment was 3 months. The clinical efficiency, liver function, Hcy, blood lipid, oxidative inflammation index and symptom score in two groups were observed before and after treatment.Result:The total effective rate of the TCM group was 92.86%, while that of the modern medicine group was 88.10%. There was no significant difference in the clinical efficiency between the two groups. There was no difference in the indexes of groups before treatment. After treatment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Hcy, total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and symptom scores in the TCM group and the modern medicine group were significantly lower than those before the treatment (P<0.05), and lower than those in the NAFLD control group (P<0.05); and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in the TCM group and the modern medicine group significantly increased (P<0.05), and higher than those of NAFLD control group (P<0.05). Compared with the modern medicine group, ALT, Hcy, TC, TG, MDA, hs-CRP, and symptom scores in TCM group were significantly lower than those before the treatment (P<0.05), while SOD in the TCM group was significantly increased (P<0.05).Conclusion:YCSN can improve hyperhomocysteinemia, liver function, blood lipid, oxidation and inflammation in patients with NAFLD and HHcy.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the changes of serum proneurotensin (PNT) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and their relationship with nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS), so as to observe the clinical efficacy of modified Buyang Huanwu Tang on DPN patients and its effect on the levels of PNT and IGF-1.Method:Totally 68 patients with DPN were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 34 cases in each group. Both groups were given mecobalamin capsules orally in addition to routine therapy of diabetes, while the treatment group was given modified Buyang Huanwu Tang orally for 4 weeks. The sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of median nerve, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) of median nerve, SNCV of common peroneal nerve, MNCV of common peroneal nerve, TCSS score and serum PNT, IGF-1 levels were observed before and after treatment.Result:Before treatment, there was no significant difference in SNCV of median nerve, MNCV of median nerve, SNCV of common peroneal nerve, MNCV of common peroneal nerve, TCSS score and serum levels of PNT and IGF-1 between two groups. Serum levels of PNT and IGF-1 were positively correlated with SNCV of median nerve, MNCV of median nerve, SNCV of common peroneal nerve and MNCV of common peroneal nerve (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with TCSS score (P<0.05). Compared with those before treatment, SNCV of median nerve, MNCV of median nerve, SNCV of common peroneal nerve, MNCV of common peroneal nerve and the levels of serum PNT and IGF-1 in both groups were significantly increased (P<0.05), while TCSS scores were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with control group, SNCV of median nerve, MNCV of median nerve, SNCV of common peroneal nerve, MNCV of common peroneal nerve and the levels of serum PNT and IGF-1 in treatment group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05), TCSS score was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the total effective rate in treatment group was higher than that in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Serum PNT and IGF-1 may be involved in the occurrence and progress of DPN in patients with diabetes mellitus. Modified Buyang Huanwu Tang can increase the levels of serum PNT, IGF-1, NCV but reduce TCSS score in patients with DPN. It has a definite curative effect on DPN.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the correlation between Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) gene in Wnt/PCP signaling pathway and acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)syndrome, attempting to provide an objective standard for the diagnosis of AECOPD TCM syndrome.Method:The 100 AECOPD patients were collected and divided into 5 groups: phlegm turbid obstructing lung syndrome, , phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome, syndrome of orifices confused by phlegm, deficiency of pulmonary and renal Qi, and edema due to yang deficiency, with 20 people in each group. 15 normal people were selected as a normal control group. All patients received fasting hemospasia, using a kit to extract blood total RibonucleicA(RNA) according to instructions. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was adopted to detect the mRNA expression of RhoA gene in blood of patients with AECOPD TCM syndrome, and to explore the correlation.Result:There was no difference between phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome group and syndrome of orifices confused by phlegm group. The mRNA expression of RhoA gene in phlegm turbid obstructing lung syndrome group, phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome group, syndrome of orifices confused by phlegm group, deficiency of pulmonary and renal Qi group, and edema due to Yang deficiency group were significantly higher than that in normal group (P<0.01). The mRNA expression of RhoA gene in five TCM syndrome groups was as follows: phlegm turbid obstructing lung syndrome < phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome / syndrome of orifices confused by phlegm < deficiency of pulmonary renal Qi < edema due to Yang deficiency. There was a positive linear correlation between the relative expression of RhoA mRNA and above five AECOPD TCM syndrome groups.Conclusion:The significant difference in mRNA relative expression of RhoA gene in Wnt / PCP signaling pathway among the five AECOPD TCM syndrome groups may provide some objective diagnostic criteria for AECOPD TCM syndromes and reveal their disease severity.
Keywords：Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) gene;acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD);traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome type
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the myocardial protection effect of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills on patients with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome after PCI and the control effect and mechanism on cardiac adverse events.Method:One hundred and twenty-five patients were randomly divided into control group (61 cases) and observation group (64 cases) by random number table after PCI. Patients in control group got Tigrillo tablets, 90 mg/time, 2 times/days, aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 100 mg/time, 1 time/day, and bisoprolol fumarate tablets, 5 mg/time, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given Qishen Yiqi dropping pills, 0.5 g/time, 3 times/days, 3 days before operation. A course of treatment was 6 months, and follow-up were carried out for 6 months. Before treatment, and at the 24th, 72th hour after treatment, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) were detected. During the first week after operation, and at the 6th month after operation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), settling velocity (SV), wall motion score index (WMSI), percentage of normal myocardium and myocardial perfusion score index (PS) were recorded. After 12 months of the operation, recurrence of angina pectoris, severe arrhythmia, heart failure, revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction, cardiogenic death and in-stent restenosis (ISR) were all recorded. During the first week after the operation, and at the 6th month after operation, six-minute walking test (6 MWT), Seattle angina scale (SAQ) and Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome were all scored. Before the operation, and at 48 hours and 6 months after operation, levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were all detected.Result:At the 24th, 72th hour after treatment, levels of cTnI and CK-MB in control group were lower than those in observation group (P<0.05). At the 48th hour after operation and the 6th month after operation, levels of TNF-α, IL-6, s ICAM-1 hs-CRP, MDA and ET-1 were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And level of SOD was higher than those in control group (P<0.01). At the 6th months after operation, LVEF, SV and percentage of normal myocardium were higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while levels of WMSI and PS were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). During 12 months after the operation, recurrence rate of angina pectoris was 12.5%, which was lower than 29.15%in control group, and revascularization rate was 4.69%, which was lower than 16.39%in control group. Cumulative incidence of MACE was 37.5%, which was lower than 81.97%in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At the 6th month after operation, score of six-minute walking test was higher than that in control group (P<0.01). And score of Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome was lower than that in control group (P<0.01), while score of SAQ was higher than that in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Qishen Yiqi dropping pills has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and can ameliorate intradermal function, prevent and treat myocardial injury, reduce rate of MACE, relieve symptoms, and improve activity ability and quality of life of patients.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of modified Xiao Wuweizitang combined with massage manipulation on chronic post-infection cough (syndrome of wind-pathogenic pulmonary embedding), and immunity and inflammatory factors.Method:One hundred and thirty-five patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group by random number table. Patients (59 cases) in control group got Suhuang Zhike capsules, 1 granule/time for 3 to 6-year-old children, 2 granules/time, 3 times/days for 6 to 12-year-old children, and massage manipulation, 1 time/day. Patients (63 cases) in observation group got modified Xiao Wuweizitang combined with massage manipulation. A course of treatment was 10 days. Before treatment, and at the 5th and 10th day after treatment, visual analogue score of cough (VAS), cough symptom, syndrome of wind-pathogenic pulmonary embedding and leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) were scored. And levels of CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ / CD8+ , interleukin-8, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) were detected.Result:At the 5th and 10th day after treatment, scores of VAS, cough symptom and syndrome of wind-pathogenic pulmonary embedding in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), and the clinical efficacy was superior to that in control group (χ2=7.513, P<0.01). The disappearance rate of cough in observation group was 57.81%, which was higher than 38.98%in control group (χ2=4.356, P<0.05). And the average time of disappearance of cough was shorter than that in control group (P<0.01). Scores of LCQ questionnaire (physiology, psychology and society) and the total score were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-4, CGRP and SP were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Modified Xiao Wuweizitang combined with massage manipulation can relieve cough symptom, shorten the cough course, increase rate of the disappearance of cough, improve the quality of life of children, regulate immune function of children, reduce airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and cough reflex sensitivity.
Keywords：post-infection cough;children;syndrome of wind-pathogenic pulmonary embedding;Xiao Wuweizitang;massage manipulation;immunity;inflammatory reaction
Abstract：Objective:To establish HPLC characteristic chromatogram of standard pieces of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, and compare with the HPLC characteristic chromatograms of original pieces, raw materials and control materials of Polygoni Multiflori Radix.Method:HPLC analysis was carried out on a Waters BEH-C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase of methanol(A)-0.1%phosphoric acid(B) for gradient elution (0-20 min, 15%-30%A; 20-35 min, 30%-40%A; 35-55 min, 40%-75%A; 55-75 min, 75%-100%A) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 270 nm and the column temperature was maintained at 30℃. The injection volume was 10 μL. Moreover, similarity and cluster analysis of HPLC characteristic chromatograms of four samples of Polygoni Multiflori Radix were performed.Result:HPLC characteristic chromatogram of standard pieces of Polygoni Multiflori Radix composed of seven peaks was established. The similarity was 0.999 between characteristic chromatograms of standard pieces and original pieces, which was better than similarities among characteristic chromatograms of raw materials, control materials and original pieces. There was no obvious difference on number of peaks between characteristic chromatograms of standard pieces and original pieces, while an obvious difference on number of peaks between chromatograms of control materials and original pieces was found. In addition, standard pieces, original pieces and control materials could generally gather into one class, while raw materials could generally gather into another class.Conclusion:Compared with the raw materials and control materials, the established HPLC characteristic chromatogram of standard pieces can better reflect the internal quality of original pieces, which can be used for the quality control of decoction pieces of Polygoni Multiflori Radix.
Abstract：Objective:To optimize purification process of total alkaloid extract of Berberis dictyophylla cortex by macroporous resin, and to establish its quality standard.Method:Acid dye colorimetry was used to investigate the purification process of total alkaloid extract of B. dictyophylla cortex, the process parameters included concentration of sample solution, speed of sampling, diameter-height ratio of resin column, water washing amount, concentration and dosage of eluent, flow rate of elution, etc.In order to determine the optimum process, HPLC was employed to determine the contents of four alkaloids(magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, palmatine hydrochloride, and berberine hydrochloride) with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution for gradient elution and detection wavelength at 270 nm.After being purified, quality standard of total alkaloid extract of B. dictyophylla cortex was investigated according to the requirements in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.Result:Optimal purification conditions were as following: 10 g of HPD100 macroporous adsorption resin with a column diameter-height ratio of 1∶8, sampling solution concentration of 11 g·L-1, the loading flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, sampling solution volume of 50 mL, washed with 4 BV of water(1 BV=15 mL) and added 9 BV of 30% ethanol, after being purified, the transfer rate of total alkaloids was>80%, and its purity was>65%.The quality standard of total alkaloid extract of B. dictyophylla cortex was established, there were 19 common peaks in the characteristic chromatogram, and the overall similarity was>0.99.Conclusion:This optimized purification process is stable and feasible, and the established quality standard is controllable.
Abstract：Objective:The formulation of co-loaded docetaxel(DTX) and gambogic acid(GA) albumin nanoparticles(DTX-GA-BSA NPs) was optimized by central composite design-response surface methodology to prepare DTX-GA-BSA NPs, and its quality was evaluated. The optimal synergistic ratio of DTX and GA was screened by coefficient of drug interaction(CDI).Method:Nab™ method was used to prepare DTX-GA-BSA NPs with bovine serum albumin(BSA) as the carrier material. Design-Expert 8.0.6 software was used to design the experiment and process the data, overall desirability(OD) of particle size and polydispersity index(PDI), encapsulation rate were taken as indexes. The particle size and Zeta potential of the nanoparticles were measured. Individual and synergistic inhibitory effects of DTX and GA on the proliferation of MGC-803 and HGC-27 cells were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay, respectively.Result:The optimum prescription of DTX-GA-BSA NPs was as follows: BSA concentration of 5 g·L-1, water-oil phase volume ratio of 1∶17, drug-loading ratio(mass ration of drug to carrier) of 1∶10.The average particle size of DTX-GA-BSA NPs was 135.8 nm and PDI was 0.09, Zeta potential was -21.4 mV. The deviation between the predicted value and the observed value of the model was small, the model had good predictability. For MGC-803 cell, when the concentrations of DTX and GA were 0.004, 0.12 μmol·L-1, respectively(mass ratio of DTX to GA was 1∶23), the CDI value was the smallest and the synergistic proliferation inhibition was the most significant. For HGC-27 cell, when the concentrations of DTX and GA were 0.004, 1 μmol·L-1, respectively(mass ratio of DTX to GA was 1∶195), the synergistic proliferation inhibition was the most significant.Conclusion:The optimized formulation of DTX-GA-BSA NPs is stable and reliable. The established mathematical model has good predictive ability and practicability. DTX combined with GA has synergistic effect on MGC-803 and HGC-27 cells without concentration dependence.
Keywords：docetaxel;gambogic acid;albumin nanoparticles;central composite design-response surface methodology;overall desirability;coefficient of drug interaction;Nab™ method
Abstract：Objective:Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze the characteristic volatile compounds from 18 heat-clearing herbs.Method:HS-SPME was used to extract the volatile components from different heat-clearing herbs, and the chemical compositions were analyzed by GC-MS. The GC was performed at the injector temperature of 250℃, the high-purity helium was used as the carrier gas at a constant column flow of 1.0 mL·min-1 with no split sampling. The solvent delay time was 3 min. Mass spectrum conditions included electron bombardment ion source, electron bombardment energy of 70 eV, ion source temperature of 230℃, quadrupoles temperature of 150℃, and scanning range of m/z 29-370.The volatile components were confirmed according to NIST2013 database, and the relative content percentage of each component was calculated by peak area normalization method. PCA was used to detect clustering and discuss the characteristics of volatile compounds of 18 heat-clearing herbs.Result:A total of 328 volatile compounds were detected in 18 heat-clearing herbs, including alkanes, unsaturated hydrocarbon, alcohols, aldehyde, ketones, esters, furan and other unknown compounds. The number and relative content of volatile components in different heat-clearing herbs varied dramatically. Several important characteristic volatile compounds, such as l-camphor, torreyol, caryophyllene oxide, globulol and 2, 4-cycloheptadien-1-one, 2, 6, 6-trimethyl, were detected in the 18 heat-clearing herbs by principal component analysis.Conclusion:Heat-clearing herbs contains rich volatile components, which are the main contributors to the formation of unique aroma of herbs, as well as the main active substances.
Abstract：As a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata has a medicinal history of several hundred years, and been included in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. With a sweet fact and mild war nature, it enters liver and stomach meridians. With effects in clearing deficient heat and eliminating fever in infantile malnu, it has been used to treat such diseases as Yin deficiency fever, consumptive fever due to Yin deficiency and infantile chancre fever, and taken as the raw materials of Wuji Baifeng Wan and other traditional Chinese medicine preparations. In recent years, there have been increasing demands for S. dichotoma var. lanceolata from people. However, its wild resources have been over-excavated for a long time, leading to a serious shortage of wild strains. Furthermore, the quality of artificial S. dichotoma var. lanceolata medicine is far different from that of wild cultivars. Meanwhile, pesticide residues and excessive metal standards due to the irrational use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in the production process, as well as the large number of counterfeits in the market seriously impact the quality, efficacy and drug safety of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata medicine. Therefore, the non-polluted production technology of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata is of great significance. The non-polluted production technology would be an effective mode for promoting the sound development of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata industry in the future and the key to solve the issues. This article summarizes the environment of suitable production area, plantation method, comprehensive soil improvement, field management and rational fertilization technology. It also proposes that the prevention and control of pollution-free safflower pests and diseases should follow the principle of giving priority to comprehensive prevention. The pollution-free and technical regulation system of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata cultivars is built to produce excellent, high-quality and non-polluted production with low content of pesticide residues and heavy metals, and promote the healthy and sustainable development of the global S. dichotoma var. lanceolata industry.
Keywords：Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata;cultivation;habitat environment;variety identification;agronomic measure;rational fertilization;integrated prevention
Abstract：Objective:To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba standard decoction, in order to identify the main chemical component of common peaks, and determine the content of rosmarinic acid.Method:The chromatographic fingerprints of 10 batches of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba standard decoction from different areas were determined, and the chromatographic separation was carried out on Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) at the temperature of 30℃. The mobile phase was acetonitrile and 0.1%formic acid solution for gradient elution, with a flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, and the detection wavelength was 330 nm. The 10 batches of fingerprints were imported into Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (2012.130723) for chromatographic peak matching, the reference fingerprint was established with the average method, and the similarities of 10 batches were evaluated.Result:The HPLC fingerprint of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba showed 13 common peaks. The similarities of 10 batches from different areas were all more than 0.90.At the same time, 9 common peaks of the fingerprint were identified by using Q-TOF-MS spectrometry. Rosmarinic acid content was also determined by using the HPLC fingerprint method.Conclusion:The method is simple, rapid and accurate, with a good reproducibility, and can be used to rapidly and effectively evaluate the quality of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba standard decoction and lay a foundation for the quality control of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba formula granules.
Keywords：Menthae Haplocalycis Herba standard decoction;fingerprint;rosmarinic acid;Q-TOF-MS;different areas
Abstract：Objective:To explore the interrelation of " composition-target-disease" of Kaixinsan on treatment of Alzheimer's disease.Method:Through the integrated pharmacological platform of Chinese medicine V1.0, the active ingredients and potential targets of four Chinese herbs in Kaixinsan were collected, disease targets of Alzheimer's disease were searched, and enriched by the gene ontology database and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes at hubs.Result:Among the 250 compounds of Kaixinsan, 2 877 targets were associated with Alzheimer's disease.The key targets, such as mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha(HADHA), hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase(HADH), sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase(NSDHL) and others, played their pharmacological effects mainly through regulating purine and nucleotide metabolism, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, neurodegenerative diseases, oxidative phosphorylation, and endocrine and metabolic diseases in molecular reactions, such as cytoplasm, mitochondria, adenosine triphosphate binding, and mitochondrial matrix.Conclusion:The platform can predict the key targets and related pathways of Kaixinsan for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, which lays the foundation for further revealing material basis and mechanism of this formula, and plays an important role in digging and developing this classic and famous formula.
Keywords：integrated pharmacological platform of Chinese medicine;Kaixinsan;Alzheimer's disease;key targets;purine metabolism;cytoplasm;classical famous formulas
Abstract：Objective:To explore the mechanism of renal toxicity of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma by establishing the active component-target, protein interaction, biological function and pathway network corresponding to the target, and using molecular docking technology.Method:The traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) systems pharmacology database(TCMSP) and the comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD) were used to screen The toxic candidate compounds.In PubChem database, convert all candidate compounds into standard Canonical SMILES format, SMILES format file import SwissTargetPrediction platform, target prediction, will be the target of the corresponding compounds in TCMSP supplement with uniprot converts protein antipodal gene name, and from the human genome database (GeneCards) seek to compare the renal related gene protein, overlapping proteins were screened as potential renal toxicity targets of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma.Cytoscape software was used to construct the candidate components-target network of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma.Cytoscape software was combined with String database to draw the protein interaction network, DAVID platform was used to analyze the biological function of the target and the pathways involved, and Glide software was used to verify the combination of the key protein and the candidate components of tripterygiumwildiitoxicity.Result:The screening of 30 kinds of candidates for toxic ingredients of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma, involving 209 renal toxicity targets, network analysis results showed that Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma by amino acid metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, catecholamine metabolism, inhibiting renal organic anion transporter Oatl, Oat2, Oat3 function, and inducing apoptosis, and participate in the mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)signaling pathways, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, ERBB signaling pathway, FcεRI signaling pathway, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors(PPAR) signaling pathway such as toxic to the kidneys.Conclusion:The mechanism of kidney toxicity of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma was explored by using the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway of TCM, which provided new ideas and methods for further research on the mechanism of kidney toxicity of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma.
Keywords：network pharmacology;Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma;renal toxicity;path analysis;molecular docking
Abstract：Objective:To explore the laws of core symptom and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescription in treatment of the Yin deficiency syndrome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in order to provide the objective basis for the treatment of SLE with TCM based on complex network.Method:Complex network analysis method was used to retrospectively study 322 TCM prescriptions collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between January 2011 and May 2017 and 134 literatures about treatment of SLE with TCM through computer retrieval. The topological property parameters of the complex network were calculated, and used to analyze the structure of the core network and the compatibility rule of symptom and TCM. Then the core syndrome, herbs, compatibility rules and characteristics of commonly used prescriptions for SLE were analyzed.Result:The results of analysis of complex network showed that the core TCM herbs for Yin deficiency syndrome of SLE mainly included Rehmanniae Radix, Moutan Cortex, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Artemisiae Annuae Herba, Cornt Fructus, Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, Trionycis Carapax, Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Poria, Alismatis Rhizoma, Coicis Semen, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma.Core prescriptions included Qinghao Biejia Tang and Liuwei Dihuang Wan. Core syndromes included fatigue, poor sleep, anorexia, low fever, five upset heat, night sweats, dizziness, rash, skin erythema, facial red butterfly erythema, dark red rash, alopecia, weak waist and knees, joint pain, muscle pain, tinnitus, thirst, sore throat, red tongue, tongue with less fur, and thready and rapid pulse. Compared with the diagnostic criteria of the syndrome, the core symptoms included some new common clinical symptoms, such as poor sleep, anorexia, facial red butterfly erythema, dark red rash.Conclusion:The main pathogenesis of SLE is Yin deficiency and blood heat, so the treatment should be nourishing Yin and generating body fluid, removing pathogenic heat from blood and clearing deficient heat. In this study, the results of clinical retrospective review and computer retrieval by the complex network analysis method were basically consistent with the clinical application. It can be used as a reference for the clinical syndrome differentiation and treatment of Yin deficiency syndrome of SLE.
Abstract：The ancient famous classical formulas were developed based on the characteristics of excellent curative effect, small toxic and side effects, and wide clinical application. Its development will promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with huge social and economic benefits. TCM and TCM compounds are multi-component systems, which are multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway effect on human body, their curative effect is the result of synergistic effect of multi-component. Because of its characteristics, its mechanism of action is still unclear and quality is difficult to control. Therefore, on the basis of biological properties of the multi-components of TCM, it is the key issue to study the preparation process of the medicinal materials-decoction pieces-preparations and the transferability, stability and homogeneity of the quality attributes. Moreover, the supramolecular theory can explain the basic theory of TCM from the macroscopic and microscopic aspects, the study of ancient famous classical formulas can use the supramolecular theory. Both TCM and human body are giant complex supramolecules, and their components are clustered objects reflecting the characteristics of the original imprinting template with genetic polymorphism. The quality attributes, processing, formulation preparation and quality attribute evaluation of TCM are all affected by supramolecular chemistry, which is finally reflected in the preparation of imprinting template and the transfer law of quality properties. Therefore, the application of supramolecular imprinting template theory to study the biogenetic polymorphism of TCM, processing, formulation preparation and quality attribute evaluation of medicinal materials can improve the availability rate of successful research and development of ancient famous classical formulas.
Keywords：supramolecular theory;ancient famous classical formulas;imprinting template;quality control;transitivity;stability;homogeneity
Abstract：The commodity specification and grade is a symbol of quality of Chinese medicinal materials, a standard to measure and evaluate the quality of Chinese medicinal materials, and an important part of the quality control system of Chinese medicinal materials.This article reviewed relevant research literature of commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials, including the formation and policy support of specification and grade.It analyzed the specific research examples of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials according to the classification of medicinal parts, and summarized the research conditions of the commodity classification at present stage.Aiming at the current research difficulties and the lack of unified standards in specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials, some advice including research objects, methods, management, publicity, promotion and application are put forward, so as to provide references for the research on the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials.
Keywords：Chinese medicinal materials;specification and grade;research progress;advice;medicinal parts;policy support;famous-region drug
Abstract：Saponin is a kind of complex compounds with triterpenoid or spiral aglycones.Natural saponins are used as substrates, and many novel compounds are obtained by biotransformation technology. Especially, converted products of saponins with strong activities provide valuable lead compounds for the research and development of new drugs. Saponins can be divided into triterpenoid saponin and steroidal saponin according to the structure of the mother nucleus. There are about 89 reported saponin components, including 56 triterpenoid saponins and 33 steroidal saponins. Biological enzyme catalysis, microbial transformation and intestinal microflora transformation are the main bioconversion technologies and key development directions of saponins. The research and optimization technology of biological enzyme and microbial transformation of saponins are the effective methods to prepare active secondary saponins. The biotransformation reaction of saponins mainly includes hydrolysis, redox and rearrangement, resulting in the formation of aglycones, secondary glycosides and their derivatives. The hydrolysis of saponin sugar chains was the main biological transformation pathway, and could generate a number of secondary saponins with less glycosyl groups. The secondary saponins could be absorbed into blood and become real active ingredients in body. Preparation of rare secondary saponins, discovery of lead compounds and development of new drugs are the main directions of biotransformation of saponins. The studies on the metabolism and mechanism of natural saponins by microbial and intestinal microbial biotransformation will also become hotspots. According to relevant papers at home and abroad, the researches on transformation technique, transformation approach and transformation reaction of saponins from natural products in the past thirty years were summarized, and the prospects of research and development were also analyzed to provide scientific basis for further study and comprehensive utilization of these conversion products.
Abstract：Polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) are a group of gene clusters related to polysaccharides catabolism and located in specific areas, including starch utilization system(SusC), SusD, encoding outer membrane glycoprotein binding proteins, and carbohydrate active enzymes. The wide existence of PULs in Bacteroides, and the extraordinary ability of utilizing polysaccharide is its survival strategy to adapt to the intestinal tract. On one hand, Bacteroides feature a high abundance and variety, making it the most important bacterial target group regulated by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). On the other hand, polysaccharide is an important effective constituent among TCM chemicals, with a high content, and can also be used as a competitive carbon source for intestinal bacteria. Therefore, what is the mechanism of regulating the intestinal flora based on the carbon source of polysaccharide is an important part of the pharmacological research of TCM. According to the latest literatures, this paper introduces the gene and protein composition of PULs, reviews the latest developments in PULs research, and analyzes the structure of PULs in the genomes of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Furthermore, we also put forward a prospect for the pharmacological micro-ecological mechanism of TCM based on PULs based on our carbon source experiments, which focuses the effects of Bacteroides by TCM polysaccharides in vitro. This research is not only the new content of bacterial PULs researches, but also the important part of researches of " human-drug-bacteria" holistic view and TCM spleen-tonifying concept.
Keywords：polysaccharide utilization loci;traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharide;Bacteroides;carbon source;gut flora
Abstract：Liver disease is the general term for all diseases that occur in the liver. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has certain advantages in the treatment of liver diseases. With a high experimental study value, good clinical efficacy and less adverse reactions, it has broad prospects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is closely related to liver diseases. Its mechanism is to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through tlr4-mediated signaling pathway, inhibit the secretion of such inflammatory factors as interleukin-1(IL-1), interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the inflammatory damage of liver cells, so as to further inhibit the effect of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α in activating Hepatic Stellate Cell(HSC). The ways of blocking TRL4 pathway are as follows: Inhibiting the expression of TLR4, Inhibiting the dimerization of TLR4. Blocking intracellular signal transduction: ①acting on the binding protein; ②acting on the kinase IRAKs; ③acting on TLRAFst. In these ways, the TRL4 pathway is blocked, the inflammation is inhibited, and the anti-liver disease effect is achieved. Therefore, inhibiting or enhancing TLR4 signaling pathway or intervening in some links of TLR4 signaling pathway has become a new strategy for the treatment of liver diseases. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway has become one of the targets of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) against liver diseases. In this paper, the recent literatures on the effect of TCM in resisting activation of TLR4 signaling pathway and the effect of anti-liver diseases through monomers and effective parts of TCM, extracts of TCM and compound prescriptions of TCM were collected and summarized to provide important guiding significance and direction for the treatment of liver diseases by TCM and WM in the next step.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4);anti-liver disease;research progress
Abstract：Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic non-specific intestinal inflammation, which has a long course and is difficult to cure, and the incidence is increasing year by year. Helper T cells 17 (Th17) are one of immune-promoting cells, while regulatory sputum cells (Treg) are immunosuppressive cells, and Th17 cells and regulatory T cells together maintain the balance of the body's immune microenvironment. During progression of UC, the population of sputum helper cells 17 (Th17 cells) that cause inflammation generally increases, while the number of sputum regulatory T cells that inhibit Th17 cell activity decreases. Among them, Th17 cells mediate immune response, regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression, and the balance between the two plays a key role in the inflammation and immune process of ulcerative colitis. Although Western medicine treatment of UC has certain effects, however, The frequency and severity of side effects, inconvenient dose adjustments, and partial price excessions limit their clinical application.As a traditional medicine in China, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has multi-target, multi-link and multi-channel treatment characteristics, and has unique advantages and broad prospects in anti-ulcerative colitis. In recent years, the TCM field has taken Th17/Treg balance as the entry point, and carried out a large number of clinical and experimental studies on the intervention of TCM in Th17/Treg balance in UC, and achieved certain results. Clinical and experimental evidence clearly indicates intervention in Th17/Treg. It is an important mechanism of action of TCM in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This paper mainly summarizes and analyzes the intervention effects of TCM monomer, component or active ingredient and TCM compound on Th17/Treg balance in UC, which is helpful for people to understand Chinese medicine intervention in UC more accurately and comprehensively. The mechanism of action of Th17/Treg balance provides a reference for the clinical design of a treatment plan for anti-ulcerative colitis.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine(TCM);TCM compound;helper T cells 17/regulatory T cells balance;ulcerative colitis
Abstract：Danggui Buxue Tang(DBT) is a famous classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) for invigorating Qi and activating blood circulation.It is composed of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Astragali Radix.It has the effect of enriching blood, invigorating Qi and regulating immunity, and has a high application value in clinical treatment.Because of its definite curative effect and simple compatibility, it has become a hot spot in the research field of TCM.This paper summarized and analyzed the research status of DBT from the pharmacological action, pharmacodynamic material basis, pharmacokinetics, quality control, compatibility and decoction process, so as to provide reference for the development of DBT and formulating its quality standard.
Keywords：Danggui Buxue Tang;pharmacological action;chemical constituents;pharmacodynamic material basis;quality control;famous classical formulas;decoction process
Abstract：Lyotropic liquid crystal is an ordered system with various geometric shapes or three-dimensional structures formed by the interaction of amphiphilic molecules dissolved in polar solvents, and has the characteristics of excellent drug applicability, high drug loading, good bioadhesive property and high transdermal permeability. Through a comprehensive analysis of the research results in this research group and the related research reports of LLC drug delivery system, the authors systematically discussed the research value, development potential and research status of LLC in the field of new drug delivery system of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), especially in the percutaneous and mucosal drug delivery system and the oral microparticle drug delivery system of TCM. At the same time, due to the current research field of TCM-LLC drug delivery system starts late, many of the basic research problems to be further perfect, this paper had carried on the induction summary to these problems, and put forward the research countermeasures: ①the basic research of TCM-LLC drug delivery system should be strengthened by referencing the research experience and methods of LLC drug delivery system of single chemical component combined with TCM characteristics, ②the research on the release mechanism of the chemical components in TCM should be strengthened, and the basic research on the LLC drug delivery system of synchronized sustained release TCM should be carried out, ③development of new LLC materials applicable to TCM, ④the quality evaluation system of TCM-LLC should be improved, ⑤to explore the LLC preparation process suitable for industrialization.
Keywords：lyotropic liquid crystal;traditional Chinese medicine;new drug delivery system;application prospect;liquid crystal nanoparticles;industrialization;quality evaluation system