Abstract：Objective:To investigate the regulatory effect of serum containing Buyang Huanwu Tang on endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition(EndMT) in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC), and make further analysis on its mechanism from the perspective of the signal transduction of Jagged1/Notch1.Method:Rabbit serum containing Buyang Huanwu Tang was prepared by gavage with dosage of 53.36 g·kg-1·d-1, and blank serum was prepared by gavage with same volume of normal saline. The HPAECs cultured in vitro, EndMT model was established by the transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) induced, which were divided into five groups: the control group (10%blank serum), the model group (10%blank serum+ TGF-β1), the serum containing high-dose Buyang Huanwu Tang group (10%medicated serum + TGF-β1), the medium-dose group (5%medicated serum + 5%blank serum medicated + TGF-β1) and the low-dose group(2.5%medicated serum+ 7.5%blank serum+ TGF-β1). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. Cell migration was detected by transwell and scratch assay. The endothelial markers platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31), vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and the mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were observed by immunofluorescence assay. The expression levels of Notch1, Jagged1 and CBF1 were detected by Western blot assay.Result:Compared with the control group, the proliferation and migration abilities of the HPAEC cells in model group were enhanced (P<0.01), and the expressions of CD31 and VE-cadherin were decreased, while the expressions of FSP1 and α-SMA were increased. Further study found that the expressions of Notch1, Jagged1 and CBF1 were up-regulated (P<0.01). After the intervention of the serum containing Buyang Huanwu Tang, compared with model group, the proliferation and migration abilities of cells were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the expressions of CD31 and VE-cadherin were on the rise, while the expressions of FSP1and α-SMA were on the decline. The expressions of Notch1, Jagged1 and CBF1 were also significantly lower than those in model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). With the increase of serum concentration, the effect was more obvious.Conclusion:The serum containing Buyang Huanwu Tang can partly inhibit the EndMT in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, which may be related to the regulation effect of Jagged1/Notch1 signaling.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of aspirin combined with modified Yupingfeng San on patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and Seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome.Method:From December 2016 to March 2018, 109 cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion patients with seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome in Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine were selected as the study objects. According to the random number table, they were divided into three groups: blank group, control group and study group. The blank group was treated with folic acid tablets, 1 pill/time, qd, as placebo, the control group was treated with folic acid tablets, 1 pill/time, qd, Danshen pills, 4 pills/time, tid, and aspirin, 1 pill/time, tid, and the study group was treated with folic acid tablets, 1 pill/time, qd, aspirin, 1 pill/time, tid, and modified Yupingfeng San, 150 mL/time, bid. These patients were all asked for pregnancy preparation for 1 year and treated with aspirin, 1 pill/time, tid, and progesterone pills, 1 pill/time, tid, since the beginning of pregnancy until 13 weeks or abortion. The pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, coagulation index before and after treatment, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptom score as well as months of abortion were all observed and compared.Result:The coagulation index and TCM symptom score of the study group were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the coagulation index of the control group was lower than before treatment. In terms of the coagulation index, the study group was significantly lower than the blank group (P<0.05). In terms of TCM symptom scores, the study group got lower scores than other two groups (P<0.05). Besides, in terms of the total abortion rate and the abortive rate beyond the months of abortion, the study group was significantly lower than the blank group (P<0.05), and the total abortion rate of the blank group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The data proved that the combination of anti-coagulation medicine with either single herb or herbal compound can improve the curative effect of the patients, and traditional Chinese herbal compound can regulate the immune system, reduce the thrombosis and improve the symptoms of TCM, which made the curative efficacy more prominent. However, more samples were needed for further research. Because the time of fetal protection may not change the outcome of pregnancy, the therapy should be maintained at least until the end of the early pregnancy.
Abstract：Objective:To compare the total daily doses of 16 active components in big honeyed pills, concentrated pills and tablets of Fuzi Lizhongwan.Method:Three dosage forms of Fuzi Lizhongwan were prepared according to the process described in the literature. RRLC-QqQ-MS was employed to analyze the contents of 16 active ingredients with mobile phase of 0.1%formic acid aqueous solution-0.1%formic acid acetonitrile solution for gradient elution, the separation was performed on a Accucore RP-MS column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min-1 and the column temperature at 30 ℃, the mass spectrometry condition was electrospray ion source, positive and negative ion switching mode for detection, multi-reaction monitoring mode(MRM) for scanning. The contents of 16 active ingredients were calculated, and the normalization arithmetic method was used for comparing the total daily doses of these active ingredients in three dosage forms of Fuzi Lizhongwan.Result:Processed products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata were used as raw powder in preparation process of the three dosage forms, so there was no significant difference in the contents of six alkaloids in the three dosage forms, while the contents of other 10 active ingredients from Zingiberis Rhizoma, Codonopsis Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle were significantly higher in big honeyed pills than those in concentrated pills or tablets(P<0.01), due to the differences in the extracting solvents(ethanol and water) and ethanol concentration, the contents of other 10 active ingredients between concentrated pills and tablets were also significant differences. The total daily doses of these 16 active components were 18.764, 17.530, 5.676 mg in big honeyed pills, concentrated pills and tablets, respectively. The concentrated pills exhibited the highest normalization arithmetic score of 0.717 5 compared with 0.605 4 and 0.312 4 separately in big honeyed pills and tablets, it was mainly owing to the maximum amount of raw material per day in concentrated pills.Conclusion:The total daily doses of 16 active ingredients in the three dosage forms of Fuzi Lizhongwan are significantly different caused by preparation process, prescription and dosage.
Keywords：Fuzi Lizhongwan;big honeyed pills;tablets;concentrated pills;normalization arithmetic method;daily dose;preparation process
Abstract：Objective:To explore the mechanism of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in rat degenerative intervertebral disc cells in improving intervertebral disc degeneration under the action of Bushen Zhuangdu recipe.Method:The 100 SD male rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, low, medium and high dose Bushen Zhuangdu recipe group (0.38, 0.77, 1.53 g·kg-1). Histopathological changes of rat intervertebral discs were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining after 4 weeks of continuous administration of Chinese medicine. The apoptotic rate of nucleus pulposus cells in degenerative intervertebral discs was detected by TUNEL(terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling), and the levels of active Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3(active Caspase-3), B cell leukemia-2(Bcl-2), cytochrome C (cytC) and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax) protein in intervertebral discs were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with blank group, the histopathological score of intervertebral disc in the model group was significantly increased, the apoptosis rate of nucleus pulposus was significantly increased (P<0.05), the expression levels of active Caspase-3, cytC and Bax were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the expression levels of Bcl-2 were significantly decreased (P<0.05). After the intervention of Bushen Zhuangdu recipe.Compared with model group, the histopathological score of Bushen Zhuangdu recipe low, medium and high dose groups were significantly reduced(P<0.05), the expression levels of active Caspase-3, cytC and Bax were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the expression levels of Bcl-2 were significantly increased (P<0.05).Conclusion:Bushen Zhuangdu recipe may improve the degeneration of intervertebral disc by reducing the expression of active Caspase-3, cytC and Bax, increasing the expression of Bcl-2 and inhibiting the apoptotic pathway of mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Chaibei Zhixian decoction and peimine on Carbamazepine (CBZ) concentration, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multi drug resistance 1(MDR1) expression in the brain tissues of rats with refractory epilepsy, and to understand the contribution of Peimine in the compound prescription to treat the refractory epilepsy.Method:Epilepsy rat models were established by injecting kainic acid (KA) in the lateral ventricle. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into model group, CBZ group(0.12 g·kg-1), Chaibei Zhixian decoction+ CBZ group(8.39 g·kg-1+ 0.12 g·kg-1), peimine+ CBZ group(0.01 g·kg-1+ 0.12 g·kg-1) and sham operation group. After 60 days of intervention, the expression levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1b mRNA in the brain cortex were detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR), the contents of CBZ and 10, 11-epoxidation of carbamazepine (CBZE) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).Result:Compared with sham group, the expression of P-gp/MDR1 in the cortex of model group was significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with model group, the P-gp/MDR1 level in CBZ group was increased.The expression of P-gp/MDR1 in the cortex of Chaibei Zhixian decoction+ CBZ group and peimine+ CBZ group was reduced. Compared with CBZ group, The expression of P-gp/MDR1 was significantly decreased in the cortex of Chaibei Zhixian decoction+ CBZ group and peimine+ CBZ group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the content of CBZ and CBZE in the brain of peimine+ CBZ group was significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the content of CBZE in the brain of the Chaibei Zhixian decoction+ CBZ group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the Chaibei Zhixian decoction+ CBZ group , the content of CBZ and CBZE in the brain of the peimine+ CBZ group was increased in rats, but the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusion:Chaibei Zhixian decoction and peimine may increase the content of CBZ and CBZE in the brain tissues in rats with intractable epilepsy by reducing the expression of MDR1/P-gp in the cortex.
Keywords：intractable epilepsy;Chaibei Zhixian decoction;peimine;P-glycoprotein;10, 11-epoxidation of carbamazepine
Abstract：Objective:To observe the morphological changes of carotid artery, thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR), in order to further study the effect of Mangiferin on the expressions of inflammatory factors and monocyte chemoattract protein-1 (MCP-1)/c-chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR-2) pathway in SHR.Method:Forty spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into model group, benazepril group (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) and low, medium and high-dose mangiferin groups (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1). Eight male WKY rats of the same age were selected as normal control group. Systolic blood pressure was observed every two weeks after eight weeks of administration. Morphology of carotid artery, thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Immunohistochemical assay (IHC) and Western blot were used to detect MCP-1 and CCR-2 protein expressions in thoracic aorta. MCP-1 and CCR-2 mRNA expression levels in thoracic aorta were detected by Real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR (Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with the normal group, the inflammatory cells in the model group increased significantly, the systolic blood pressure was significantly higher than that in the WKY group (P<0.01), and MCP-1, CCR-2 protein and mRNA expressions in thoracic aorta were increased obviously (P<0.01). Compared with model group, in high-dose benazepril and mangiferin groups, inflammatory cells were decreased significantly, endothelial margin and fibrous tissue infiltration were improved significantly, and systolic blood pressure was decreased significantly (P<0.01). MCP-1, CCR-2 protein and mRNA expression in thoracic aorta of benazepril and mangiferin groups decreased significantly (P<0.01).Conclusion:There are inflammation damages in carotid artery, thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mangiferin has an anti-inflammatory effect by possibly inhibiting the expressions of MCP-1/CCR-2 pathway in SHR vessels.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the protective effect and mechanism of combination of puerarin combined with tanshinone ⅡA on diabetes mellitus (DM) rats with vascular lesions.Method:The SD rats (fed with high-fat diet) were administrated with streptozotocin(STZ) through intravenous injection to make the model of diabetic vascular lesions. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into the model control group, the high-dose group (0.5 g·kg-1+ 1.0 g·kg-1), the middle-dose group (0.25 g·kg-1+ 0.5 g·kg-1), the low-dose group (0.05 g·kg-1+ 0.1 g·kg-1), the puerarin group (0.25 g·kg-1), the tanshinone ⅡA group (0.5 g·kg-1) and the positive control group (Metformin, 0.09 g·kg-1). Each group was administrated with drugs respectively by gavage for 70 days. After intervention in each group, the general conditions and body weight of the rats were observed. The contents of blood grucose and blood lipids were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer. The contents of insulin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum, the contents of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in plasma, as well as the contents of AGEs and oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) in aorta homogenate were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The content of malondialdehyde(MDA) in serum was determined by chemical colorimetry. Pathological changes of coronary tissue were observed by htoxylin eosin(HE) staining. The expression of PAI-1 protein of aorta was observed by immunohistochemistry.Result:Compared with the normal control group, in the model group, the levels of blood grucose and blood lipids (P<0.05, P<0.01), the contents of insulin, AGEs and MDA in serum (P<0.05, P<0.01), the contents of PAI-1 and TXB2 in plasma (P<0.01), and the contents of AGEs and ox-LDL in aorta homogenate were increased(P<0.01). The contents of SOD and GSH-Px in serum (P<0.01), the contents of t-PA in plasma were decreased(P<0.05), whereas the expression of PAI-1 protein of aorta was increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, in the drug intervention group, the levels of blood grucose and blood lipids (P<0.05, P<0.01), the contents of insulin, AGEs and MDA in serum (P<0.05, P<0.01), the contents of PAI-1 and TXB2 in plasma (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the contents of AGEs and ox-LDL in aorta homogenate were decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01), whereas the contents of SOD and GSH-Px in serum and the contents of t-PA in plasma were increased(P<0.05, P<0.01). The coronary lesions were relieved, and the expression of PAI-1 protein of aorta was reduced (P<0.05). The efficacy of combined medication was better than single drug administration.Conclusion:Puerarin combined with Tanshinone ⅡA could relieve vascular lesions of DM rats. The mechanisms may be related to the reduction of oxidative stress and the regulation of coagulation-fibrinolysis system.
Keywords：puerarin combined with tanshinoneⅡA;diabetesmellitus;vascular lesion;oxidative stress;tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
Abstract：Objective:To study the acute toxicity of Shizaotang in rats, in order to provide reference for clinical drug safety and subsequent toxicological efficacy experiments.Method:Totally 40 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into control group and Shizaotang group, with 20 rats in each group (10 males and 10 females). By the maximum dose method, the Shizaotang group was given the maximum concentration of Shizaotang suspension 0.3 g·mL-1 for 2 consecutive times in the maximum dosage volume within 24 h, and the control group was given normal saline. The toxicity (death, poisoning symptoms) and its severity and recovery of the rats were observed within 14 days, and the changes in body weight and feeding before and after administration were recorded. After 14 days, the rats were put to death, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (SCr), and interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels were measured, each tissue was weighed, and organ coefficients were calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of various organs, and evaluate the acute toxicity.Result:No animal death, obvious poisoning symptom, and visible organ abnormality were observed. Compared with the control group, there was no significant change in body weight and food consumption in the drug-administered group. There was no significant difference in the organ coefficients of rats. Serum ALT, AST, BUN, SCr, IL-2, TNF-α, and NF-κB did not change significantly, and no abnormality was observed in pathological sections of each tissue.Conclusion:The maximum oral dosage of Shizaotang in rats is 12 g·kg-1, which is 480 times of daily dosage for adults, with a good safety. This suggests that Shizaotang has a certain safety range.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of modified Erchentang (Juhong Tanke liquid) on children bronchitis with syndrome of sputum, cough, dys-expectoration, wheezing and pulmonary function.Method:A total of 200 children patients aged below 24 months were randomly divided into control group and observation group by random number table, with 100 cases in each group. Children in each group received basic clinical treatment, while children in treatment group was also given modified Erchentang (Juhong Tanke liquid), 2-5 mL each time, 3 times a day. Both groups were treated for 15 days. Clinical respiratory tract symptom and sign scores, cough, sputum, dys-expectoration and wheezing were evaluated and compared. Pulmonary function was detected before and after treatment for 15 days. Analysis parameters were respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume per kilogram (VT/kg), inspiratory/expiratory (TI/TE), peak time of expiratory flow (TPTEF), time to peak ratio (TPTEF/TE), peak expiratory flow (PEF), volume in peak time of expiratory flow (VPTEF), volume ratio in peak flow (PFV), terminal flows per peak expiratory flow (25/PF), rate of mid-expiratory to mid-inspiratory flow (ME/MI), respiratory resistance (Rrs), functional residual capacity per kilogram (FRC/kg) and compliance per kilogram (Crs/kg).Result:After treatment for 5 days, both groups have obviously alleviation in sputum, cough, dys-expectoration wheezing and airway function. After treatment for 5 days, sputum, cough, dys-expiratory and wheezing in treatment group were all alleviated comparing with those of control group (P<0.05). What's more, treatment group had significantly short durations in cough and wheezing. Obvious alleviations were observed in pulmonary function, PFV, 25/PF, ME/MI, Crs/kg, Rrs, FRC/kg in treatment group after treatment for 15 days, with significant differences.Conclusion:Modified Erchentang (Juhong Tanke liquid) has shown marked efficacy in children bronchitis to alleviate clinical symptoms and improve pulmonary function, with no adverse reaction, and thus is worth further promotion and application in clinic.
Keywords：modified Erchentang;bronchiolitis;cough;sputum;pulmonary function
Abstract：Objective:To observe the efficacy of modified Fangji Huangqitang on early renal damage in hypertension (Qi deficiency and dampness obstruction syndrome) and its effect in resisting inflammation and protecting vascular endothelium.Method:One hundred and forty-four patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group by random number table. Patients in control group got losartan potassium tablets, 50 mg/time, 1 time/day, and nifedipine controlled-release tablets, 30 mg/time, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were alsog given modified Fangji Huangqitang, 1 dose/day. The qualification rate of blood pressure was recorded for every week, and ambulatory blood pressure was detected before and after treatment. Standard deviation of systolic blood pressure for 24 h (24 hSSD), standard deviation of diastolic pressure for 24 h (24 hDSD), mean systolic blood pressure for 24 h (24 hSBP), average diastolic pressure for 24 h (24 hDBP) were recorded, and dynamic pulse pressure index (PPI), dynamic arteriosclerosis index (AASI), and ratio of UmALB and creatinine (CR) were calculated, levels of beta 2 microglobulin (β2-MG), urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum cystatin C (CysC), urinary microalbumin (UmALB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected, and symptoms and signs were scored.Result:During the 12-week observation period, the qualification rate of blood pressure in observation group was 89.09%, which was higher than 81.52%in control group (χ2=18.776, P<0.01). Levels of 24 hSBP, 24 hDBP, 24 hSSD, 24 h DSD, PPI, AASI, β2-MG, CysC, NAG, UmALB, UACR, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and ET-1 were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), while level of NO was higher than that in control group (P<0.01). And by rank sum test, the clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.146, P<0.05).Conclusion:In addition of the western medicine therapy, modified Fangji Huangqitang can be added to control blood pressure level, improve blood pressure compliance rate, reduce blood pressure variability, protect renal function, prevent and relieve clinical symptoms, improve the clinical efficacy, inhibit inflammatory reaction and improve endothelial function.
Keywords：hypertension;early renal damage;Qi deficiency and damp blockage syndrome;Fangji Huangqitang;arteriosclerosis index;inflammatory factors;endothelial function
Abstract：Objective:To discussed the clinical efficacy of addition and subtraction therapy of Shenling Baizhu San to antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) with spleen-stomach deficiency and cold syndrome, and to investigate its effects on immune function and intestinal flora.Method:One hundred and fifteen patients were randomly divided into control group (57 cases) and observation group (58 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got Shuangqi Ganjun Sanlian Huojun San, 2 bags/time, 2 times/days. Mengtuoshi San, 1 bag/time, 3 times/days, and they also got measures to prevent disturbance of water, electrolyte, acid-base balance and nutritional support. Based on the treatment in control group, patients in observation group also got addition and subtraction therapy of Shenling Baizhu San, 1 dose/day. The course of treatment was 7 days in both groups. Before and after treatment, scores of symptoms, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin (SIgA) levels, peripheral blood immunoglobulin A (IgA), G (IgG), M (IgM) and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ ). Detection of bacillus faccalis in feces before and after treatment and the bacteria were cultured to identify and count bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus. In addition, diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactic acid levels were detected before and after treatment.Result:In rank sum test, clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.268, P<0.01). Scores of main symptoms, secondary symptoms, spleen-stomach deficiency and cold syndrome were lower than those in control group(P<0.01). Levels of SIgA, IgA and IgG were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). Levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ were higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while level of CD8+ was lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Bacillus in faeces was significantly lower than that in control group(P<0.01). Count of enterococcus was lower than that in control group (P<0.05), while counts of bifidobacterium and lactobacillus were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). In addition, levels of DAO and D-lactic acid were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Based on conventional treatment, addition and subtraction therapy of Shenling Baizhu San can alleviate symptoms, improve clinical efficacy, improve immune function, regulate intestinal flora and promote the repair of intestinal mucosal barrier in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) with spleen-stomach deficiency and cold syndrome.
Keywords：antibiotic-associated diarrhea;spleen-stomach deficiency and cold syndrome;Shenling Baizhu San;immune function;intestinal flora
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the compatible stability of Xingnaojing injection in combination with 9 common medicines, and to provide a reference for clinical application of this injection.Method:According to the clinical application, Xingnaojing injection was mixed with 9 common medicines and placed in the room under dark and light conditions for 6 h. The appearance of compatible solutions was observed, and the HPLC fingerprint was analyzed by similarity evaluation and principal component analysis(PCA).Result:There were no significant changes in the appearance of compatibility of Xingnaojing injection and 9 common medicines, including piracetam and sodium chloride injection, sodium chloride injection and others. The similarities of fingerprint among compatibility of Xingnaojing injection and 9 common medicines were >0.98 at 0 h of compatibility, 6 h of placement and 6 h of illumination. The results of PCA showed that 9 groups of compatible solutions were clustered into 2 categories, the compatibility of Xingnaojing injection and 8 groups including piracetam and sodium chloride injection clustered into one category, and the relative peak areas of the characteristic components of Xingnaojing injection did not change significantly after compatibility, the compatibility of Xingnaojing injection and Danshen Chuanxiongqin injection clustered into another category, the relative peak areas of some characteristic components of Xingnaojing injection increased after compatibility of 0 h and 6 h, and it was more obvious after 6 h of illumination.Conclusion:The compatibility of Xingnaojing injection and 8 common medicines including piracetam and sodium chloride injection has good stability, while the compatibility has stability problems after Xingnaojing injection mixed with Danshen Chuanxiongqin injection. It is suggested that clinical attention should be paid to their compatibility and rational combination of medicines.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the dryness effect of Atractylodes lancea and A. chinensis.Method:Sixty normal and healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(10 in each group), including normal saline group, soybean oil group, low-dose(46.25 mg·kg-1·d-1) group and high-dose(500 mg·kg-1·d-1) group of A. lancea, low-dose(46.25 mg·kg-1·d-1) group and high-dose(500 mg·kg-1·d-1) group of A. chinensis, the dosing volume was 0.01 mL·g-1, and the drug was administered orally for 21 days. Taking average daily water intake, submandibular gland tissue, urine volume and expression of aquaporin 2(AQP2) in the kidney, and whole blood viscosity as the evaluation indexes, the dryness effect of long-term administration of equal doses of volatile oil from A. lancea and volatile oil from A. chinensis on rats was observed.Result:Compared with the soybean oil group, long-term administration of high doses of volatile oil from A. lancea and volatile oil from A. chinensis could significantly increase average daily water intake, urine volume and whole blood viscosity; decrease the expression of AQP2, and atrophy the acini of submandibular gland, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Effects of volatile oil from A. lancea and A. chinensis with low dose on dryness of rats were not significant.Conclusion:There is no significant difference between the dryness effect of volatile oil from A. lancea and A. chinensis in the same dose. It is proved that the rationality of A. lancea and A. chinensis are universal in clinical practice, and this study provides experimental basis for rational use of Atractylodis Rhizoma.
Abstract：Objective:To study the appearance description, TLC examination and content determination was carried out, in order to improve the quality standard of processed slices of Paridis Rhizoma in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.Method:Based on the literature review and observation on the samples, the appearance description was described. TLC examination was used for the qualitative analysis. HPLC was used for the determination of polyphyllin Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅵ and Ⅶ in the commercial and processed samples. UPLC was employed for the determination of 10 steroidal saponins, namely pseudoprotodioscin, polyphyllin Ⅶ, 17-hydroxygracillin, polyphyllin H, polyphyllin Ⅵ, polyphyllin Ⅱ, dioscin, gracilin, polyphyllin Ⅰ and polyphyllin Ⅴ.Result:For the appearance description, color and luster, texture, odor and taste as well as the diameter of 1.0-4.5 cm were recorded. polyphyllin Ⅵ was not detected in the thin layer chromatograms of most of the tested samples derived from high-quality species but obviously detected in those of Trillium Rhizoma. Five of 13 commercial samples met the requirements that the total amounts of polyphyllin Ⅶ, Ⅵ, Ⅱ, and Ⅰ should be no less than 0.6%according to the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Because softening and drying had the obvious influence on the contents of steroidal saponins in the samples, soaking and sun-drying were preferred.Conclusion:Appearance description should be supplemented. Polyphyllin Ⅵ is not considered as one of quality markers for the TLC identification and HPLC determination of Paridis Rhizoma. Polyphyllin H was considered as a new marker for the quality control. It is recommended that the total amounts of polyphyllin Ⅶ, H, Ⅱ, and Ⅰ should be no less than 1.0%.
Keywords：Paridis Rhizoma;property;polyphyllin;quality standard
Abstract：Objective:To obtain the information of alkaloids in Evodia rutaecarpa by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.Method:Inter Sustain-C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) was used with 0.2% formic acid water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The column temperature was 25 °C, the volume flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, and the sample volume is 5 μL. The detection wavelength was 245 nm, and the chromatographic effluent was detected and analyzed by using both positive and negative ions.Result:According to molecular ion peaks and secondary mass spectrometry characteristic fragment ions, as well as the mass spectrometry information of reference substances and relevant literature reports, more than 40 major peaks were analyzed, and 21 alkaloids were identified from the methanol extract of E. rutaecarpa, including 10 kinds of indole alkaloids, 10 kinds of quinolone alkaloids, and 1 kind of ephedrine. Main types of alkaloids in E. rutaecarpa were basically clarified. And the research found that the alkaloids have a good response mainly in the positive mode.Conclusion:Based on HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technology, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, mass spectrometry determination of molecular mass, pyrolysis data, literature analysis and retrieval were performed to quickly, accurately and comprehensively identify alkaloids in E. rutaecarpa, so as to provide a scientific basis for the further extraction and separation of the chemical constituents of E. rutaecarpa.
Abstract：Objective:To study HPLC fingerprints of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix from different origins, compare different specifications in the same origin, and explore the effect of origin and specifications on the quality of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix and relationship between the specifications and the internal quality of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, in order to provide basis for the identification of its origin.Method:The HPLC fingerprints of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix from different origins and with different specifications in the same origin were collected. The similarity analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis were adopted to analyze the fingerprints, the differences in fingerprints of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix from different origins and with different specifications in the same origin were compared.Result:Analysis of different origins and principal component analysis could be used to distinguish Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix from five producing areas, and the identification results of origin analysis was better than those of cluster analysis and similarity analysis. Analysis of different specifications, similarity analysis or principal component analysis could not distinguish Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix with different specifications.Conclusion:There are significant differences in chemical composition and peak height among Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix from different origins, with less differences in chemical composition and peak height of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix with different specifications, the principal component analysis could be used to identify origins of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix.
Abstract：Objective:To establish a HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid, rutin, polydatin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, astragalin, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol in Tetrastigmatis Hemsleyani Radix, in order to study the content changes of eight components of different months.Method:Zorbax SB C18column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm)was adopted with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile(A)and 0.1%phosphoric acid(B)in gradient elution(0-30 min, 10%-30%A; 30-40 min, 30%-95%A; 40-45 min, 95%A; 45-60 min, 95%-10%A). The flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1, the column was kept at 25 ℃, and the detection wavelength was 320 nm.Result:Chlorogenic acid, rutin, polydatin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, astragalin, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol showed a good linearity within the range of 13.7-549 mg·L-1(r=0.999 0), 12.6-253 mg·L-1(r=0.999 1), 15.8-316 mg·L-1(r=0.999 0), 14.7-147 mg·L-1(r=0.999 2), 8.8-88 mg·L-1(r=0.999 1), 7.9-79 mg·L-1(r=0.999 5), 8.6-172 mg·L-1(r=0.999 1), 8.9-89 mg·L-1(r=0.999 4). There were great differences in contents of the eight flavonoid active components in different growth phases. In July and August, the relative contents of chlorogenic acid, rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and polydatin were the highest. The highest relative content of quercetin was observed in June. The relative contents of resveratrol and kaempferol in April and May was higher than those in other mouths. The relative content of astragalin in November was the highest.Conclusion:It could provide abundant information for the production and quality control of Tetrastigmatis Hemsleyani Radix.
Abstract：Objective:To establish the quality control method of the wine-processing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma standard decoction, in order to provide reference for the quality evaluation of the wine-processing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma formula granules and other related products.Method:Totally 15 batches of representative wine-processing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma pieces were collected to prepare the standard decoction, establish the HPLC fingerprint and determine the content of five components(sodium danshensu, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B). The main common peaks in fingerprint were identified to define the main chemical constituents in the standard decoction, the parameters, such as dry extract rate, transfer rate of index components and pH of the standard decoction were calculated, and the comprehensive evaluation index was established to evaluate the stability of the preparation process.Result:The main component standard decoction was phenolic acids. The concentrations of five components(sodium danshensu, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B)in the standard decoction were 0.21%-0.37%, 0.03%-0.10%, 0.08%-0.18%, 0.07%-0.13%, 2.68%-4.34%, the dry extract rates of standard decoction were 71.8%-85.4%, 50.0%-71.4%, 68.2%-81.0%, 66.7%-84.6%, 67.5%-79.6%, the transfer rates were between 45.1%-55.3%, and pH value was between 5.91-6.05. The fingerprint similarities of the 15 batches of standard decoction with reference fingerprints were>0.98, the fingerprint showed 12 common peaks, 7 of which were considered to be sodium danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithosperic acid and salvianolic acid B.Conclusion:The established systematic evaluation for the quality of wine-processing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma standard decoction is stable and feasible, and provides a reference for the quality control of relevant preparations of wine-processing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction.
Keywords：wine-processing Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma;standard decoction;sodium danshensu;caffeic acid;rosmarinic acid;lithospermic acid;salvianolic acid B
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of different hormone ratios on the callus induction of roots, stems and leaves of Polygala tenuifolia, and determine and analyze the amount of flavonoids in roots, stems and leaves of P. tenuifolia.Method:With MS as the basic medium and roots, stems and leaves of P. tenuifolia sterile seedings as explants, the effects of 2, 4-D, NAA and 6-BA on callus induction and flavonoid accumulation in different parts of roots, stems and leaves of P. tenuifolia were determined by orthogonal test.Result:2, 4-D, NAA and 6-BA had significant effects on the callus induction rate of roots, stems and leaves of P. tenuifolia. The optimal callus induction combination of leaves was MS+ 3.0 mg·L-1 2, 4-D+ 1.0 mg·L-1 NAA+ 1.5 mg·L-1 6-BA, the optimal callus induction combination of stems was MS+ 1.0 mg·L-1 2, 4-D+ 3.0 mg·L-1 NAA+ 1.5 mg·L-1 6-BA, the optimal callus induction combination for roots was MS+ 1.0 mg·L-1 2, 4-D+ 1.0 mg·L-1 NAA+ 1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA. And 2, 4-D, NAA and 6-BA had significant effects on flavonoid accumulation in the stem callus of P. tenuifolia, and MS+ 3.0 mg·L-1 2, 4-D+ 1.0 mg·L-1 NAA+ 0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA was the best flavonoid accumulation combination.NAA, 6-BA had significant effects on flavonoid accumulation in the leave callus of P. tenuifolia, while 2, 4-D had no significant effect, and MS+ 3.0 mg·L-1 2, 4-D+ 2.0 mg·L-1 NAA+ 1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA was the optimal flavonoid accumulation combination, the three hormones had no significant effect on the accumulation of flavonoids in the root callus of P. tenuifolia, and MS+ 2.0 mg·L-1 2, 4-D+ 1.0 mg·L-1 NAA+ 1.5 mg·L-1 6-BA was the best flavonoid accumulation combination.Conclusion:Under the conditions, the callus induction rate of roots, stems and leaves of P. tenuifolia is 100%, especially, the callus of P. tenuifolia leaves was the optimal, which is followed by P. tenuifolia stems and P. tenuifolia roots. Under the conditions, the amount of flavonoids in roots, stems and leaves of P. tenuifolia reach 21.31, 24.56, 23.61 mg·g-1, respectively.
Abstract：Objective:To study the mechanism of Wulingsan (WLS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by network pharmacology.Method:The active components of WLS were screened on traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology(TCMSP) platform, and the targets were predicted in DragBank database. The " component-target" network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.2.1 software. Disease targets were searched in TTD, DrugBank and DisGenet databases. The Venn diagram was built to extract the target of WLS in the treatment of RA, and the gene oesthetics(GO) function annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedin of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) signal pathway enrichment analysis were performed by cluego plugin. The TCM-component-target-pathway network of WLS was constructed, and the network feature analysis was made by Network Analyzer.Result:Totally 52 components and 297 potential targets in WLS and 1 845 targets relating to RA were excavated, and 49 common targets of WLS-RA were obtained. The common targets were mainly enriched in 322 biological processes and 31 signaling pathways.Conclusion:WLS may regulate targets, such as prostaglandin epoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), cysteine aspartate protein-3 (Caspase-3), transcription factor p65 (RELA), progesterone receptor (PGR), and adjust cancer-related pathways, tumor necrosis factor(TNF) signaling pathways, interleukin-17(IL-17) signaling pathways, nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathways, Th17 cell differentiation, so as to inhibit the inflammatory response, regulate immune function and adjust apoptosis to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
Abstract：" Ro Nus ZhurJes" theory is the core content of Tibetan medicine property theory, and also the core compatibility law of Tibetan medicine. It takes six tastes of medicine as the surface medicinal property, three tastes after digestion by " three gastropyretie" as the inner medicinal property, eight properties and seventeen effects as the deep medicinal property, and its essential property is the special medicinal property, forming a multi-level medicinal property theory, but its internal structure still needs to be unified and sorted out, clinical practicability needs to be further improved. In this paper, literature mining, Tibetan medicine theory, vector structural model, K-means clustering analysis, Gephi 0.9.2 visualization and other methods were used to sort out the theory of Tibetan medicinal properties. It was found that the inherent structure of Tibetan medicine properties had the multi-dimensional structural characteristics of " seven medicinal properties+ three characteristics" , and that the same medicinal properties would overlap, while the opposite medicinal properties would offset and could be expressed by vectors. Therefore, the vector structural model of " Ro Nus ZhurJes" of Tibetan medicine was proposed in this paper. Taking twenty-five-flavor Yuganzi powder(skyu-ru-nyer-lnga) and 92 commonly used Tibetan medicine prescriptions as examples, the rates of single prescription with seventeen effects and multiple prescriptions acting on three factors were analyzed. The model analysis results were highly consistent with the clinical efficacy, and the main diseases were the same, which showed that this model had a high degree of fitting and interpretation. It could effectively and intuitively quantify the properties of Tibetan medicine prescriptions and uncover the complex hidden knowledge of Tibetan medicine theory. In the future, the vector structural model of " Ro Nus ZhurJes" will be applied to analyze the classical prescriptions of Tibetan medicine, and the fitting evaluation and modification optimization will be carried out continuously in order to improve the practicability of theory of Tibetan medicine property in the big data environment and provide methodological reference for the quantification of medicinal property of Tibetan medicine prescriptions.
Keywords：Tibetan medicine;theory of medicinal property;vector structural model;six tastes;three tastes after digestion;seventeen effect;quantitative values
Abstract：Objective:To summarize medication law of prescription and clinical experience on the treatment of chronic cough through data mining technology.Method:The formula information of 650 cases of chronic cough cases diagnosed and treated by professor HAN Ming-xiang was processed with data mining technology, and system cluster analysis and factor analysis were conducted by SPSS Statistics 22.0.Result:High-frequency medicines of professor HAN Ming-xiang for treating chronic cough were Stemonae Radix, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Asteris Radix et Rhizoma and other 37 herbs, their frequency of occurrence accounted for 80.52%. According to the efficacy, the medicines could be classified into 10 categories, such as expectorant cough antiasthmatic drugs, tonifying deficiency drugs, and diaphoretic drugs. Cluster analysis showed 5 combinations of drugs. Factor analysis yielded 13 common factors, such as Stemonae Radix-Asteris Radix et Rhizoma-Farfarae Flos-Cynanchi Stauntonii Rhizoma et Radix, Asari Radix et Rhizoma-Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus-Zingiberis Rhizoma-Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus.Conclusion:Combined with clinical experience, it can be concluded that clinical treatment of professor HAN Ming-xiang for chronic cough attaches great importance to the pathogenesis of wind-evil, Yang deficiency and cold phlegm underlying lung, phlegm and blood stasis and Qi stagnation. The treatment mainly starts from the lung and spleen, with the method of warm and moist, or with some traditional Chinese medicines with the function of removing phlegm by warming the lung, dispersing cold by thinning the surface, strengthening the spleen and resolving phlegm, strengthening the lung and fixing the surface, and relieving spasmolysis by wind.
Keywords：chronic cough;frequency analysis;system cluster analysis;factor analysis;medication law;experience of famous doctors
Abstract：Objective:The mechanism of action of cardiac toxicity of Radix Aconiti Agrestis was explored by establishing the active components-targets network of Radix Aconiti Agrestis, protein interaction network, the biological function and pathway network of targets, and using molecular docking technology.Methods:The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology(TCMSP) database and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database(CTD) were used to filtrate the toxic candidates of Radix Aconiti Agrestis. Predicting the functional targets of toxic candidates of Radix Aconiti Agrestis by PharmMapper and compared with the cardiac related gene proteins found in the human gene database (GeneCards), and the overlapping proteins were selected as potential cardiac toxicity targets of Radix Aconiti Agrestis. The Cytoscape software was used to construct the network between toxic candidate components and targets. The protein interaction network was mapped by the String database combined with Cytoscape software. The biological functions of the targets and the involved pathways were analyzed with the DAVID platform.The binding of the key proteins with certain toxic candidate components of Radix Aconiti Agrestis was verified by Discover Studio software finally.Results:There were six candidates for toxic ingredients, which involving 27 cardiac toxicity targets. Network analysis results show that the targets were mainly by participating in the heart of phosphorus metabolism, regulation and other related phosphorus metabolism and regulation of phosphorylation and FKBP1A , TGF4-β2, INSR targets to have an important impact on the metabolism, development and form of the heart, and further to have cardiac toxicity.Conclusion:Based on the characteristics of the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway of traditional Chinese medicine, the mechanism of cardiac toxicity of Radix Aconiti Agrestis was explored and its possible toxicity was predicted, which provided a new idea and method for further research on the mechanism of cardiac toxicity of Radix Aconiti Agrestis.
Abstract：Objective:Computer network pharmacology technology was used to screen the main active ingredients of Tripterygium hypoglaucum radix-Leonurus japonicus herba for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA), predict the targets of the active ingredients, establish a pharmaceutical ingredient-active ingredient-target network, and further explore the potential mechanism of Tripterygium hypoglaucum radix-Leonurus japonicus herba for the treatment of RA.Method:RA disease targets were collected through DisGeNET, TTD, and Drugbank databases, the potential active components of Tripterygium hypoglaucum radix and Leonurus japonicus herba and their corresponding targets were obtained from the Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Analysis Platform (TCMSP); common targets for drugs and diseases were screened by using the ImageGP platform; a common target interaction (PPI) network model was constructed by using the String database, a " drug-active ingredient-key target" network was constructed by using Cytoscape software, a protein interaction network was constructed by using the String database, gene function (GO) analysis and pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Gene and Genomic Encyclopedia (KEGG) were performed by using the ClueGO plug-in.Result:Through screening, 9 active pharmaceutical ingredients were obtained, involving a total of 235 targets, and 7 active ingredients were related to the disease targets. 24 common targets for Tripterygium hypoglaucum radix Leonurus japonicus herba-disease were obtained. The common targets were mainly enriched in 278 biological processes and 141 signaling pathways to play a role in the treatment of RA.Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of Tripterygium hypoglaucum radix Leonurus japonicus herba on RA reflects the characteristics of multi-component-multi-target-multi-channel of traditional Chinese medicine, and provides a scientific basis for explaining its mechanism and clinical application of RA.
Abstract：Objective:To analyze the effective active ingredients of Belamcandae Rhizoma and Ephedrae Herba couplet medicines(BREH)in the treatment of bronchial asthma based on network pharmacology, in order to predict their potential targets and explore the mechanism.Method:Active ingredients and predict their targets were collected from traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology(TCMSP) database. Drugs-components-targets network and Proteins interations network were built by STRING database and Cytoscape software. ClusterProfiler and ClueGO was used to enrich the biological function and metabolic pathway of core targets. Finally, candidate targets were mapped onto the pictures of correlative pathways.Result:The 38 effectively active ingredients were screened out, including luteolin, stigmasterol, diosmetin, naringenin, quercetin, iristectorigenin A, isorhamnetin. There were 214 candidate targets relating to bronchial asthma, and 55 core ones were selected to be mainly studied, including RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin-10 (IL-10), NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA), and a number of relevant gene ontology(GO) functions and Kyoto Encyclopedin of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathways were enriched.Conclusion:BREH may regulate the Th1, Th2 and Th17 cell differentiations, Asthma, IL-17, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases(PI3K)/Akt, MAPK, NF-κB, VEGF signaling pathways, so as to interfere the process of cell metabolism, and inhibit gene expression of proinflammatory factor in the treatment of bronchial asthma.
Abstract：In recent years, in order to further improve the quality of decoction pieces of Chinese crude drugs, many related basic research work around the processing of decoction pieces of Chinese crude drugs have been carried out by relevant experts. Many opinions and suggestions on the revision of the National Regulations on the Processing of Decoction Pieces of Chinese Crude Drugs were put forward. In order to further improve the preparation of the National Regulations on the Processing of Decoction Pieces of Chinese Crude Drugs, strengthen the guidance on the revision of local processing standards, and clarify issues related to the circulation, use and supervision of decoction pieces, the Department of Drug Registration Management of the National Medical Products Administration and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission have organized experts to discuss these problems. The author only puts forward some suggestions on related issues in order to achieve the purpose of " throwing a brick to attract jade" . ①The study of the national regulations on the processing of decoction pieces of Chinese crude drugs should be standardized on the basis of the inheritance for the specific process. ②The revision of the National Regulations on the Processing of Decoction Pieces of Chinese Crude Drugs should be improved on the basis of the existing research results. The regulation of the processing process should not be excessively parameterized, the revision of the National Regulations on the Processing of Decoction Pieces of Chinese Crude Drugs also should be synchronization to the revision of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. ③The contents of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the National Regulations on the Processing of Decoction Pieces of Chinese Crude Drugs should have different emphasis. The former should focus on the standard, while the latter should focus on the processing process. ④The revision of local (provincial) processing specifications only collects the pieces that truly have local features and clinical characteristics. ⑤Decoction pieces of local Chinese crude drugs can only be applied at the place of production (province). They are allowed to be produced and distributed in other provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions after through filing. ⑥For the decoction pieces of Chinese crude drugs with large-scale use contained in local processing specifications, they should be included in the National Regulations on the Processing of Decoction Pieces of Chinese Crude Drugs as soon as possible, and their quality standards should be included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Keywords：decoction pieces of Chinese crude drugs;processing regulations;revision;implementation;supervision;local regulations;circulation
Abstract：Objective:Define traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapeutic principles and methods and common prescriptions of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) based on clinical experience of famous doctors.Method:China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Wanfang database were systematically retrieved for literatures of famous doctors in diagnosis and treatment of BPH from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2018.A literature analysis database was established for integration and analysis of relevant content of TCM therapeutic principles and methods and prescriptions. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistics to obtain TCM therapeutic principles and methods, common prescriptions and drug distribution regularity of BPH.Result:A total of 109 qualified literatures were included in this study, involving 66 famous doctors and experts, and 9 kinds of BPH therapeutic principles were obtained, including " treatment of both symptoms and root cause of disease" , " tonification and purgation in combination" , " coordination of Yin and Yang" . There are 55 kinds of therapies, including " promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis" , " clearing heat and promoting dampness" , " warming and recuperating kidney Yang" , " softening and resolving hard mass" and " invigorating kidney Qi" . And BPH was mostly diagnosed and treated based on kidney, spleen and lung. Through collection and summarization, totally 38 formulas commonly used in treating BPH obtained. The most commonly used ones were " Guizhi Fuling Wan" , " Zishen Tongguan Wan" , " Buzhong Yiqi Tang" , " Bazheng Tang" and " Jisheng Shenqi Wan" . There were 217 commonly used herbs, mainly including " Astragali Radix" , " Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata" , " Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma" , " Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma" , " Angelicae Sinensis Radix" , " Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae" , " Peach Kernel" , " Pangolin Scales" , " Vaccariae Semen" , " Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma" , " Poria" , " Rhizoma Alismatis" and " Plantain Seed" .Conclusion:The treatment of BPH is based on the principles of " treatment of both symptoms and root cause of disease, and tonification and purgation in combination" . The commonly used therapies include prescription for " promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis" , " clearing heat and promoting dampness" and " warming and recuperating kidney Yang" . The corresponding prescriptions shall be based on symptoms.
Keywords：prostatic hyperplasia;traditional Chinese medicine;therapeutic principle and method;literature research
Abstract：Bupleuri Radix is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinical practice, which has the effects of relieving fever, relieving liver and depression, and promoting Yangqi. At present, the varieties of Bupleuri Radix are relatively chaotic, and the processing in the production areas is relatively extensive. In the processing of Bupleuri Radix, the processed products contained in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia are raw products and vinegar-processed products. In addition, the specifications on Chinese medicine processing in various provinces and cities contain many processing methods, such as stir-frying with wine, stir-frying with honey, processed with turtle blood, etc. However, there are great differences in processing specifications among provinces and cities, and the processing methods lack clear process parameters, so the quality of Bupleuri Radix decoction pieces produced on these basis is uneven, which affects the clinical application of the decoction pieces. By consulting ancient books and relevant literature, the authors conduct textual research on the varieties of Bupleuri Radix, and systematically summarized the processing methods and processing methods in the producing area, so as to provide reference for the establishment of processing technology specifications and quality standards of Bupleuri Radix decoction pieces.
Keywords：Bupleuri Radix;processing in production place;saponins;pharmacological effects;processing technology;processing specifications;chemical compositions
Abstract：Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with insidious onset and complex etiology and pathogenesis. The main pathological changes are the damage of cholinergic neurons and the loss of synapses. Because of advantages of multi-pathway and multi-target intervention, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) compound prescriptions have a significant effect in the prevention and treatment of AD. Buyang Huanwu Tang, which is the representative prescription for benefiting Qi and activating blood circulation, has been widely used in cerebrovascular diseases, with significant effects in protecting neurons, repairing blood-brain barrier, reducing permeability, resisting cerebral edema and vascular endothelial cell injury and promoting new angiogenesis and maturation. Due to its powerful therapeutic effect the brain, a large number of scholars have found that Buyang Huanwu Tang has a significant effect in improving cognitive impairment, and different components can improve the therapeutic effect of cognitive impairment through different mechanisms. However, different studies focus on a relatively single mechanism of action, which is not conducive to a comprehensive understanding of its mechanisms of action and intervention targets. This article summarizes relevant literatures in recent years for the effect of Buyang Huanwu Tang and its component in reducing beta amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and beta amyloid protein deposition, inhibiting the central nervous system inflammatory signaling pathways in reducing inflammatory cytokines release factor expression protect neurons, repair, neuron apoptosis blood brain barrier, preventing harmful substances from the central nervous system, improving the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LRP)-1 content, lowering ages receptor (RAGE) beta amyloid protein expression, and increasing peripheral clearance of β amyloid protein, and elaborated the mechanisms in protecting neurons and alleviating learning and cognitive dysfunction, in order to provide strong literature support for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with Buyang Huanwu Tang.
Keywords：Buyang Huanwu Tang;Alzhimer's disease;traditional Chinese medicine;amyloid-β peptide;neuroinflammatory
Abstract：Diabetes and its relevant complications have been increasing each year. Oral hypoglycemic agents can temporarily control blood sugar within a normal range, but with serious side effects on multiple systems and no significant efficacy on diabetic complications. Polysaccharide, as a natural drug with various activities, has become a hotspot in recent years, because of its safety, efficacy and low toxicity. More and more researches for the relations between polysaccharides and diabetes have demonstrated that polysaccharides have the advantages of a high safety and low toxicity in treating diabetes. In addition, some polysaccharides may show an effect in alleviating diabetic complications. This paper summarizes recent researches on the hypoglycemic mechanism of polysaccharides. Polysaccharides could protect islet β cell, increase the number of islet cells, promote insulin secretion or release, increase insulin sensitivity, improve insulin resistance and improve glucose metabolism. And polysaccharides can be used in alleviating diabetes-related kidney, eye and foot disease. This report proposes shortcomings for the extraction, activity research and multi-target effects of polysaccharides for diabetes treatment. In addition, this report reviews how polysaccharides affect diabetes and complications, so as provide a scientific reference for the hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides.
Abstract：Leukemia is a hematopoietic hyperplastic disease with an increasing incidence year by year, involving bone marrow and lymphatic system. The disease is complex and a highly heterogeneous disease, including a variety of subtypes, with difficulties in treatment and a poor prognosis. Currently, retinoic acid and its derivatives, arsenic are commonly used in clinical treatment as leukemia cell differentiation inducers. However, their clinical range of treatment is mostly restricted to granulocytic leukemia, with a high price and certain toxic and side effects. With the development of molecular genetics, molecular biology, second-generation sequencing and other technologies, the etiology and pathology of leukemia has been significantly studied, but the specific pathogenesis of leukemia has still been unclear. With the further promotion of molecular targeted drugs, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, although the treatment of leukemia has entered a new field, compared with traditional chemotherapy, these therapies have high costs, and the long-term efficacy is yet to be further confirmed. After years of basic research and clinical research, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) volatile oil in the treatment of leukemia has made remarkable achievements. Essential oil can alleviate the toxic and side effect of chemotherapy drugs, effectively prolong or prevent the relapse of leukemia, inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cells, and promote the apoptosis of leukemia cells. In this paper, the authors reviewed relevant domestic and foreign literatures by literature tracking method, summarized the anti-leukemia mechanism of essential oil of TCM, analyzed the characteristics and existing problems of essential oil of TCM, and proposed the improvement direction, in order to provide reference for accelerating the research and development and innovation of essential oil in the treatment of leukemia.
Keywords：volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine;leukemia;cell proliferation;apoptosis;problem discussion