Abstract：Textual research is the first step, ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the clinical application, and also one of the main bases for determining the research scheme and experimental parameters in the development of famous classical formulas. It involves the origin and historical evolution of the prescription, the main function, the meaning of the prescription, the decoction method, as well as the original part, origin, dosage, processing method of the medicinal materials in the prescription. In view of these points, the author believes that the ancient and modern literature information should be comprehensively and accurately collected according to the standardized procedures and methods, combined with the historical continuation and cross-sectional analysis, in order to ensure the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) famous classical formulas. The research and development plan of famous classical formulas was formulated from the perspectives of TCM theoretical characteristics, formula historical evolution, modern clinical value and practical feasibility. Under the premise of " compliance with the ancients" , we should understand the common problems in the process of research and development, such as the origin, processing, dosage and decoction of TCM from the perspective of history and development, so as to widely gather the industry consensus and jointly explore the precious treasure of the famous classical formulas.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM);textual research;compound preparation;meaning derivation of prescription;herbal textual research;research and development of TCM
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of Huangqisan on endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway in liver tissues of high-fat diet-induced obese rats and its mechanisms.Method:Male SD rats were selected and fed with high-fat diet for 7 weeks continuously to establish an obese rat model. Then, the rats were randomly divided into model group, low and high-dose Huangqisan group (1.2, 2.4 g·kg-1), and Lipitor group (2 mg·kg-1), and orally administered with drugs for 15 consecutive weeks. The control group and the model group were perfused with the same volume of normal saline. The body weight, epididymal fat coefficient and liver coefficient of each group were determined separately. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by biochemical reagent method. The epididymal visceral adipose tissue and liver pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. And the protein expression levels of sterol regulation element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1c), protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α), p-inositol requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1α) in liver tissues were detected by Western blot methods.Result:Compared with the control group, the body weight, epididymal fat coefficient and liver coefficient of the model group were significantly increased(P<0.01), and the levels of FPG, TC, TG and LDL-C were also higher than those of the control group(P<0.05, P<0.01). The cell volume of epididymal fat and liver in the model group were enlarged, and numerous fat vesicles were observed in the cells. Meanwhile, the protein expression levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors SREBP-1c, PERK, IRE1α/p-IRE1α were increased(P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, high-dose and low-dose Huangqisan groups could significantly reduce the body weight, epididymal fat coefficient, liver coefficient and levels of glucose and lipid(P<0.05, P<0.01), and pathological examination showed that the lesion degrees of epididymal fat and liver tissues were alleviated obviously. In addition, Huangqisan could mostly reduce SREBP-1c, PERK, IRE1α/p-IRE1α protein expression levels to different degrees(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Huangqisan could regulate the glucose and lipid metabolism, alleviate liver pathology and reduce body weight, and its mechanism was probably related to reduction of SREBP-1c, PERK, IRE1α/p-IRE1α proteins expression levels.
Abstract：Objective:Based on the analysis of the total components of fingerprint and the determination methods of the existing components in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the " point-line-surface" quality standard of Yangjing Zhongyu Tang was established by the " point" of each single component (morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and verbascoside) to the " line" of multicomponent and the " face" of fingerprint of the whole component.Method:XB-C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) was used for gradient elution of 0.1%phosphoric acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile. The column temperature was 30 ℃, the injection volume was 10 μL, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, and the detection wavelengths were 240, 316, 230, 334 nm. The contents of these five components in Yangjing Zhongyu Tang were determined by three correction methods, external standard method and regression equation method. At the same time, the fingerprint of Yangjing Zhongyu Tang were analyzed by total component analysis and similarity evaluation.Result:With ferulic acid as reference, the relative correction factor (f) of morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin and verbascoside were 0.392 1, 0.421 4, 0.261 7, 0.268 6 by multi-point correction method, and their f (slope correction method) were 0.385 4, 0.419 4, 0.255 9, 0.274 0, respectively. Twenty characteristic peaks of fingerprint were analyzed and the similarity was ≥0.999.There was no significant difference in the contents of these five components from Yangjing Zhongyu Tang determined by the quantitative assay of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) correction method, the external standard method and the regression equation method.Conclusion:The comprehensive quality standard established by the total component analysis of fingerprint combined with various determination methods of existing components in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia has been validated in famous classical formula of Yangjing Zhongyu Tang, which can provide ideas and methods for the quality control with quantitative determination and fingerprint of other famous classical formulas.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Yangjing Zhongyu Tang;quantitative assay of multi-components by single-marker;correction factor;total component analysis;quality standards;fingerprint
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Baoyuan Jiedu decoction on serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) content, expression of muscle atrophy F-box 1(Atrogin-1), muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1), uncoupling proteins-2 (UCP-2), uncoupling proteins-3 (UCP-3) in Apcmin/+ mice, in order to explore the mechanism in improving muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia model.Method:The 14-week-old Apcmin/+ cachexia mice model was randomly divided into model group, Baoyuan Jiedu decoction group (23 g·kg-1) and megestrol group (0.024 g·kg-1). C57BL/6J mice were normal group, with 10 mice in each group, and given continuous intragastric administration for 12 weeks. The quality of gastrocnemius muscle and the transverse diameter of muscle fibers were measured. The content of IL-6 in serum of Apcmin/+ cachexia mice was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expressions of Atrogin-1, MuRF-1, UCP-2, UCP-3 mRNA and protein in gastrocnemius muscle were detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with the normal group, the weight of gastrocnemius muscle and the transverse diameter of fibers in the model group decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the concentration of IL-6 in serum and the expressions of Atrogin-1, MuRF-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 in gastrocnemius muscle of mice increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the weight of gastrocnemius muscle, the expression of UCP-3 and protein in the treated group increased significantly (P<0.05). The transverse diameter of muscle fibers increased significantly, whereas the concentration of IL-6 in serum and the expressions of Atrogin-1, MuRF-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 in gastrocnemius muscle of mice decreased significantly (P<0.05).Conclusion:Reduction of the concentration of IL-6 in serum and the down-regulation of the expressions of Atrogin-1, MuRF-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 genes may be the possible mechanism of Baoyuan Jiedu decoction in alleviating muscle atrophy in Apcmin/+ cachexia mice model.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of phlegm and blood stasis on the expressions of sirtuin 3(SIRT3)protein and urate transporter 1(URAT1) mRNA in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats with gout.Method:The 40 healthy rats, excepting the normal group, the remaining groups were fed with high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin solution (40 mg·kg-1) once a day, with blood glucose "16.7 mmol·L-1" as the criterion for the diabetes model. After 4 days, the 5%sodium urate solution was injected into the joint cavity once to induce the gout model. After the successful modeling, the Biling group (10 g·kg-1), the indomethacin group (5 mg·kg-1) and the pioglitazone group (10 mg·kg-1) continued to be administered for 21 days. The normal group and the model group were given the same amount of normal saline. The expression of SIRT3 protein in skeletal muscle tissue was determined by Western blot, URAT1 mRNA expression in bone tissue was detected by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR), and blood was collected to measure blood glucose (GLU), blood uric acid (UA) and C-reactive protein (CRP).Result:Compared with the normal group, GLU, UA and CRP in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, GLU in the Biling group and the pioglitazone group were decreased, and UA and CRP in the medicine group were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the normal group, the expression of SIRT3 protein in the skeletal muscle of the model group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the expression of SIRT3 protein in the skeletal muscle of the Biling group was significantly increased after administration (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression of SIRT3 protein in the skeletal muscle of the sputum group was significantly increased (P<0.01), with no significant difference from the western medicine group. The results of the strip chart also showed that compared with the model group, the expression brightness of the model group was significantly weakened, while the expression brightness of the drug group was significantly enhanced. Compared with the normal group, the relative expression of joint URAT1 mRNA in the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the relative expression of URAT1 mRNA in each drug group was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01). The results of the strip chart also showed that expression brightness of the normal group was the weakest, while that of the model group was the highest, and the expression brightness of the Biling group and the western medicine group was significantly weakened. Joint pathology suggested that compared with the normal group, the pathological damage of the joints in the model group was severe, with a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis, synovial cell degeneration and necrosis. Compared with the model group, the degree of joint disease was significantly reduced after treatment with Biling Qutong prescription, with only a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration and mild hyperplasia in synovial epithelium.Conclusion:Biling Qutong prescription with effects in purging turbidity, detoxifying and dredging collaterals can significantly reduce the content of serum inflammatory factor CRP, significantly increase the protein expression of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle tissue of model rats, lower the content of URAT1 mRNA, reduce the blood glucose and blood uric acid levels in diabetic gout rats, and protect joints.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of taraxerol on autophagy of breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro, and explore the related mechanisms.Method:The effect of various doses of taraxerol (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 μmol·L-1) on proliferation of MCF-7 cells was detected by methye thiazolye telrazlium (MTT) assay. The autophagy-inducing effect of taraxerol was observed by acridine orange staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and immunofluorescence. The expressions of autophagy-related proteins and the changes of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were determined by Western blot analysis.Result:The viability of MCF-7 cells was significantly inhibited by taraxerol. Acridine orange staining indicated that the acidic lysosomes increased significantly after treatment with taraxerol in MCF-7 cells. The autophagic structure in the treated group was observed by TEM. Immunofluorescence showed that the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cells of the drug group was increased. Western blot demonstrated that the protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ and Beclin-1 were increased in taraxerol-treated MCF-7 cells (P<0.05, P<0.01), respectively. Compared with 100 μmol·L-1 taraxerol group, combination group (taraxerol + 3-methyladenine, 3-MA) showed the down-regulation of LC3-Ⅱ in the MCF-7 cells (P<0.05). And expressions of phosphorylated mammal target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (p-4EBP1) were decreased in MCF-7 cells after treatment with taraxerol (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Taraxerol can induce autophagy in MCF-7 cells, which may be related to the inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway.
Keywords：breast cancer;taraxerol;autophagy;mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of modified Shuyuwan neuroprotection in APP/PS1 model mice .Method:Selecting 20 male APP/PS1 mice of 5 months old and 10 wild type mice.The mice were divided into blank group, model group and modified Shuyuwan group(14 g·kg-1·d-1), drug delivery for 28 days, and blank group and model group were given the same amount of normal saline, APP/PS1 background primary neuron model and wild type primary neurons were divided into blank group, model group and modified Shuyuwan group, tunicamycin group, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor group.The blank group and model group were given 10%blank serum, the modified Shuyuwan group was given 5%modified Shuyuwan-containing serum, the tunicamycin group and the PI3K/Akt inhibitor group were respectively added with 2 mg·L-1 tunicamycin and 10 μmol·L-1 LY294002 on the basis of 5%modified Shuyuwan-containing serum.The spatial learning and memory ability of mice was measured by Morris water maze, and Western blot was used to detect nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2) protein expression in hippocampus.Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins glucose regulatory protein 78(GRP78), protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase(PERK), phosphorylation (p-)PERK and apoptosis expression of the pathway proteins eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α(eIF2α), p-eIF2α, enhancer binding protein homologous protein(CHOP), and cysteinyl aspartate apecific proteinase 3 (Caspase-3), p-Akt, Akt, Glycogen Synthase kinase-3β(GSK3β), Nrf2.Result:In vivo experiment, compared with blank group, the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice in the model group was impaired(P<0.01), and the expression level of Nrf2 in the hippocampus was decreased(P<0.01). Compared with model group, after 4 weeks of modified Shuyuwan intervention, the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice in the modified Shuyuwan group was improved, and the expression level of Nrf2 in the hippocampus was significantly increased(P<0.01). In vitro experiment, Western blot analysis showed that compared with the blank group, the expression of GRP78, p-PERK/PERK, p-eIF2α/eIF2α, CHOP, and cleaved Caspase-3 proteins was increased in the model group(P<0.01). Compared with model group, modified Shuyuwan-containing serum intervention significantly reduced the expression of GRP78, p-PERK/PERK, p-eIF2α/eIF2α, CHOP, and cleaved Caspase-3 proteins(P<0.05, P<0.01). Whereas tunicamycin inhibited the protection effect of SHhuyuwan on the endoplasmic reticulum and ERS-induced apoptosis(P<0.05). Western blot results showed that compared with blank group, the expression of p-Akt/Akt and Nrf2 protein was significantly decreased and the expression of GSK-3β was increased in the model group(P<0.01). Compared with model group, the expression of p-Akt/Akt and Nrf2 protein was significantly increased and the expression of GSK-3β was decreased after modified Shuyuwan-containing serum intervention(P<0.05, P<0.01). The effect of modified Shuyuwan on the expression of p-Akt, Nrf2 and GSK3β protein was inhibited by LY294002.(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Modified Shuyuwan can increase Nrf2 protein expression through PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway, reduce neuronal apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 model mice.
Keywords：Alzheimer's disease;Modified Shuyuwan;nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2;endoplasmic reticulum stress;apoptosis
Abstract：Objective:To screen the best compatibility proportion of total alkaloids of Coptidis Rhizoma and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma total saponins (HS composition)by uniform design and pharmacological model and to observe the effect on diabetic complications.Method:The total alkaloids of Coptidis Rhizoma and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma total saponins were used as the research objects, U6(62) table was choosed for grouping design.The content of triglyceride fasting blood-glucose (FBG), prothrombin time (PT) and active partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was chosen as index. The best dose ratio was obtained by multipleregression analysis. Rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by high-fat diet combined streptozotocin were divided into blank group, model group, metformin group (150 mg·kg-1), HS composition group (total alkaloids of Coptidis Rhizoma 360 mg·kg-1+ Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma total saponins 40 mg·kg-1). Rats were administered orally for 10 weeks.By observing the blood glucose, glucose tolerance, area under the curve (AUC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C)and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), hemorheological indexes and pathological changes of pancreas, heart, kidney and retina in rats of each group, the effect of this composition on diabetic complications was verified.Result:Combination of 625 mg·kg-1 total alkaloids of Coptidis Rhizoma and 60 mg·kg-1 Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma total saponins was the optimal dosage ratio of HS composition.The validation test showed that compared with blank group, the fasting blood glucose and lipid levels in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01), and HDL-C was decreased (P<0.01). The hemorheology indexes of whole blood were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the FBG in metformin group were significantly reduced at week 6, 8, 10(P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with model group, HS combination group 2, 4, 8, 10 weeks significantly lower fasting glucose levels(P<0.05, P<0.01), serum TG, LDL-C significantly lower values(P<0.05, P<0.01), HDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C values were significantly increased (P<0.01), whole blood high shear viscosity and whole blood viscosity were significantly reduced (P<0.01). HS composition could reduce the blood sugar and lipid content, reduce the whole blood viscosity, and reduce the damage of pancreas, heart, kidney and retina.Conclusion:The optimum compatibility dose of HS composition have a good therapeutic effect on diabetic complication rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.
Keywords：diabetic complication;total alkaloids of Coptidis Rhizoma;Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma total saponins;uniform design;compatibility proportion
Abstract：Objective:Study on the mechanism of Tongfengning in reducing serum uric acid from the perspective of renal urate transporter.Method:The human renal tubular epithelial cells(HK-2)was randomly divided into normal group, model group, Tongfengning low, medium and high dose group (7.65, 15.3, 30.6 g·kg-1) and benzbromarone group (50 μmo1·L-1), different culture media were given for intervention.HK-2 and cell supernatant were collected after 24 h of intervention. The expressions of urate transporter 1 (URAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporter 1(OAT1), organic anion transporter 3(OAT3), and ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) protein and mRNA were detected in HK-2 of all groups by Western blot and Real-time PCR.Result:Compared with normal group, the expression of URAT1, GLUT9 protein and mRNA was significantly increased(P<0.01), while the expression of ABCG2 protein and mRNA was significantly decreased in model group (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the expression of URAT1, GLUT9 protein and mRNA in each dose of Tongfengning group and benzbromarone group were decreased (P<0.01), and each doses of Tongfengning group was superior to the benzbromarone group. The expression of ABCG2 protein and mRNA was increased in each dose of Tongfengning group (P<0.01). Compared with Tongfengning medium dose group, the expression of URAT1, GLUT9 protein and mRNA increased, while the expression of ABCG2 protein and mRNA decreased in the low and Tongfengning high dose groups (P<0.01). OAT1 and OAT3 were not expressed in all groups.Conclusion:Tongfengning can regulate the reabsorption and secretion of uric acid in renal tubules, promote the excretion of uric acid in kidney and reduce the level of serum uric acid by down-regulating the expression of URAT1, GLUT9 protein and mRNA in HK-2 and up-regulating the expression of ABCG2 protein and mRNA. It is suggested that the regulation of renal uric acid transporter protein may be one of the specific mechanisms of Tongfengning to reduce serum uric acid by promoting dampness and turbid removal. OAT1, OAT3 protein and mRNA were not expressed in HK-2 cultured in vitro.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of menthol on proliferation, migration and expressions of interleukin-8(IL-8), C-X-C motif chemokine-12(CXCL-12) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro, in order to elucidate the anti-liver cancer activity of menthol and relevant mechanisms.Method:Different concentrations of menthol (25, 50, 100, 200 μmol·L-1) and blank group were applied to Hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) and EDU were used to detect the proliferation effect of menthol on HepG2 cell. Transwell experiment was used to detect the migration effect of menthol on HepG2 cell. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique was used to detect the inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and CXCL-12 mRNA expression levels in HepG2 cell. Western blot was used to detect the expression level of VEGF in HepG2 cells treated with menthol.Result:Compare with the blank group, menthol (25, 50, 100, 200 μmol·L-1) significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells in vitro. When the concentration of menthol was 100 μmol·L-1 microns, the inhibitory effect was significant (P<0.05). Menthol significantly inhibited the migration of HepG2 cells. The higher the concentration of menthol was, the less the number of cell migration was. Compared with the blank group, menthol (100, 200 μmol·L-1) significantly inhibited the expression levels of IL-8, CXCL-12 mRNA and VEGF protein in HepG2 cells (P<0.05), indicating that menthol is an anticancer agent by inhibiting inflammation and chemokines.Conclusion:Menthol has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro, and the potential anti-liver cancer mechanism might be related to the inhibition of IL-8, CXCL-12 and VEGF expressions in the cells. This conclusion provides the experimental basis for elucidating the effect of menthol against liver cancer.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the curative effect and partial mechanism of modified Guipitang combined with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture in the treatment of non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment (VCIND).Method:Totally 122 patients with VCIND admitted to the First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) from May 2017 to October 2018 were randomly divided into modified decoction group (39 cases), acupuncture group (42 cases) and combination group (41 cases). All of the three groups were orally given routine anticoagulants and lipid-lowering drugs. The decoction group was orally given modified Guipitang 150 mL/times, 2 times/day, in addition to the routine treatment, the acupuncture group was treated with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture method in addition to the routine treatment, involving Shuigou, Neiguan (bilateral), Sanyinjiao (bilateral), Sishencong, Xuanzhong (bilateral) and Taixi (bilateral) acupoints, 2 times/day, for six days a week, the combined group was treated with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture in addition to modified Guipitang. All of the three groups were treated for 8 weeks. The Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA scale, Beijing version) and activity of daily life (ADL) scale, TCM symptoms and clinical efficacy were scored before treatment, 4 weeks after treatment and 8 weeks after treatment in three groups. Serum levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and cone-like protein-1 (VILIP-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different time points.Result:Compared with decoction group and acupuncture group, MoCA score, ADL score and TCM syndrome score of the combined group were decreased, the total effective rate was increased significantly after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, the serum CGRP content was increased, and the VILIP-1 content was decreased.Conclusion:Modified Guipitang combined with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture has a definite curative effect on VCIND with heart and spleen insufficiency syndrome. Its mechanism may be related to the expansion of blood vessels, the alleviation of blood supply of brain and the reduction of neuron injury.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of modified Danggui Shaoyao San on matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), emorheology and inflammation in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.Method:Patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease during May 2017 to June 2018 were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 37 cases in each group. The control group was orally treated with levofloxacin tablets and metronidazole tablets. In addition to the therapy of the control group, the treatment group was also given modified Danggui Shaoyao San. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptom scores, MMP-2 and ICAM-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), grain-megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), whole blood viscosity (ηb), plasma viscosity (ηp), erythrocyte aggregation index (AI), fibrinogen (Fib) before and after treatment were compared between two groups. The efficacy, adverse reactions and recurrence were observed in two groups.Result:The clinical efficacy of treatment group was better than that of the control group (Z=2.791, P<0.05). The scores of lower abdominal pain, lumbosacral pain, subband pain, menstrual volume, abdominal tenderness and fatigue in treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). MMP-2, ICAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF, ηb, ηp, AI, Fib levels in the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than those in control group (P <0.05), while IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β1 levels in treatment group after treatment were significantly higher than those in control group (P <0.05). After 3 months of follow-up, the recurrence rates of observation group and control group were 2.70%and 21.62%, respectively, with statistically significant differences (χ2=6.198, P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Danggui Shaoyao San has a significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of CPID, and can effectively relieve clinical symptoms and greatly reduce the recurrence rate, which may be related to the improvement of the regulation of MMP-2 and ICAM-1 levels, the inhibition of inflammatory reactions and the improvement of hemorheology.
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the clinical effect of modified Yuyetang to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) combined with coronary heart disease (deficiency of Qi and Yin or phlegm syndrome and stasis syndrome) and the mechanisms of anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation.Method:One hundred and eighteen patients were randomly divided into control group (58 cases) and observation group (60 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group was orally given insulin or special blood glucose for hypoglycemic agents, aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 100 mg/time, 1 time/day. Patients with dyslipidemia got atorvastatin, 10 mg/time, 1 time/day. And patients with hypertension got captopril tablets, 12.5-25.0 mg/time, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given modified Yuyetang, 1 dose/day. A course of treatment was 3 months. Before and after treatment, levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FPG), 2-hours postprandial glucose (2 hPG), blood lipids triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HLD-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), procalcitonin (PCT), homocysteine (Hcy), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a (8-ios-PGF2a) were detected, Gensini and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome were scored, and electrocardiogram was detected.Result:After treatment, levels of FPG, HbA1c, LDL-C, ApoB, scores of Gensini and TCM syndrome, PCT, Hcy, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in observation group were all lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and levels of MDA and 8-ios-PGF2a were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of HDL-C, ApoA, SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). By rank sum test analysis, the effect of electrocardiogram was better than that in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:In addition to hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering and antiplatelet therapies, Modified Yuye decoction can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism of patients with T2DM and coronary heart disease, relieve degree of coronary artery stenosis, with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effect.
Keywords：type 2 diabetes mellitus;coronary heart disease;deficiency of both qi and Yin and phlegm or blood stasis syndrome;modified Yuyetang;Gensini score;anti-inflammatory;antioxidant
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Bushen Kangshuai tablets combined with abdominal massage on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with syndrome of spleen and kidney deficiency, and investigate its antioxidant stress and immune regulation effects.Method:One hundred and sixty patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group by random number table, 80 cases in each group. Patients in control group got abdominal massage, 1 time/day, 5 times/week, for a total of 3 treatment courses, 15 times in one course. Based on the treatment in control group, patients in observation group also received Bushen Kangshuai tablets, 6 tablets/time, 3 times/days, for a total of 12 weeks in treatment. Before and after treatment, symptom scores of spleen and kidney deficiency, fatigue scale-14 (SF-14), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were graded; and levels of serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM), natural killer cells (NK), T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ ), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected.Result:In the rank sum test, the clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=1.982, P<0.05). After treatment, scores of fatigue, listlessness, malaise, weakness of waist and knee, the total score of other symptoms and spleen and kidney deficiency syndrome in the observation groups were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01), and the scores of physical fatigue, mental fatigue and total score of SF-14, SAS, SDS and PSQI were also all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM in observation group were higher than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of NK, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4+ /CD8+ were also higher then those in control group (P<0.05). SOD and GSH-Px were all higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of CD8+ (P<0.05) and MDA (P<0.01) were all lower than those in control group.Conclusion:Bushen Kangshuai tablets combined with abdominal massage to CFS with syndrome of spleen and kidney deficiency can significantly relieve fatigue, improve spleen and kidney deficiency, and improve immune function and antioxidant stress, superior to abdominal massage therapy alone in the clinical Efficacy.
Keywords：chronic fatigue syndrome;syndrome of spleen and kidney deficiency;Bushen Kangshuai tablets;immune function;antioxidant stress
Abstract：Objective:To compare the protective effect of Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products on nephropathy induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rats, and explore its mechanism.Method:A rat model of nephropathy was established by a single tail intravenous injection of DOX hydrochloride. Content of esculentoside A (EsA) in Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products was determined by HPLC-ELSD. Contents of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), total cholesterol (TC) and urine protein (UP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in renal tissue of rats was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry.Result:A single intravenous injection of DOX could induce a severe nephrotic syndrome associated with decreased serum TP, Alb and elevated serum BUN, SCr, TC, and a high urinary excretion of protein (P<0.05). Expression of BUN, SCr, TC in serum and UP in urine of model rats could be decreased by Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products to some degree, expression of TP and Alb in serum of model rats could be increased by Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products to some degree, vinegar processed products had the most significant effect. Expression of TGF-β in renal tissue of model group rats was significantly higher than that of blank group (P<0.01), which could be significantly reversed by Phytolaccae Radix processed with vinegar, Phytolaccae Radix boiled with vinegar, Phytolaccae Radix steamed with water(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products can improve the symptoms of DOX nephropathy model rats in different degrees, among which the vinegar prepared products have the strongest effect, and this effect may be related to the reduction of TGF-β expression in renal tissue.
Keywords：Phytolaccae Radix;raw products;processed products;esculentoside A;nephropathy model induced by doxorubicin;transforming growth factor-β
Abstract：Objective:To analyze the effect of honey bran stir-frying method in Zhang faction and honey chaff stir-frying method in Jianchang faction on the composition and relative content of volatile components in Cimicifugae Rhizoma.Method:The volatile oil in different processed products of Cimicifugae Rhizoma was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The inlet temperature was 260 ℃, the transmission line temperature was 250 ℃, the carrier gas was helium, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the split ratio was 10∶1, the injection volume was 1 μL. The column temperature was set at 70 ℃ by programmed heating, rising to 150 ℃ by 2 ℃·min-1 and keeping it there for 2 min, rising to 240 ℃ by 6 ℃·min-1 and keeping it there for 3 min, rising to 300 ℃ by 25 ℃·min-1 and keeping it there for 2 min. The relative content of each component in volatile oil was calculated by peak area normalization method.Result:A total of 73 components were identified from raw products of Cimicifugae Rhizoma, 37 components were identified from honey bran stir-frying products, 93 components were identified from honey chaff stir-frying products, and 71 components were identified from honey stir-frying products. The relative content of n-hexadecanoic acid was the highest among all components in different processed products, accounting for 30.38%-46.47%of the total volatile components. In addition to fatty acids, volatile oils also contained alkanes, esters, alcohols, etc. There were 8 common components with relative content ≥1.0% in raw and processed products of Cimicifugae Rhizoma, after stir-frying with honey bran, the relative contents of these 8 components showed an upward trend, but showed a decreasing trend after stir-frying with honey chaff.Conclusion:After processing with Zhang faction method or Jianchang faction method, the composition and relative content of volatile components in Cimicifugae Rhizoma were significantly changed. This study can provide a scientific basis for explaining the processing mechanism of Jiangxi characteristic Cimicifugae Rhizoma decoction pieces.
Abstract：Objective:To optimize the extraction conditions of baicalin from Scutellariae Radix by electromagnetic pyrolysis.Method:Based on single factor experiments, taking extraction time, material size and liquid-material ratio as factors, yield of baicalin as index, extraction parameters were optimized by response surface methodology, and compared with ultrasonic method, ethanol refluxing method and decoction method.Result:The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time of 2.41 min, material size of 100 mesh, liquid-material ratio of 33 mL·g-1. Under these conditions, the yield of baicalin was 12.21%. The yields of baicalin by ethanol refluxing method, decoction method and ultrasonic method were 12.91%, 12.62%and 11.61%, respectively. The yield of baicalin by electromagnetic cracking extraction was close to several other conventional extraction methods, and the extraction time was significantly shortened.Conclusion:As a novel extraction technology of traditional Chinese medicine, electromagnetic cracking extraction has the advantages of high efficiency, energy and time saving, green environmental protection, etc. And it can provide a new method for the industrial extraction of baicalin.
Keywords：Scutellariae Radix;electromagnetic cracking method;response surface methodology;baicalin;extraction technology;scanning electron microscope;material size
Abstract：Objective:Cimicifuga dahurica (Ranunculaceae) has many bioactivities. Although there have been intensive studies for saponin constituents at present, only a few studies have focused on for chemical constituents of phenolic acid. To define the phenolic acid constituents, C. dahurica was separated, and the structures of the compounds were identified, in the expectation of providing a basis for its further development, utilization and quality control.Method:A total of 16 kg rhizome of C. dahurica was extracted with 70%ethanol for three times by heating reflux. These 3 extracts were decompressed and concentrated, and then dissolved in water. Then the solvent was successively extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate(EtOAc) and n-butanol(BuOH). The components of EtOAc and water extract were isolated and purified by macroporous, silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, preparative HPLC and recrystallization, and the structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and physicochemical analysis etc.Result:Fifteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate and water fractions, and identified as cimicifugic G (1), 2-caffeoyl piscidic acid (2), cimicifugic A (3), cimicifugic B (4), caffeic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), cimicifugic E (6), cimicifugic F (7), trans-ferulic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), carboxymethyl isoferulate (9), 3, 4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (10), ethyl ferulate (11), caffeic ester glucoside (12), shomaside A (13), isoferulic acid (14), caffeic acid (15).Conclusion:Compounds 1-7, 9-10, 13 were isolated from the plant for the first time.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the functions of pathogenesis related protein 1-like (PR1-like) in suspension cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SaPR1-like) under biotic stress.Method:The full sequence of SaPR1-like gene was cloned and analyzed by multiple bioinformatic tools. The expression of SaPR1-like in the suspension cell of S. aucuparia in response to harpin protein stress was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Result:A SaPR1-like gene was identified and cloned, which contained a complete open reading frame and encoded 161 amino acids. The coding protein was hydrophilic and stable, had transmembrane structure and signal peptide, and belonged to secretory protein. Amino acid sequence alignment data indicated that the C-terminal of SaPR1-like contained a highly conserved domain [cysteine-rich secretory protein, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 peptides (CAPE)], which could induce defense genes to produce immune responses against biotic stresses. SaPR1-like gene expression was significantly increased after harpin protein induced suspension cell of S. aucuparia for 24 h.Conclusion:A SaPR1-like gene derived from the PR1 family is found to induce significant responses to biotic elicitors in S. aucuparia. This study highlights a role for PR1 in immune signaling and suggests the potential application of PR1 in efforts to defeat biotic stress in plants.
Abstract：Objective:To clone the key enzyme gene involved in the biosynthesis of esculentoside A(EsA), acetoacetyl-CoA transferase(AACT) gene was cloned from Phytolacca americana for bioinformatics analysis and prokaryotic expression.Method:Total RNA was extracted from the root of P. americana, and then cDNA was synthesized through the reverse transcription. Based on analysis of the transcriptome data of P. americana, the specific primers of PaAACT gene were designed, and the cDNA sequence of PaAACT gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method. Prokaryotic induction, expression and purification of the target protein were induced through the construction of the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a-PaAACT.Result:The open reading frame (ORF) of PaAACT gene was 1 254 bp, and encoded 417 amino acid residues. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the molecular formula of PaAACT protein was C1 914H3 120N538O576S17, inferring that its molecular weight was 43.43 kDa, the theoretical isoelectric point was 8.90, and the instability index of PaAACT protein was 32.27, which was a stable protein. According to bioinformatics analysis, PaAACT protein was a member of the thiolase family and contained one conserved site and one active site of the thiolase family at the C-terminal. PaAACT protein may be located in the cytoplasm, without a signal peptide or transmembrane domain. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAACT protein showed the highest homology with AACT protein from polygonaceae plants (such as Beta vulgaris). The recombinant PaAACT protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strain through IPTG induction, and the purified target protein was obtained by Ni2+ affinity chromatography.Conclusion:In this study, the PaAACT gene was cloned from P. americana, which lays a foundation for further determination of enzyme activity assay of PaAACT and preparation of antibody, and provides the theoretical basis for studying its role in the biosynthesis pathway of EsA.
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate the HPLC fingerprints of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos by total statistical moment analysis, in order to provide a basis for studying the nature of the " heterologous effect" phenomenon.Method:HPLC fingerprints of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos were established, and the statistical moment parameters and similarity were evaluated by total statistical moment method.Result:According to the total statistical moment parameters of the 10 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos samples, RSDs of AUCT, , were 27.537%, 1.685%, and 8.346%. According to the total statistical moment parameters of the 10 batches of Lonicerae Flos samples, RSDs of AUCT, , were 14.752%, 2.155%and 2.882%. The similarity of 10 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos fingerprints was above 0.92, and the similarity of 10 batches of Lonicerae Flos were above 0.93. The 10 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the 10 batches of Lonicerae Flos fingerprints were compared, and the similarity was above 0.84.Conclusion:According to the results, the similarity of the Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos fingerprints was very high, which indicated a similarity in chemical composition and composition ratio between Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. This may be a prerequisite for the phenomenon of " heterologous effects" .
Abstract：Objective:To identify two different growth types vertical growth (V-class) and lateral growth (L-class)) of Justicia procumbens, and compare the contents of chemical compounds between upper part and different organs.Method:DNA was extracted from the leaves of two growth forms of J. procumbens. Internal transcriptional spacer 2 (ITS2) and psbA-trnH sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and bidirectional sequencing. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of justicidin B (JB) and chinensinaphthol methyl ether (CME) from the above-ground parts of V-class and L-class J. procumbens and their inflorescence, leaves, and stems. Independent sample T-test and Paired-sample T-test were used to compare the contents of JB and CME from two different growth forms of J. procumbens and their different organs.Result:The DNA sequences after shearing were shown to be identical between the V-class and L-class samples. Independent sample T-test showed no difference on the content of JB between the above-ground parts of V-class and L-class samples, but the content of CME was higher in V-class J. procumbens than L-class (P<0.05). Paired-sample T-test showed that the content of JB and CME were different in the inflorescence, leaves, and stems of J. procumbens (P<0.05), and the contents in inflorescence and leaves were much higher than those in stems. At the same time, we found the content of CME in inflorescence and leaves of V-class J. procumbens was higher than that in L-class.Conclusion:DNA barcoding and comparison of JB and CME content indicated that the two different growth forms of J. procumbens belong to the same species. The contents of CME were different in J. procumbens between different growth forms, and was higher in V-class. Meanwhile, due to the little content of JB and CME in stems, the best picking time of J. procumbens is the flowering and fruiting period with more inflorescence and leaves.
Abstract：To provide theoretical basis for protection and rational use of medicinal plants resources of Orchidaceae, we investigated and studied the existing species, distribution, utilization and resources of Orchidaceae medicinal plants in Jiangxi province. Orchidaceae medicinal plants in different areas of Jiangxi province were investigated in different seasons by means of field investigation, route investigation and folk interview. Orchidaceae medicinal plants collected from field investigation as well as Orchidaceae specimens stored in the herbariums of Jiangxi scientific research institutes were studied and identified. The existing species, distribution location, quantity, medicinal value and resource utilization of Orchidaceae medicinal plants in Jiangxi province were studied and analyzed. Orchidaceae medicinal plants in herbal literatures were consulted for their category, medicinal use and other information. Relevant modern research literatures on Orchidaceae medicinal plant resources were consulted. There were 93 species of Orchidaceae medicinal plants in 37 genera in Jiangxi province, and 19 of them were new species of Orchidaceae, including 6 species in Dendrobium alone. The number of medicinal genera accounted for 71.2%of Orchidaceae genera in Jiangxi province, 20.1%of Orchidaceae genera in China, 76.9%of Orchidaceae species in Jiangxi province and 31.2%of Orchidaceae medicinal species in China. There are abundant resources of Orchidaceae medicinal plants in Jiangxi province, and many species of Orchidaceae medicinal plants have a high medicinal value and ornamental value. However, with the overexploitation and utilization of Orchidaceae medicinal plant resources, some wild Orchidaceae medicinal plant resources are facing exhaustion, and need to urgently strengthen scientific management and protection.
Abstract：Objective:To establish the method for determining the content of Polygalae Radix (3, 6′-disinapoylsucrose) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (glycyrrhizic acid) in Fufang Jiegeng Zhike Pian, so as to know the overall quality condition of Fufang Jiegeng Zhike Pian and ensure the safety and effectiveness of public medication.Method:HPLC was performed of MG C18 chromatographic column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) and mobile phase acetonitrile-0.05%phosphoric acid solution were used to test Polygalae Radix (3, 6′-disinapoylsucrose) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (glycyrrhizic acid), with the sample amount of 20 μL, flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1, and column temperature of 30 ℃, where the mobile phase acetonitrile-0.05%phosphoric acid solution and detection wavelength were 18∶82 and 320 nm for Polygalae Radix (3, 6′-disinapoylsucrose) and 35∶65 and 250 nm for Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (glycyrrhizic acid).Result:3, 6′-Disinapoylsucrose and glycyrrhizic acid presented high linearity with the peak area at 0.105 8-2.643 8 μg(r =0.999 5) and 0.077 0-5.773 0 μg (r=1.000 0) respectively, and the average recovery rate was 96.2%(RSD 1.2%) and 95.6%(RSD 0.9%). After content determination of Polygalae Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in 178 batches of samples, it was found that some producers input no, only a few or even poor medicinal materials (medicinal slices) during production, and the quality varied a lot among products from different producers and products of different batches from a same producer.Conclusion:The method is simple, accurate, and highly reproducible and sensitive, providing scientific basis for the overall quality control of Fufang Jiegeng Zhike Pian.
Keywords：Fufang Jiegeng Zhike Pian;3, 6′-disinapoylsucrose;glycyrrhizic acid;Polygalae Radix;Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills in the treatment of chronic heart failure.Method:Eight databases were searched at home and abroad, and the randomized controlled trials of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills in the treatment of chronic heart failure were screened. Literature quality of the included studies was evaluated by the bias risk assessment tool of Cochrane collaboration network, and the Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software.Result:A total of 606 related literature were retrieved, and 11 studies were eventually included, involving 931 patients. The quality of the included literature was generally low. Meta-analysis results showed that efficacy of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine alone in improving B-type natriuretic peptide [weighted mean difference (WMD)=-29.47, 95%confidence interval (CI) (-37.29, -21.64), P<0.000 01], left ventricular ejection fraction [WMD=4.64, 95%CI (3.82, 5.47), P<0.000 01], cardiac function classification efficacy [relative risk (RR)=1.25, 95%CI (1.16, 1.35), P<0.000 01], therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome [RR=1.23, 95%CI (1.07, 1.43), P=0.005], 6-minute walk test [WMD=50.13, 95%CI (22.32, 77.93), P=0.000 4]. In terms of safety indicators, one study intended to observe safety indicators, but it was not reported in the actual literature, and the remaining studies did not find adverse reactions of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills combined with conventional western medicine.Conclusion:The results of this study support the clinical use of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills combined with conventional western medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, but in view of the limitations in the quantity and quality of clinical studies, the positive results are only used as a reminder and reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In the future, more high-quality researches are needed to further confirm its efficacy.
Keywords：Qishen Yiqi dropping pills;heart failure;Qi deficiency and blood stasis;systematic review;placebo;conventional western medicine treatment;adverse reactions
Abstract：Objective:To analyze medication rules of national medical masters in the treatment of stomachache by data mining.Method:Prescriptions were collected from 9 works as well as the first batch of national medical masters' medical cases and prescriptions for stomachache recorded in CNKI. Then, Microsoft Excel 2016 was adopted for analyzing the frequencies, properties, flavors and meridian tropisms of herbs, the Apriori algorithm provided by SPSS Clementine 12.0 software was used to analyze association rules of the herbs, and factor analysis was conducted by SPSS 19.0 software.Result:A total of 175 prescriptions containing 230 herbs were selected. The top five herbs used in frequency ranking were Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria. The medical properties with high usage frequency were warm, mild and slight cold. The flavors were sweet, bitter and pungent. Meridian tropisms were spleen, stomach and lung. Herbs for regulating Qi, tonifying Qi and promoting digestion ranked top three according to the classification of efficacy. The association rules analysis showed that the highest confidence and support of the related drugs was Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma→Codonopsis Radix-Poria, which reflected treatment characteristics of national medical masters with Sijunzitang as the basic prescription for tonifying Qi. A total of 12 strongly association rules of 2-drug pairs were obtained by association rules, and the most commonly used of which was Paeoniae Radix Alba-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Nine common factors were respectively extracted by factor analysis.Conclusion:Herbs used in the prescriptions of national medical masters for treatment of stomachache are often with the actions of regulating Qi, invigorating deficiency and benefiting Qi, in addition, Shaoyao Gancaotang is often used to generate Yin and relieve pain.
Keywords：stomachache;chronic gastritis;national medical masters;medication rules;traditional Chinese medicine;data mining;medical cases
Abstract：Objective:Aconitum has a wide range of pharmacological activities, but its clinical toxic dose is close to the therapeutic dose. Puji Fang, as the greatest prescription book in China, analyzes and studied Aconitum herbal medicines prescriptions in Puji Fang used for children, and summarizes the rules and characteristics of children's medication for Aconitum Chinese medicine, so as to provide guidance for the clinical application of Aconitum herbal medicines in children.Method:Aconitum herbal medicines prescriptions in Puji Fang used for children were collected and organized to establish a prescription data sheet for Aconitum herbal medicines, for the purpose of statistics and analysis of Aconitum herbal medicines, their dosage, dosage form, indications and processed products.Result:A total of 300 children prescriptions containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Aconiti Radix, Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix, Aconitum carmichaelii and Tianxiong in Puji Fang were collected, and 64.45%of the prescriptions were based on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. There were 13 types of diseases, mainly including severe convulsion, chronic spleen convulsion, vomiting and diarrhea. The prescriptions with a medicinal dose of Aconitum herbal medicines below 3 g accounted for 95.10%of the recorded dose. Children's Aconitum herbal medicines prescriptions were mainly for oral administration, 48.33%were pills, and the dosage of pills was higher than that of powder and decoction. There were 169 prescriptions for the use of processed products, accounting for 54.17%, 170 prescriptions with a specially administered medicine method, and those taken with " rice soup" occupied the highest proportion.Conclusion:Children's Aconitum medicines prescriptions account for a small proportion in the prescriptions of Puji Fang and a lighter dose, with differences in the dosage between different formulas. This article provides a reference for the safe and effective use of Aconitum medicines by studying the application of Aconitum medicines in children's prescriptions. It is necessary to establish a clinical warning of aconitum herbal medicines in the aspects of drug delivery based on syndrome differentiation, strict control of dosage and course of treatment, emphasis on compatibility, medication contraindications, and strengthened clinical drug monitoring.
Abstract：Objective:To study and create the algorithm for the diversity (AD) of extensible markup language (XML) tree map, and provide a new tool for the identification of Artemisiae Annuae Herba.Method:According to the literature research, the key information of Artemisiae Annuae Herba was selected from the macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic information, etc. Based on the key information, the relevant upper standards of domestic and foreign professional fields were cited to assign the unique identification independent of language for each data element, and the coding rules of relevant data elements were established. The digital coding technology was applied to the flexible structure editor, and the tree map was created, which could be returned as the 5th version of hypertext markup language (HTML5) or XML format. Based on the diversity related algorithms, the authors innovatively developed the AD of XML tree map of Artemisiae Annuae Herba, which took into account both of topology and semantics, and the expression model of related mathematical functions of Artemisiae Annuae Herba was established. By comparing the calculation results with the reality, the algorithm model was debugged continuously until the convergence of the core-culvert algorithm model.Result:Through the research on AD, the diversity between two XML tree maps could be calculated, and the discrimination or identification model of Artemisiae Annuae Herba also could be finally optimized and established. After calculation and analysis of the tested tree maps, the effective rate of the model was 100%.Conclusion:In this study, the establishment of the AD of XML tree map can effectively assist in the identification of Artemisiae Annuae Herba, which provides certain technical support and theoretical guidance for the research on intelligent application of traditional Chinese medicine.
Abstract：The gut microbiota and its metabolites play a critical role on health maintenance, because they are involved in the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in the human bodies. This is also similar to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) view that the ascending and descending of Qi movement affects Yin-Yang, Qi-blood, pneuma and body fluid, viscera and meridians of our bodies. More and more studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota is closely related to the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Gut microbiota disorder could affect host metabolic signaling pathways, thereby promoting the formation and development of diabetes. The smooth ascending and descending of Qi movement is the basic form of maintaining host metabolic homeostasis, whose dysfunction however can lead to internal environment disturbance. Based on the theory of ascending and descending of Qi movement, this paper focuses on the pathogenesis of imbalanced intestinal flora in the process of the induction of diabetes mellitus from a dynamic perspective. It is assumed that the imbalance of Qi ascending and descending may act as a trigger for such symptoms as lung Qi impairment, spleen deficiency to dissipating essence, liver Qi stagnation and kidney Yang deficiency. Under this circumstance, gut microbiota will be out of balance, which will further lead to the nutrient substance metabolic disturbance in the body, and thus induce diabetes. Thus, it is significant to explore the regulatory mechanism of gut microbiota and its metabolites on diabetes based on the theory of ascending and descending of Qi movement, so as to reveal the scientific connotation of TCM in regulating substance metabolism homeostasis in the body.
Keywords：ascending and descending of Qi movement;gut microbiota;diabetes mellitus;homeostasis of internal environment
Abstract：The biopharmaceutical properties (solubility, permeability, etc.) of active pharmaceutical ingredients are playing an important role in understanding of disposition of drugs in the body, screening of drugs and evaluation of drug delivery system. The active ingredients of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are various and complex, the research on biopharmaceutics provides a train of thought and practical method for the prediction and research on the process of active ingredients from CMM in vivo. The multi-components system is one of the main differences between CMM and chemical medicine, and the study on biopharmaceutics of active ingredients in CMM under multi-components system has become a hot topic. The progress on biopharmaceutics of active ingredients in CMM under multi-components system was reviewed in this article, which may provide the reference for data integration, theoretical induction and system construction in this field, and provide new train of thought for the research on CMM theories and the development of CMM in the perspective of biopharmaceutics.
Abstract：Diarrhea is a common clinical digestive tract disease, and the second major cause of illness and death among children. At present, long-term irrational use of chemical drugs and antibiotics in the treatment of diarrhea will accelerate the emergence of drug resistance of intestinal pathogenic bacteria, and modern drug preparations and therapies cost very high, which therefore bring difficulties to clinical treatment. As a pure natural drug containing a variety of active ingredients, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has the advantages of low residue, low toxicity and low drug resistance. And the study shows that TCM preparations, single TCM and effective components of TCM have a unique efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea, which makes anti-diarrhea TCM become a hotspot in the research field of anti-diarrhea drugs. Therefore, through consultation of relevant Chinese and foreign literatures in recent years, this study summarizes relevant anti-diarrhea TCM, and systematically expounds the treatment of diarrhea with TCM in the aspects of regulating the balance of water and electrolyte, anti-inflammation, interfering with gastrointestinal hormone secretion, protecting intestinal mucosa, promoting intestinal repair. Specifically, because the excessive secretion and absorption of liquids and electrolytes by intestinal epithelial cells are two important factors in the pathogenesis of diarrhea, the reduction of intestinal fluid secretion and the promotion of intestinal fluid absorption become effective means for the treatment of diarrhea. This paper reviews the effects and mechanisms of TCM against diarrhea, in order to provide theoretical support for the study of the anti-diarrhea mechanism and the research and development of new drugs of TCM against diarrhea.
Keywords：diarrhea;traditional Chinese medicine;action mechanism;ion channel
Abstract：In traditional Chinese medicine, Borneolum Syntheticum , a representative drug of aromatic orifice, is often widely used in the clinical treatment of neurotic diseases.In recent years, many scholars at home and abroad have studied and analyzed the effective components and pharmacological effects of Borneolum Syntheticum , and it is considered that Borneolum Syntheticum alone has a significant effect on brain diseases.In this paper, the mechanism of Borneolum Syntheticum on cerebral circulatory system and central nervous system is discussed.In inhibiting brain injury, Borneolum Syntheticum can reduce neuronal vascular endothelial injury, reduce brain edema and decrease the content of Ca2+ in ischemic brain tissue.In the aspect of anti-inflammation, Borneolum Syntheticum can reduce the expression of induced nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), the number of leukocyte infiltration, the number of intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) positive vessels and the number of TNF-α positive cells.In regulating the blood-brain barrier, Borneolum Syntheticum can increase the expression of zonula occluden-1(ZO-1) and claudin-5 protein in microvascular endothelial cells.The strength of the transdermal absorption of the Borneolum Syntheticum may be related to its configuration, the ability to extract the lipid, and the hydrophilicity.The effect of Borneolum Syntheticum on improving the bioavailability of other drugs is widely used in clinic.Nasal administration of Borneolum Syntheticum can bypass blood-brain barrier (BBB), and reach the central nervous system of the brain. It has a good prospect in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease.In the treatment of brain diseases such as seizures and Alzheimer's disease, the mechanism of Borneolum Syntheticum is closely related to its effect on various brain neurotransmitters such as γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA), glycine acid(GLY), D-aspartic acid(ASP), glutamic acid(GLU), β-endorphin(β-EP), norepinephrine(NE), epinephrine(E), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), dopamine(DA). However, the experimental results are not the same. It may be related to the different dosage and time of Borneolum Syntheticum administration, which needs to be studied.
Abstract：The cure of tumors is a difficulty in the world, and both the quality of life and the survival rate of patients remain low. Therefore, it is very meaningful to find a drug target to inhibit the occurrence and development of tumors. In recent years, autophagy or self-phagocytosis has become a hotspot of medical research. It can remove damaged or excess organelles from cells, be survived from external environmental pressures, and affect the survival, metabolism, differentiation, aging and death of tumor cells. The biological behavioral process plays important roles in remodeling and maintaining the dynamic balance of cell survival, especially in close relations to tumor development. Autophagy is also a double-edged sword in effect on a single tumor cell and the entire tumor. When the autophagy of the tumor cells is abnormal, or the cells are unable to remove the damaged substances in time under the conditions of hypoxia and nutrient deficiency, autophagy is beneficial to the proliferation and survival of the tumor cells. Contrarily, moderate autophagy acts as an inhibitor of tumors and has an anti-tumor effect. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of controlling tumors, with the advantages of low toxicity and multiple targets. Through overall and local therapies, it has a comprehensive therapeutic effect in cancer. With the deepening of tumor autophagy research, in addition to western medicine researches on tumor autophagy, there are also domestic and foreign researches on the autophagy in single herb and TCM compounds. The latest insights into the molecular mechanism of autophagy have led to the discovery of potential drug targets. At the same time, TCM researches have made some progress in tumor autophagy. The authors review the research progress of autophagy in TCM and the research progress of effect of TCM in regulating tumor autophagy, in the hopes to provide useful reference for effect of TCM in the treatment of autophagy.
Keywords：autophagy;traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) monomer;TCM compound;tumor
Abstract：The infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea is the dry infructescence of P. strobilacea, which is a traditional medicinal plant in China. It has functions of clearing up heat and detoxification, dispelling wind and relieving pain, activating blood circulation and removing stasis, clearing orifices and expelling pus. It is commonly used by people to treat various complications caused by acute and chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and acute upper respiratory tract infection, and is a kind of Chinese medicine with excellent development space and utilization value and has broad market prospects. There are many chemical constituents in the infructescence of P. strobilacea, including volatile oils, Phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates and other compounds. Among them, volatile oils are the most abundant, but lack of correlated activity studies. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and terpenoids are the main pharmacogenetics constituents. However, few of these compounds have been isolated and identified. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the infructescence of P. strobilacea has many pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory and bacteriostasis, anti-aging, growth promotion, hypotension and sedation, but the existing studies mainly focus on anti-virus, anti-inflammatory and bacteriostasis, anti-tumor effects, and other activities have not been further explored. In the future, the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the infructescence of P. strobilacea should be studied in depth, and its mechanism should be further clarified so that it can be more fully and reasonably applied. By consulting domestic and foreign literature in recent years in CNKI, VIP database, Wanfang date, PubMed and other databases. The chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and clinical application of the infructescence of P. strobilacea were summarized and expounded its research progress in order to provide theoretical reference for further research and further development and application of the Infructescence of P. strobilacea.
Keywords：infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea; volatile oils;phenol;flavonoids;antitumor;antiviral;anti-inflammatory and bacteriostatic