Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Shengyutang on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the hippocampus， and explore its possible mechanism on improving the learning and memory abilities of sleep deprivation （SD） mice.MethodThe 50 mice were divided into normal group， model group， estazolam group， Shengyutang low and high dose groups， with 10 mice in each group. A multi-platform water environment was used to prepare SD mouse models. The low and high-dose Shengyutang groups received intragastric administration of 12.5， 25 g·kg-1， respectively. The mice in the model group were intragastrically administered with the same dose of normal saline daily for 8 weeks. Morris water maze experiment was used to observe the behavioral changes of SD mice in the evasion latency period， the number of crossing platforms， and the stay time in the target quadrant of each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathomorphological changes of the hippocampal tissue of each group. The expression levels of eight monoamine neurotransmitters including serotonin （5-HT），dopandne （DA），epinephrine （EP），norepinephrine （NE），5-hydroxyindole acetic acid（5-HIAA）， high vanillic acid （HVA）， levodopa（L-DOPA），and 3，4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid（DOPAC）were detected by high performance liquid chromatography， and the expression levels of c-Fos protein in hippocampus were detected by immunohistochemistry.ResultCompared with the normal group， the SD mice in the model group were in a poorer general state and severe fatigue was observed. Compared with the model group， SD mice in each dose group of Shengyutang got improved in eating， activity， sleep， hair color， and response to external stimuli. Compared with the normal group， the body weight of SD mice in the model group was significantly reduced （P<0.05）， but the body weight in the Shengyutang high-dose group increased the most as compared with the model group （P<0.05）. Compared with the normal group， the hippocampal cells in the model group were disorderly arranged， incomplete in shape， increased in gap and decreased in number. Compared with the model group， the number of neurons in the hippocampus of SD mice in each dose group of Shengyutang increased. Compared with the normal group， the escape latency time of SD mice in the model group was significantly prolonged， the times of crossing platform and the residence time in the target quadrant significantly decreased （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the times of crossing platform and the residence time in the target quadrant of mice in each dose group of Shengyutang significantly increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the normal group， the levels of 5-HT， 5-HIAA， L-DOPA， DOPAC， EP， NE， HVA and DA in the model group significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）； but these levels in each dose group of Shengyutang were higher than those in model group （P<0.05）. Compared with the normal group， the average MD value of c-Fos protein in the hippocampus of the model group significantly increased （P<0.01）， and the expression levels of c-Fos protein in the hippocampus of Shengyutang groups were significantly lower than those in model group （P<0.01）.ConclusionShengyutang can improve the learning and memory abilities of SD rats， and its mechanism may be related to the decrease of monoamine neurotransmitter and c-Fos protein expression.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the effects of Banxia Baizhu Tianmatang （BBTT） on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E knockout （ApoE-/-） mice induced by high fat diet.MethodThe atherosclerosis model of ApoE-/- mice was established with high-fat diet， and BBTT was used for intervention. The pathological changes of aorta after atherosclerosis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE）， oil red O and Masson staining. The changes of serum total cholesterol （TC）， triglyceride （TG）， high density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C） and low density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C） were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-6 （IL-6） and oxidized low density lipoprotein （ox-LDL） were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. Total tissue proteins were extracted， quantified by protein quantification （BCA） method， and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 （MMP-9） protein was detected by Western blot. Thiobarbituric acid （TBA） method was used to detect the change of malondialdehyde （MDA） content. The change of superoxide dismutase （SOD） activity was detected by 2-（2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl）-3-（4-nitrophenyl）-5-（2，4-disulfobenzene）-2H tetrazole monosodium salt （WST-8） method.ResultCompared with the control group， there was a large amount of lipid accumulation in the blood vessels of the model group， the serum levels of TG， TC， HDL-C and LDL-C significantly increased （P<0.05）， the expression of MMP-9 protein in the blood vessels significantly increased （P<0.01）， the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the serum increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， the SOD activity was significantly reduced （P<0.01）， and the levels of MDA and ox-LDL expression increased （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the treatment with BBTT could inhibit the accumulation of lipids in blood vessels， the TG levels were reduced in the high and medium dose groups of BBTT （P<0.05）， high， medium and low dose groups significantly reduced the levels of LDL-C in serum （P<0.01）， the expression of MMP-9 protein in blood vessels （P<0.05） and IL-6 in serum （P<0.01）， the high-dose group down-regulated the expression of TNF-α in serum （P<0.01） and ox-LDL （P<0.01）， both the high and medium-dose groups increased the level of MDA （P<0.05， P<0.01） and the activity of SOD （P<0.05）.ConclusionBBTT has a certain intervention effect on the formation of atherosclerosis aortic plaque in ApoE-/- mice， and its mechanism may be associated with reducing the TG and LDL-C levels， lowering blood lipid， down-regulating MMP-9 protein， protecting blood vessels from inflammatory damage， reducing ox-LDL and MDA levels， and improving SOD activity to play an antioxidant role.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish the fingerprint of Baoyuantang substance benchmark， and to analyze and identify the common peaks.MethodA total of 15 batches of Baoyuantang substance benchmark were prepared， ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method （UPLC-PDA） was used to establish the fingerprint of the substance benchmark， and the methodology was developed. The chromatographic conditions were as follows：ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield C18 column （2.1 mm×100 mm， 1.7 μm）， mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid solution （A） and 0.05% formic acid acetonitrile solution （ B） for gradient elution （0-0.5 min， 5%-19%B； 0.5-6 min， 19%B； 6-10 min， 19%-27%B； 10-20 min， 27%-45%B； 20-20.1 min， 45%-95%B； 20.1-23 min， 95%B）， the flow rate of 0.4 mL·min-1， the column temperature of 30 ℃， the detection wavelength at 203 nm and 260 nm， and the injection volume of 2 μL. Similarity evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine fingerprint （2012 edition） was used to establish the fingerprint and generate the control fingerprint. The chemical constituents of Baoyuantang substance benchmark were identified by comparison of standard substances and UPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry （UPLC-ESI-MS/MS） with full information tandem mass spectrometry （MSE） and scanning range of m/z 50-1 200.ResultThe similarities of 15 batches of Baoyuantang substance benchmark were above 0.90 by comparing with the control fingerprint. There were 37 common peaks， 22 of which were identified through UPLC-ESI-MS/MS， including liquiritin， violanthin， ginsenoside Rg1， ginsenoside Rb1， ginsenoside Re and so on. These components were all from Astragali Radix， Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma， Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.ConclusionThis method is accurate， stable and reliable， which will basically reflect the overall chemical composition characteristics of Baoyuantang， and it provides experimental basis for development of the granules of this famous classical formulas.
Abstract：Kaixinsan recorded in an ancient medical book named Beiji Qianjin Yaofang is one of the famous classical formula，which is one of the common prescriptions used by ancient physicians to treat amnesia. In the process of using this prescription，later generations of physicians derived many kinds of associated prescriptions. The effect and indications of these prescription have been inherited and expanded from those in the Beiji Qianjin Yaofang because of the changes in dosages. Therefore，it is necessary to verify the effect and indications of the formulas and the rules of dosage changes. The research results showed that its basic effects included to nourish the mind，induce resuscitation，strengthen the spleen and calm the mind，and keep balance between heart-Yang and kidney-Yin. The main indications included amnesia，sorrow and sadness，fright and fear，and so on，which may differ slightly in different dynasties. In Song，Jin and Yuan dynasties，it also demonstrated the effect of warming the heart and Yang，clearing away heat and relieving wind besides the basic effects， with basically the same indications （slightly different from those in previous dynasties）. In Ming dynasty，it demonstrated the effect of nourishing Yin，clearing away heat and nourishing blood besides the basic effects，and the indications expanded to farsightedness，nearsightedness，spermatorrhea and blurred urine. In the Qing dynasty，its effect also included to nourish the heart and kidney on the basis of the Ming dynasty，and the indications were basically the same with those in the previous dynasties. The compatibility ratio of ancient physicians in the application of this prescription and its associated prescriptions showed some remarkable features，for example，Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Poria should be increased and their ratio was≈1∶1 in the treatment of amnesia，sorrow，sadness，fright，fear，farsightedness，spermatorrhea and blurred urine，with ratio of Polygalae Radix to Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma≈1∶1； the dosage of Polygalae Radix and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma should be increased in the treatment of nearsightedness，and their ratio was≈1∶1. The compatibility ratio of Polygalae Radix-Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Poria-Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma=2∶3∶3∶2 was the most frequent，which basically included the indications of this prescription and its associated prescriptions. According to statistics，the average dosages that ancient physicians used were significantly higher than those in the modern times，Polygalae Radix 57 g，Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma 62 g，Poria 70 g，and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma 54 g，respectively in ancient times，while Polygalae Radix 11 g，Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma 15 g，Poria 17 g，and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma 9.5 g，respectively in modern times. The above textual research results can provide some reference for preparation of tradition Chinese medicine products of Kaixinsan.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the possible mechanism of Yanghe Huayantang in reversing the drug resistance of breast cancer by observing the effect of Yanghe Huayantang on the transplant tumor of tamoxifen （TAM）-resistant breast cancer and its influences on the interaction pathway of estrogen receptor （ER）/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）/mammalian rapamycin target protein （mTOR）.MethodFifty mice were randomly divided into 5 groups： blank group， model group， Yanghe Huayantang group， everolimus group， and Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group. The model of kidney deficiency was established by bilateral ovariectomy， and the blank group was treated with sham operation. Three days after the establishment of the model， all the five groups of mice were inoculated with breast cancer TAM drug-resistant cells （MCF-7/TAM-） to establish breast cancer TAM -resistant transplanted tumor model. After successful modeling， Yanghe Huayantang group received intragastric administration of Yanghe Huayantang （traditional Chinese medicine preparation 20 mL·kg-1）， everolimus group received intraperitoneal injection of everolimus （10 mg·kg-1）. Yanghe Huayantang + everolimus group received Yanghe Huayantang by intragastric administration and everolimus by intraperitoneal injection. The blank group and model group received intragastric administration and intraperitoneal injection of phosphate buffer （PBS）. Drug administration was lasted for 28 days in all groups， once a day. After administration， the tumor tissue was separated and weighed， and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining was used to observe the pathological changes of tumor tissue. Immunofluorescence and Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） were used to detect the expression of PI3K， Akt， mTOR， ER protein and mRNA in tumor tissue.ResultCompared with the model group， the tumor volume and tumor weight of Yanghe Huayantang group decreased significantly on the 12th， 20th and 28th days （P<0.01）， and the tumor inhibition rate increased significantly （P<0.01）.Yanghe Huayantang group significantly reduced the density of tumor cells and caused tumor cell necrosis. Compared with the model group， Yanghe Huayantang group， everolimus group and Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group inhibited the expression of PI3K， Akt， mTOR protein and mRNA （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the blank group， Yanghe Huayantang group， everolimus group and Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group all inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of ER， and mRNA expression of ER in Yanghe Huayantang+everolimus group was significantly lower than that in the model group （P<0.01）.ConclusionYanghe Huayantang can inhibit the growth of TAM-resistant breast cancer. The mechanism may be that Yanghe Huayantang can reverse the TAM resistance of breast cancer by down-regulating the expression of key molecules of ER/PI3K/Akt/mTOR cross-signal pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of piceatannol （PIC） on the proliferation， apoptosis and cell cycle of MDA-MB-468 triple negative breast cancer cells and its mechanism.MethodThe methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazoliu bromide （MTT） colcorimetry method was used to investigate the effect of different concentrations of PIC （0， 2.5， 5.0， 10.0， 20.0， 40.0， 80.0， 160.0 μmol·L-1） on the cell viabilities of triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells and calculate the half maximal inhibitory concentration （IC50） value， the effect of different concentrations of PIC （5.0， 10.0， 20.0 μmol·L-1） on the cell cycle of MDA-MB-468 were investigated by flow cytometry with propidium iodide （PI） staining. The apoptotic effect of PIC （5.0， 10.0， 20.0 μmol·L-1） on MDA-MB-468 cells in triple negative breast cancer was investigated by flow cytometry with cell apoptosis detection Annexin V-FITC and PI double staining. Western blot was used to investigate the effect of different concentrations of PIC （5.0， 10.0， 20.0 μmol·L-1） on the proliferation and apoptosis of MDA-MB-468 cells and detect the expressions of secreted glycoprotein Wnt/β-catenin pathway related proteins.ResultMTT results showed that compared with the blank group， PIC could inhibit the proliferation of MDA-MB-468 cells in a concentration-dependent manner （P<0.05， P<0.01）， with IC50 at（39.4±4.6）μmol·L-1. Compared with the blank group， PIC could increase the percentage of MDA-MB-468 cells in G0/G1 phase about cell cycle in a concentration-dependent manner （P<0.01）. Compared with the blank group， 5.0， 10.0， 20.0 μmol·L-1 PIC could induce apoptosis of MDA-MB-468 cells for 48 h（P<0.01）， and the apoptosis rate of MDA-MB-468 cells reached 49.87% when treated with 20.0 μmol·L-1 for 48 h. Compared with the blank group， PIC could significantly reduce the expressions of β-catenin， proto-oncogene （C-myc） and adhesion factor （CD44） proteins in MDA-MB-468 cells， significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of protein kinase B （Akt） and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase （p38 MAPK） proteins and the protein expression of B lymphocyte tumor-2 （Bcl-2）， and enhance cysteine aspartic acid protease-3 （Caspase-3）， Bcl-2 related X protein （Bax） and phosphorylated β-catenin protein expression（P<0.01）.ConclusionPIC may inhibit the proliferation of MDA-MB-468 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway， block the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase， and induce its apoptosis.
Keywords：piceatannol;triple negative breast cancer;Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway;MDA-MB-468 cells;apoptosis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of total ginsenoside ginseng root on the learning and memory impairment and anxiety of hindlimb suspension rats by detecting the performance of rats in the water maze， elevated plus maze， and the expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal （HPA） axis， inflammatory factors and tryptophan pathway related factors through the intervention of ginsenosides in hindlimb suspension rats.MethodThe Wistar male rats were divided into normal group， hindlimb suspension model group， Huperzine A group （0.1 mg·kg-1）， and total ginsenoside ginseng root low and high dose groups （100， 200 mg·kg-1）， with 8 rats in each group. Except for the normal group， the rats in the other groups maintained a -30° hindlimb suspension state for 24 h. The normal group and the model group received intragastric administration of 10 mL·kg-1 pure water . After 28 days of continuous administration， the water maze and elevated plus maze behavioral tests were performed. After the tests， blood was taken from the abdominal aorta， and the rat brain cortex was peeled off on ice， quenched with liquid nitrogen， and stored at -80 ℃ for later use. LC-MS/MS was used to detect neurotransmitter levels of dopamine， acetylcholine， glutamate， γ-aminobutyric acid and tryptophan pathway metabolites （tryptophan， 5-hydroxytryptamine， 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid， kynurenine， 3-hydroxykynurenine， and kynurenine） in rat brain cortex. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） kit was used to detect the levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 （IL-6）， interleukin-10 （IL-10， the HPA axis-related hormone corticotropin （ACTH）， and the level of corticosterone （CORT）.ResultCompared with the normal group， the escape latency in the water maze significantly increased， the number of crossings was significantly reduced， and the number of open-arm entry and the percentage of open-arm entry were significantly reduced in the elevated plus maze in model group （P<0.05， P<0.01）， the content of dopamine， acetylcholine， glutamic acid， and γ-aminobutyric acid in the cortex decreased， kynurenine and kynurenic acid showed an upward trend， 3-hydroxykynurenine， 5-hydroxytryptamine， 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid showed a downward trend， and the levels of IL-6， IL-10， ACTH， and CORT in the serum significantly increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the model group of rats， total ginsenoside ginseng root low and high dose groups group reduced the avoidance latency in the water maze， and increased the number of crossings and the number of open arms of the elevated plus maze， dopamine， acetylcholine， glutamate， and γ-aminobutyl content increased， while kynurenine and kynurenic acid showed a downward trend， 3-hydroxykynurenine， serotonin， and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid showed an upward trend， and IL-6， IL-10， ACTH， and CORT factor levels were down-regulated（P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionHindlimb suspension for 28 days in simulated microgravity can impair the learning and memory ability of rats and cause anxiety-like behaviors. Total ginsenoside ginseng root can improve their learning and memory impairment and anxiety-like behaviors. The mechanism may be mainly related to inhibiting body inflammation and regulating HPA axis imbalance.
Keywords：total Ginsenoside Ginseng Root;weightlessness;learning and memory;anxiety;neurotransmitters;Tryptophan pathway;hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal （HPA） axis;inflammatory factors
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Yiqi Yangyin prescription on lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes rat model induced by high fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin （STZ）， and explore its mechanism in regulation of lipid metabolism.MethodThe rats were fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks， and intraperitoneal injection of STZ was provided to establish diabetes model. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into model group， Yiqi Yangyin prescription high dose group， medium dose group and low dose group （9.00， 4.50， 2.25 g·kg-1） and metformin group （0.20 g·kg-1）. Another blank control group was set up. The high， medium and low dose groups were given with different oral doses of Yiqi Yangyin prescription granules， metformin was given in metformin group， the model group and the blank group received the same volume of normal saline. Intragastric administration was given for three weeks， and then the weight and blood glucose were measured. Automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect triglyceride （TG）， total cholesterol （TC）， low density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C）， high density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C）， aspartate aminotransferase （AST）， alanine aminotransferase （ALT）， alkaline phosphatase （ALP）， and content of total protein （TP）. Hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining was used to observe the pathological changes of liver tissues in each group. Periodic acid-schiff stain （PAS） staining was used to observe the pathological changes of liver glycogen. The lipid changes of liver tissues were observed by oil red O staining. The expression of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase （AMPK）/ sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c （SREBP1c）/acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase （ACC1）/peroxisome proliferator activated re-ceptor α （PPARα） pathway in liver tissues was observed by Western blot.ResultCompared with the blank group， TG， CHO， LDL-C， AST， ALT and ALP significantly increased and HDL-C significantly decreased in the model group （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， TG and LDL-C contents significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）and LDL-C contents significantly increased in Yiqi Yangyin prescription groups （P<0.05）. Histomorphology showed that Yiqi Yangyin prescription significantly reduced the degree of hepatocyte intercellular vacuoles and steatosis in liver， and significantly reduced the lipid area of liver tissue. Compared with the blank group， the protein expression levels of p-AMPKα， PPARα， SREBP-1 （plasma） in the liver tissues significantly decreased in the model group， but such expression levels increased after treatment with Yiqi Yangyin prescription （P<0.05， P<0.01）， compared with the blank group， the protein expression levels of p-ACC1 and SREBP-1 （nuclear） significantly increased （P<0.01） in model group， but such expression significantly decreased after treatment with Yiqi Yangyin prescription （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionYiqi Yangyin prescription can significantly reduce blood lipid in the diabetic rats caused by high-fat feed combined with STZ. The decrease of blood lipid in the type 2 diabetes rats may be related to the influence on AMPK/ACC1/SREBP-1/PPAR pathway in rat liver.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen （ZSS） and Albiziae Flos （AF） on behavior and endoplasmic reticulum stress endoplasmic reticulum stress protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase （PERK）/activated transcription factor 4 （ATF4）/CCAAT enhancer binding protein （CHOP） pathway in depression model rats， and to explore its antidepressant mechanism.MethodThe male SD rats were divided into normal group， model group， ZSS-AF high dose， middle dose and low dose groups （16， 8， 4 g·kg-1） and Venlafaxine group （0.008 g·kg-1）， n=15 in each group. Except the normal group， the depression model was established in the rats of other 5 groups by the method of chronic unpredictable mild stress （CUMS） combined with isolated feeding. The normal group and model group were given with distilled water by gavage when modeling， while other groups received corresponding drug by intragastric administration for 21 days. Behavior changes of rats in each group were observed by the open field test and sugar water consumption test on 1th and 21thday of the experiment. The protein expressions of PERK， CHOP， B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein （Bax） and cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases-3（Caspase-3） were detected by Western blot（WB）， the ultrastructural changes of the hippocampus were observed by transmission electron microscope， the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was observed by terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL） method.ResultCompared with the normal group， the scores of open field test and sugar water consumption rate in model group rats decreased （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the scores of open field test and water consumption rate increased （P<0.01） in ZSS-AF groups and Venlafaxine group. Transmission electron microscope showed that the changes of neuronal damage in hippocampal were revealed in the model group， whereas those neuronal damages were relieved in ZSS-AF groups and Venlafaxine group. TUNEL method showed that the number of apoptotic neurons in hippocampal increased in the model group （P<0.01）， but decreased in ZSS-AF groups and Venlafaxine group （P<0.01）. WB results showed that as compared with the normal group， protein expressions of PERK， CHOP， Bax and Caspase-3 were up-regulated significantly in the model group （P<0.01）， whereas those were down-regulated in ZSS-AF groups and Venlafaxine group （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionThe antidepressant effect of ZSS-AF herbal pair may be correlated with the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress PERK/ATF4/-CHOP pathway.
Keywords：Ziziphi Spinosae Semen （ZSS） and Albiziae Flos （AF）;depression;protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase （PERK）;CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein （CHOP）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of modified Chushi Juanbitang combined with pedicle vertebrotomy on kyphosis of ankylosing spondylitis due to syndrome of dampness-heat obstruction.MethodThe 90 cases were randomly divided into control group and observation group， 45 cases in each group. The patients in control group received pedicle vertebrotomy + Tripterygium glycosides， and the patients in observation group received pedicle vertebrotomy + modified Chushi Juanbitang. The treatment course was 6 months in both groups. Their bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index （BASDAI）， bath ankylosing spondylitis measure index （BASMI）， imaging index， traditional Chinese medicine syndromes， serum proinflammatory factor， anti-inflammatory factor， bone metabolism index ［bone-specific alkaline phosphatase （BALP）， tartrate resistant acid phosphatase isomer-5b （TRACP-5 b）， bone morphogenetic protein-2 （BMP-2）， osteocalcin （BGP）］， ossification related proteins ［bone morphogenetic protein-7 （BMP-7）， dickkopf-related protein-1 （DKK-1）， and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-2 （TIMP-2）， sclerostin（SOST）］ were observed and detected. The clinical efficacy， recurrence rate and safety indexes were followed up for 12 months and compared.ResultThe total effective rate was 97.73% （43/44） in the observation group， higher than 80.95% （34/42） in the control group （χ2=5.172， P<0.05）. In the comparison with control group after treatment， the BASDAI， BASMI， imaging index， traditional Chinese medicine syndromes， proinflammatory factors， TRACP-5b， BMP-7 and TIMP-2 were lower in observation group （P<0.05）， and the anti-inflammatory factors， BALP， BMP-2， BGP， DKK-1 and SOST were higher in observation group （P<0.05）. During the follow-up for at least 12 months， the recurrence rate was 4.65% （2/43） in observation group， lower than 26.47% （9/34） in control group （χ2=4.261， P<0.05）. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups. The incidence of adverse reactions was 2.27% （1/44） in observation group， lower than 38.64% （17/44） in control group （χ2=5.763， P<0.05）.ConclusionModified Chushi Juanbitang combined with pedicle vertebrotomy is effective in the treatment of kyphosis of ankylosing spondylitis due to syndrome of dampness-heat obstruction.
Keywords：modified Chushi Juanbitang;pedicle vertebrotomy;ankylosing spondylitis;kyphosis;syndrome of dampness-heat obstruction
Abstract：ObjectiveTo discuss the clinical efficacy of modified Bushen Huoxuetang combined with autologous bone grafting and locking compression plate （LCP） in treating nonunion of long bone fractures， and the effect on microcirculation， osteogenic differentiation factor and bone metabolism index.MethodA total of 70 patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group by random number table， with 35 cases in each group. Patients in both groups received LCP. Patients in control group got Dieda Shenggu granule， 10 g/time， 1 time/day. Patients in observation group got Bushen Huoxuetang， 1 dose/day. The course of treatment lasted for 3 months， and 3-month follow-up data were recorded. On a weekly basis， the main symptoms， such as pain， tenderness， longitudinal percussion pain and swelling were checked， and the time of disappearing of main symptoms and signs were compared. On a weekly basis， a X-ray examination was performed for callus formation and fracture line， and the fracture healing time was recorded. Before and after treatment， Fugl-Meyer （FMA） was scored， and levels of fibrinogen （FIB）， whole blood viscosity （BV） （high shear， low shear）， plasma viscosity （PV）， platelet aggregation rate （PAR）， D-Dimer （D-D）， bone morphogenetic protein-2 （BMP-2）， BMP-7， insulin-like growth factor-1 （IGF-1）， vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF）， transforming growth factor-β1 （TGF-β1）， osteocalcin （BGP）， osteoprotegerin （OPG）， procollagen type Ⅰ N-terminal propeptideserum amino pro peptide （PINP）， serum type 1 collagen cross-linked C-terminal peptide （S-CTX） and serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase （TRACP） of type I procollagen were detected， and the safety was evaluated.ResultDisappearance time of symptoms and signs and fracture healing time in observation group were all lower than those in control group （P<0.01）. At the third month after treatment， and during the three-month follow-up， scores of callus and FMA （upper and lower limbs） in observation group were all higher than those in control group （P<0.01）. Levels of D-D， FIB， PAR， BV and PV （high-cut and low-cut）， BMP-2， BMP-7， IGF-1， VEGF， TGF-β1， S-CTX and TRACP were all lower than those in control group （P<0.01）， whereas levels of BGP， OPG and PINP were higher than those in control group （P<0.01）. The curative effect of fracture healing was better than that of control group （Z=1.977， P<0.05）. And the limb function recovery was superior to that in control group （Z=1.970， P<0.05）.ConclusionBased on autogenous bone and LCP， modified Bushen Huoxuetang can promote the fracture healing， shorten the course of disease， and promote the recovery of limb function， with a good clinical efficacy. It can improve microcirculation， promote the expression of osteogenic differentiation factor， regulate bone metabolism， and play a role in promoting fracture healing， with a safety in clinical use.
Keywords：fracture nonunion;kidney deficiency and blood stasis;Bushen Huoxuetang;microcirculation;osteogenic differentiation factor;bone metabolism
Abstract：ObjectiveTo discuss the clinical efficacy of modified Danshenyin and Erchentang in treating carotid atherosclerosis （CAS）， and the effect on intimal injury.MethodPatients （151 cases） were divided into control group （75 cases） and observation group （76 cases）. Specifically， 69 cases in control finished the treatment （4 cases fell off in follow-up， and 2 cases were eliminated）， and 69 cases in observation group finished the treatment （3 cases fell off in follow-up， and 4 cases were eliminated）. Patients in both group got atorvastatin calcium tablets， 10 mg/time， 1 time/day， and aspirin enteric-coated tablets， 100 mg/time， 1 time/day. Patients in control group got Hedan tablets， 2 tablets/time， 3 times/day. Patients in observation group got modified Danshenyin and Erchentang， 1 dose/day. The treatment lasted for 4 months. Before and after treatment， color Doppler ultrasound of carotid artery was detected， and carotid intima-media thickness （IMT）， plaque number， plaque area， plaque thickness and hemodynamics were recorded. Levels of nitric oxide （NO）， endothelin-1 （ET-1）， von Willebrand factor （vWF）， soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 （sICAM-1）， vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF）， matrix metalloproteinase-9 （MMP-9）， triglyceride （TG）， total cholesterol （TC）， high-density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C）， low-density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C）， whole-blood low-shear viscosity （LBV）， whole-blood high-shear viscosity （HBV）， plasma viscosity （PV）， platelet aggregation rate （PAR）， fibrinogen （FIB）， homocysteine （Hcy）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， IL-10， tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， serum superoxide dismutase （SOD）， malondialdehyde （MDA）， oxidized low density lipoprotein （ox LDL） and circulating glutathione peroxidase （GSH-Px） were detected before and after treatment. And the safety was evaluated.ResultAfter treatment， IMT， number， area and thickness of plaque in observation group were less than those in control group （P<0.01）. Peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity in observation group were higher than those in control group （P<0.01）， while pulsatility index and resistance index were lower than those in control group （P<0.01）. And levels of ET-1， vWF， sICAM-1， VEGF， MMP-9， TG， TC， LDL-C， LBV， HBV， PV， PAR， FIB， Hcy， IL-6， TNF-α， MDA and ox-LDL were lower than those in control group （P<0.01）， whereas levels of NO， HDL-C， IL-10， SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in control group （P<0.01）. And there was no adverse reaction caused by traditional Chinese medicine.ConclusionModified Danshenyin and Erchentang can reduce plaque， improve hemodynamics and hemorheology， and regulate blood lipid metabolism and vascular endothelial factor， with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation damages. It can protect vascular intima， and inhibit the occurrence and development of CAS， with a safety in clinical use.
Keywords：carotid atherosclerosis;phlegm and blood stasis syndrome;Danshenyin;Erchentang;inflammatory reaction;oxidative stress;vascular intimal injury
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutical effect and the safety of Pinggan Yuyin Qingre recipe on the hyperevaporative dry eye disease （Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity type） caused by the meibomian gland dysfunction（MGD）.MethodThe 120 Consecutive outpatients who met the criteria were included in the trial and divided into three layers （mild， moderate and severe） according to the meibomian gland function classification （grade 1-3）. The patients in each layer were randomly assigned to the experiment group and the control group at a ratio of 1∶1. Both groups were treated with sodium hyaluronate eye drops， 1 drop/eye/time， 3 times a day. In the experiment group， Pinggan Yuyin Qingre recipe was additionally prescribed two times a day. The treatment course was 8 weeks in both groups. All patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study mainly for noninvasive tear breakup time （NITBUT），corneal lesions score，meibomian gland exclusion score，meibomian gland structure，eye symptom score，the ocular surface disease index（OSDI） score，and the traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） syndrome scores at both overall and layered levels.ResultA total of 116 cases completed the study，with 1 drop-out case and 3 eliminated cases. Both before and after treatment，NITBUT，the corneal lesions score，the symptom score，and the OSDI score in the experiment group were significantly superior to the control group， but there was no significant difference in meibomian gland exclusion score between two groups，only with a superior tendency in experiment group. There were significant differences in the scores of the related TCM syndrome scores between two groups after treatment. There were no adverse reactions， no abnormal changes in electro cardiogram （ECG） or liver and kidney functions in all patients.ConclusionPinggan Yuyin Qingre recipe can effectively improve the hyperevaporative dry eye disease caused by meibomian gland dysfunction， the tear film stability，eye dryness， burning，itching，foreign body sensation and TCM symptoms of patients with dry eye syndrome of Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity. The improvement effect is more obvious in moderate and severe patients. It is an effective，safe，and well-tolerated treatment for the hyperevaporative dry eye.
Keywords：Pinggan Yuyin Qingre recipe;meibomian gland dysfunction;dry eye disease;KONG Si-bo;traditional Chinese medicine
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish and apply a new practical analytical method for identifying the fishy odor of Cordyceps based on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry （HS-SPME/GC-QQQ-MS/MS） technique.MethodThe InertCap Pure-WAX capillary column （0.25 mm×30 m， 0.25 μm） was used for chromatographic separation. The injection port temperature was set at 250 ℃. The injection mode was split injection with a ratio of 5∶1. High purity helium was used as the carrier gas and control mode was set to constant pressure. The column flow rate was 1.43 mL∙min-1， the linear velocity was 43.3 cm∙s-1， and the purge flow rate was 3.0 mL∙min-1. The chromatographic column temperature program as follows：maintained the initial temperature at 50 ℃ for 5 min， and increased the temperature at a rate of 10 ℃∙min-1 to 250 ℃， held for 10 min. The column equilibrium time was 2.0 min. The ion source of mass spectrographic analysis was electron ionization with ion source temperature of 200 ℃， and the monitoring mode was set to multiple reaction monitoring.ResultSeven batches of Cordyceps samples were collected， including 3 batches from Sichuan， 3 batches from Qinghai and 1 batch from Tibet. There were six batches of counterfeits， including 3 batches from Sichuan， 2 batches from Guizhou and 1 batch in Xinjiang. A total of 81 volatile compounds were screened out in Cordyceps， which could be divided into 13 types （esters， ketones， aldehydes and others） according to the compound structure， indicating that the fishy odor of Cordyceps was a complex odor. There was no significant difference in the types of volatile compounds of Cordyceps from different regions， which suggested that these volatile compounds in Cordyceps produced in Tibet （Naqu）， Qinghai （Yushu and Guoluo） and Sichuan （Litang， Rangtang and Seda） were relatively consistent. However， the contents of some volatile compounds in Cordyceps produced in different regions were quite different， and 16 volatile compounds with significant difference were screened out， including 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate， γ-octalactone， hexyl acetate and others， those compounds maybe could been used as the quality markers for identification of regions of Cordyceps. There was a large difference in volatile compounds between Cordyceps and its counterfeits， and 34 volatile compounds were screened out， including ethyl acetate， acetophenone， 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and others， those compounds maybe could been used as the quality markers for authenticity identification of Cordyceps.ConclusionIn summary， the established method for identifying the fishy odor of Cordyceps in this paper has the characteristics of high sensitivity， accuracy and simplicity， which can provide reference for the analysis of volatile compounds in other Chinese herbal medicines.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo identify the transdermal constituents of Euodiae Fructus and predict its molecular mechanism in treating diarrhea by transdermal drug delivery.MethodUltra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS） and integrated pharmacology methods were used. The rapid identification of transdermal constituents of Euodiae Fructus was realized by the means of comparison of reference substances， analysis of UNIFI system and mass spectrometry. On this basis， Integrative Pharmacology-based Research Platform of Traditional Chinese Medicine （TCMIP） v2.0， SymMap， DisGeNET databases and literature were used to collected potential targets of transdermal constituents of Euodiae Fructus and targets for diarrhea-related diseases. The disease targets and drug targets were topologically analyzed to obtain the core targets， which were used for the Gene Ontology （GO） function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment analysis. Finally， Cytoscape 3.6.0 was used to build up a network of transdermal constituents-core targets-key pathways.ResultA total of 19 chemical constituents were speculatively identified from Euodiae Fructus extract， including quinolone alkaloids， limonins， indole alkaloids， organic acids and sterols. A total of 174 core targets of Euodiae Fructus for treating diarrhea were obtained by a topology analysis， signaling pathways of inflammatory response， cell proliferation， nutrient regulation and energy metabolism， signal transduction， bacterial infection were obtained through the analysis of KEGG enrichment.ConclusionIn this study， the transdermal constituents of Euodiae Fructus are identified for the first time， they can participate in the regulation of intestinal inflammation， maintain the integrity of intestinal mucosa， repaire and adjust the metabolism of the body by acting on Rac protein family， phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase， cytochrome P450 enzymes and aldo-keto reductase， respectively. In general， the molecular mechanism of Euodiae Fructus in the treatment of diarrhea is preliminarily elucidated.
Abstract：ObjectiveThis paper constructs a generalized regression neural network （GRNN） model to predict the disintegration time of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） tablets.MethodTaking Astragali Radix as a model drug， the mixed Astragali Radix powders with different powder properties were prepared by mixing Astragali Radix extract powders with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose， which were made to Astragali Radix tablets by direct compression method. The powder properties of mixed Astragali Radix powders and the disintegration time of Astragali Radix tablets were determined， respectively. The correlation between the original data was eliminated by principal component analysis （PCA）. The principal component factors were used as the input layer of the GRNN model， and the disintegration time was used as the output layer for network training. Finally， the verification group data was used to predict the disintegration time， and the network prediction accuracy was calculated by comparing with the actual value.ResultThree principal component factors were obtained through PCA by analyzing the original nine variables that were correlated with each other （Hausner ratio， true density， tap density， compression degree， angle of repose， bulk density， porosity， water content and total dissolved solids）， which reduced the complexity of the network. The prediction value of the disintegration time based on this prediction method was in good agreement with the actual value， the error of disintegration time was 0.01-1.34 min and the average relative error was 3.16%.ConclusionBased on the GRNN mathematical model， the physical properties of Astragali Radix extract powders can be used to accurately predict the disintegration time of Astragali Radix tablets， which provides a reference for studying the disintegration time of TCM tablets.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the scientificity and feasibility of processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma by hot water washing （Tangxi）， and to provide reference for the development of related famous classical formulas.MethodProcessing method of Pinelliae Rhizoma washed by hot water was established based on ancient Tangxi processing method， and the process conditions were optimized by single factor tests. The weight， moisture， ash， extract， total acid （calculated by succinic acid） contents and high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） fingerprint of Pinelliae Rhizoma were compared before and after processing. In addition， the rabbit eye irritation test was conducted to evaluate the toxicity changes.ResultThe processing method of Pinelliae Rhizoma washed by hot water was as following：washed by 4 times the amount of hot water at 80 ℃ for 10 times until clear water， transfused cross-section after incision， no or slight numbness in the mouth. The average moisture， ash， extract contents of Pinelliae Rhizoma washed by hot water were 9.34%， 1.71% and 4.22%， respectively. After being processed， the decline rates of weight and total acid content of Pinelliae Rhizoma were 7.49% and 43.31%. The HPLC fingerprint of Pinelliae Rhizoma before and after washing showed a decrease in all components， but there was no new chromatographic peak， and peak 9 （adenosine） reduced significantly. The results of rabbit eye irritation test showed that there was no obvious eye conjunctival irritation after washing， indicating that the toxicity of Pinelliae Rhizoma decreased obviously after washing.ConclusionThe established method of Pinelliae Rhizoma by Tangxi processing is stable and feasible， the aqueous extract of Pinelliae Rhizoma has no obvious eye conjunctival irritation after washing.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal（AM） fungi combinations on the growth and quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis seedlings，in order to provide reference for the cultivation of high quality P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.MethodThrough the room temperature pot inoculation test method，nine groups of different AM fungi combinations were inoculated into sterilized soil，and the control group was not inoculated. The effects of different AM fungi combinations on root infection rate，photosynthetic parameters，physiological indexes and chemical components of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seedlings were observed.ResultThe spore density in rhizosphere soil，the infection rate and intensity of AM fungi in roots，and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in roots of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were significantly increased by inoculating the combination of exogenous AM fungi. Compared with the control group，the contents of chlorophyll，malondialdehyde，soluble sugar，soluble protein content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were increased in different AM fungi treatment groups. The content of total saponin increased from T1 to T2，decreased rapidly from T2 to T4，and increased at T5.ConclusionDifferent mixed AM fungus can form a good symbiotic relationship with the roots of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis，improve the mycorrhizal vitality，enhance the resistance of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis to adverse environment，promote the growth and development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and improve the quality of rhizome. According to the comprehensive inoculation effect，the combination of S5，S8 and S9 AM fungus has the best effect，which provides reference value for the application of mycorrhizal biotechnology of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.
Keywords：Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis;arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi;infection rate;enzyme activity;photosynthetic parameters;total saponins
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of iron nanoparticles and melatonin on yield and quality of Fritillaria przewalskii and provide technical support for its domesticated cultivation.MethodHundred grain weight was measured by conventional method；alkaloid content was detected according to protocols of the edition of 2020 Chinese Pharmacopoeia，chlorophyll，hydrogen peroxide，malondialdehyde，superoxide dismutase （SOD），peroxidase （POD） and catalase （CAT） were detected by spectrophotometric analysis，auxins，cytokinins，gibberellins，salicylic acid，jasmonic acid and abscisic acid were detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.ResultZero-valent iron nanoparticles and melatonin significantly increased the hundred grain weight without affecting the quality. The effect of the two treatments on physiological and biochemical indexes in different stages were quite different，but the effects on content of endogenous hormones were basically the same. Correlation analysis showed that hundred grain weight was negatively correlated with malondialdehyde content，SOD activity and jasmonic acid content，but positively correlated with POD activity，salicylic acid content，gibberellins content，auxin content and abscisic acid content. The two treatments were separated effectively by principal component analysis，indicating that there were some differences in the mechanisms of growth promoting. The treatment of zero-valent iron nanoparticles mainly affected auxins，salicylic acid and abscisic acid. The treatment of melatonin mainly affected SOD，malondialdehyde and gibberellins.ConclusionZero-valent iron nanoparticles and melatonin can be used as a simple and practical technology to improve the stress resistance and yields of F. przewalskii in domesticated cultivation conditions.
Keywords：Fritillaria przewalskii;zero-valent iron nanoparticles;melatonin;oxidative stress;hormones
Abstract：ObjectiveTo reveal the effective components， targets and possible mechanisms of Qinggan Huayu granules in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease （NAFLD） and liver cancer based on network pharmacology and experimental verification， and to provide a basis for its rational interpretation of treating different diseases with same method for NAFLD and liver cancer.MethodBased on databases of traditional Chinese medicine and disease， the network pharmacology was used to screen main active compounds and potential targets of Qinggan Huayu granules for NAFLD and liver cancer. STRING 11.0 was used to analyze the interaction between potential targets. The core targets were selected from the interaction targets by cytoHubba plug-in. The gene ontology （GO） function and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the target by Metascape database. At the same time， in vitro experiments were conducted to validate the effect of kaempferol， one of the main active ingredients of Qinggan Huayu granules， on hepatocellular carcinoma cell model and NAFLD cell model.ResultA total of 43 potential targets of Qinggan Huayu granules for for NAFLD and liver cancer were screened， corresponding to 136 active ingredients in 8 herbal medicines. Through enrichment analysis of potential targets， there were 20 biological processes， 13 molecular functions， 9 cellular components and 15 signaling pathways. Qinggan Huayu granules regulated biological behaviors of tumors related to liver cancer and NAFLD （such as apoptosis inhibition and oxidative stress） mainly through kaempferol， quercetin， luteolin and other active ingredients for Caspase-3 （CASP3）， tumor protein p53 （TP53）， vascular endothelial growth factor A （VEGFA） and other hub genes. In vitro experiments revealed that kaempferol could inhibit cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocellular carcinoma cell model. And kaempferol could modulate the levels of malondialdehyde （MDA） and glutathione peroxidase （GPx）， which were the molecular markers of oxidative stress of NAFLD cell model. Kaempfero also regulated the expression level of CASP3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell model and NAFLD cell model.ConclusionThe main mechanism of Qinggan Huayu granules in treating liver cancer and NAFLD with concept of treating different diseases with same method is related to systematic synergy effect of multiple compounds （represented by quercetin， luteolin and kaempferol）， multiple targets （represented by VEGFA， TP53 and CASP3） and multiple signaling pathways （represented by oxidative stress and cell apoptosis）.
Keywords：network pharmacology;Qinggan Huayu granules;non-alcoholic fatty liver disease （NAFLD）;liver cancer;treating different diseases with same method;kaempferol;Caspase-3 （CASP3）
Abstract：ObjectiveWith the aid of the Inheritance Support System of Traditional Chinese Medicine V2.5 （TCMISS V2.5），to study the experience and prescription rules of professor WANG Jie in the treatment of frequent ventricular premature complexes，and inherit his clinical experience in diagnosis and treatment.MethodProfessor WANG Jie's medical records and prescriptions for frequent ventricular premature complexes from 2016 to 2020 were collected and sorted out. Improved mutual information method，association rules，complex system entropy clustering，and unsupervised entropy hierarchical clustering were used to analyze the nature and flavor，channel tropism，concerted application rules，pair and combination of herbs for statistics， association rules analysis and discovery of new prescriptions.ResultA total of 122 prescriptions of professor WANG Jie on the treatment of frequent ventricular premature complexes were collected. 110 herbs，mostly with pungent and sweet flavors，were mainly on spleen channel and also on heart，kidney，liver，lung，and stomach channels. Cinnamomi Ramulus，Paeoniae Alba Radix，Os Draconis，Ostreae Concha， Glycyrrhizae Radix，and Jujubae Fructus had the highest frequency in use. The high-frequency herbal pair was Cinnamomi Ramulus-Paeoniae Alba Radix（116 times， accounting for 95.08%），the commonly used corner drugs were Cinnamomi Ramulus-Os Draconis-Ostreae Concha （108 times，88.52%），Cinnamomi Ramulus-Paeoniae Alba Radix-Ostreae Concha （106 times， 86.89%），Cinnamomi Ramulus-Paeoniae Alba Radix-Os Draconis （106 times，86.89%）. Commonly used herbal pair was Aucklandiae Radix-Amomi Villosi Fructus. The core prescription herbs included Cinnamomi Ramulus-Paeoniae Alba Radix-Os Draconis-Ostreae Concha-Glycyrrhizae Radix-Jujubae Fructus-Zingiberis Recens Rhizoma-Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix-Codonopsis Radix-Astragali Seu Hedysari Radix-Cistanches Herba-Poria-Ziziphi Spinosae Semen.ConclusionProfessor WANG Jie's prescription for the treatment of frequent ventricular premature complexes is Guizhi Jia Longgu Mulitang，and the main herbs are Cinnamomi Ramulus，Paeoniae Alba Radix，Os Draconis，Ostreae Concha，Glycyrrhizae Radix，and Jujubae Fructus. The final prescription could be adjusted according to the diseases and symptoms of patients.
Keywords：prescription analysis;herbs application rule;ventricular premature complexes;Inheritance Support System of Traditional Chinese Medicine;central herbs
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of quercetin （Qu） on articular cartilage of knee osteoarthritis and its mechanism by inhibiting p38 mitogen activated protein kinase （MAPK） signaling pathway.MethodThrough the network pharmacology technology，we scientifically predicted and analyzed the target factors and signal pathways of Qu in the protection of articular cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis. We selected a prediction pathway closely related to osteoarthritis and validated it by cell experiment in vitro. The best intervention concentration of the drug was selected by cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） method. The osteoarthritis and its closely related inflammatory factors interleukin（IL）-1β and tumor necrosis factor（TNF）-α were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA）. The expression of related mRNA and protein in p38 signal pathway after Qu intervention were detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction（Real-time PCR） and Western blot.ResultIt was predicted that MAPK signal pathway was closely related to osteoarthritis by network pharmacology，and p38 MAPK pathway，which was most closely related to osteoarthritis，was selected for study. The results showed that 100 μmol·L-1 Qu had the most obvious effect in decreasing the expression of related inflammatory factors，inhibited the expression of p38，phosphorylated（p）-p38，matrix metalloproteinase-13（MMP-13），A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motifs-4（ADAMTS-4） in the pathway，and promoted the expression of CollagenⅡ.ConclusionQu could decrease the expression of cartilage inflammatory factors in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis，and the effect can be well developed by intervening and inhibiting p38 MAPK pathway related factor expression level. All the results show that Qu can decrease osteoarthritis inflammatory factors and protect articular cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis.
Keywords：quercetin;network pharmacology;p38 mitogen activated protein kinase （MAPK） signaling pathway;osteoarthritis;protective mechanism
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the potential synergistic protective mechanism of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Granati Pericarpium formula compound by using the methods and tools of network pharmacology，and provide a basis for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） compounds and the discovery of new drugs.MethodTraditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP） was used to obtain the active components of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Granati Pericarpium formula and their corresponding targets. The obtained targets were input to the UniProt database to inquire the gene names corresponding to the targets. By searching the CTD database，Genecards database and OMIM database of disease-related websites，the anti-sunburn targets were obtained. The interaction of the active targets was analyzed with online STRING database to screen the predicted core targets. The gene ontolog（GO） gene function enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes（KEGG） pathway enrichment analysis of the predictive targets were performed by using DAVID database. Cytoscape 3.6.1 software was used to make "drug-component-target" network diagram，"protein-protein interaction" network diagram and "component-target-pathway" network diagram. Online website Draw Venn Diagram was used to show the relationship between disease targets and drug predicted targets. R Studio software was used to draw the functional enrichment analysis diagram of GO gene and KEGG pathway. Molecular docking between the active ingredients and the core targets was performed using GOLD software.ResultThe 16 active compounds were collected，such as liquiritin，glycyrrhizin，kaempferol and quercetin. The active components mainly acted on 5 core targets：protein kinase B1（AKT1），interleukin（IL）-6，vascular endothelial growth factor（VEGFA），tumor necrosis factor（TNF） and tumor suppressor gene （TP53） and played a role in anti-sunburn effect primarily through these pathways such as hepatitis B，pathways in cancer，toxoplasmosis，chagas disease（American trypanosomiasis），and TNF signaling pathway.ConclusionBased on the method of network pharmacology，the present study has preliminarily explored the anti-sunburn targets and pathways of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Granati Pericarpium formula，and further verified the characteristics of multi-component and multi-target treatment of diseases in TCM，so as to provide certain scientific ideas for the modernization research of Chinese herbal compound prescriptions.
Keywords：network pharmacology;Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma;Granati Pericarpium;light damage;synergy mechanism
Abstract：Allergic conjunctivitis （AC） is one of the most common eye diseases in ophthalmology， including type I allergies and type Ⅳallergies， which seriously affect the quality of life of patients. This article analyzes the current models of allergic conjunctivitis based on the characteristics of clinical symptoms of Chinese and Western medicine， including the types of animals selected， the characteristics of the models， and the analysis of the degree of agreement with the clinical symptoms of Chinese and Western medicine. It is concluded that most of the current AC model replication uses ovalbumin （OVA） induction method， ragweed pollen induction method. In recent years， animal models of fungal-inducible， compound 48/80-inducible， and murine allergic conjunctivitis have appeared， which are sensitized by the "systemic first and then local" method. Most of them have a high degree of coincidence with the characteristics of Western medicine symptoms， but there are certain gaps in the indicators of Chinese medicine， and there are also inconsistencies between the existing observation indicators and the diagnostic standards of Chinese medicine， resulting in unclear symptoms of Chinese medicine and irregular classification judgments. Therefore， To replicate the animal model with high clinical anastomosis of Chinese and Western medicine， further discussion and research are needed to better promote the research of allergic conjunctivitis.
Keywords：allergic conjunctivitis;Chinese and Western medicine;clinical condition;animal models
Abstract：Sanrentang， originally contained in the Regulations on Febrile Diseases written by WU Ju-tong in the Qing dynasty， was composed of eight traditional Chinese herbs to treat damp-warm diseases. It is a treatment method of gradually clearing away damp heat of tri-jiao， with characteristics of separating dispersion and mobilizing discharge. "Separating dispersion" means dispersion in separated ways， with different ways to eliminate dampness to export the dampness， heat， evil and turbid out of the body. "Mobilizing discharge" means discharge to stretch and unblock the Qi， to get rid of dampness and evil. It can be seen， Sanrentang， as a desiccating formula， taking "separating dispersion and mobilizing discharge" as the cubic basis， has a significant effect on both internal and external dampness associated with pathogenic heat syndrome， and its clinical application is quite extensive. After consulting the data of the past 10 years， the authors gave a brief overview on the syndrome theory， clinical application and pharmacological effects of Sanrentang， and elaborated the therapeutic effect and pharmacological effect of Sanrentang in the clinical application of upper， middle and lower Tri-jiao respectively， providing theoretical reference for effective development and utilization of Sanrentang. Coronavirus disease-2019（COVID-19） swept the world in early 2020 and it is a great challenge for the medical community to seek for effective prevention and treatment methods. For COVID-19， although the cause of the disease belongs to the Qi of "pestilence"， many doctors have different opinions on the pathogenic characteristics. However， they all agree with the clinical characteristics of "dampness". COVID-19， which has the attribute of "dampness evil"， is so sticky that it can't be cured at once. In addition to the main symptoms such as fever and cough， it is also characterized by the middle-jiao dampness symptoms such as poor appetite， fullness of abdomen， loose stool and diarrhea. It is worthy to further explore the application prospect of Sanrentang in COVID-19 prevention and treatment.
Abstract：Under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， charcoal drugs are widely used in clinical treatment of various bleeding syndromes， in addition， they also have the effect in anti-diarrhea and anti-ulcer， but charcoal drugs are especially effective in stopping bleeding. According to the changes in the properties after processing， the hemostatic effect of charcoal drugs can be roughly divided into two categories. One is not used for hemostasis itself， but used for hemostasis after processing. The other is used for hemostasis itself， and the drug properties are changed or the hemostatic ability is enhanced after processing. By summarizing researches on historical evolution， processing mechanism and pharmacological effects of the commonly used hemostatic charcoal drugs， the author found that preservation or increase of active substances after processing was closely related to the hemostatic effect of charcoal drugs. The hemostatic mechanism mainly involves the influence of coagulation system and platelet function， etc. At the same time， combined with the theory of Qi chromatograph of TCM supramolecular， this paper puts forward the supramolecular research strategy on hemostatic mechanism of charcoal drugs， in order to provide reference for revealing the scientific connotation of charcoal drugs for hemostasis.
Abstract：Diabetes is a worldwide public health problem that seriously threats human health. Long-term metabolic disorders， as the main cause of multi-system complications and death in the later stage of diabetes， can cause multi-system damage， leading to chronic progressive lesions in the eyes， kidneys， nerves， heart， blood vessels and other tissues and organs， as well as functional decline and failure. The low risk of side effects and new treatment strategies remain an area to be explored in clinical treatment of diabetes. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma （SM） is one of the commonly used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， with the main effect of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In recent years， it has been found that SM shows good performance in lowering blood sugar and treating diabetes complications. Data mining information has also shown that the drugs of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis are now common drugs in clinical treatment of diabetes， and SM has the highest use frequency， with significant curative effect. In addition， TCM is a kind of treatment with composite components and multiple targets， and so people are increasingly interested in its effective components and carry out extensive researches. This article summarized the experimental verification of SM extract and its components （tanshinone A， tanshinone B， tanshinone ⅡA， tanshinone I， protocatechuic aldehyde， polysaccharide， and total polyphenol acid） in various diabetes models in improving glucolipid metabolism， improving heart function in patients with diabetes， alleviating the motor and sensory deficits caused by diabetes， preventing the occurence of the diabetic retinopathy， recovery of liver and kidney structure and function damage in diabetic patients， and helping to resist high sugar-induced atrophic cavitation potential. It may inhibit hyperglycemia-induced vascular injury with polyol pathway activation， reduce the formation of advanced glycation end products， inhibit protein kinase C pathway activation and hexosamine pathway activation， and alleviate oxidative stress caused by excessive production of peroxides in mitochondrial electron transport chain during hyperglycemia to play a role of treatment， and provide reference for clinical application.
Keywords：Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma;effective components;diabetes;experiment research;diabetic complication;mode of action
Abstract：With the development of urbanization and the change of lifestyle， people have gradually developed unhealthy living habits， such as high-fat diet and reduced physical activity， which promotes the increasing number of diabetes patients and becomes an escalating public health problem worldwide. Therefore， it is urgent to explore effective measures to prevent and treat diabetes. Recent studies have shown that intestinal flora is closely related to the occurrence and development of diabetes， making it a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. A healthy intestinal environment is an important internal environment for physiological and metabolic activities of the human body. Intestinal flora homeostasis is accompanied by physiological metabolic disorders of the body， such as induced metabolic endotoxemia， bile acid metabolism disorders and reduced production of short chain fatty acid （SCFA）， which leads to low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in the body that are important pathological processes of diabetes. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has been used in the treatment of diabetes， with a remarkable curative effect. At present， there are extensive studies on the active ingredients of TCM and the compound of TCM for regulating structure of intestinal flora and improving symptoms of diabetes. A large number of studies have shown a dynamic two-way relationship between TCM and intestinal flora. Specifically， intestinal flora can transform TCM into polyphenols， alkaloids， saponins and other active substances with a pharmacological effect， in turn， these active ingredients can reverse the imbalance of intestinal microecology， and the recovery of intestinal flora imbalance can improve the symptoms of diabetes. It can be seen that intestinal flora is a bridge for TCM treatment of diabetes， which may be one of the mechanisms of TCM treatment of diabetes. This paper reviews the active ingredients of TCM and the compound of TCM in the treatment of diabetes， in order to provide reference for the exploration of prevention and treatment of diabetes.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;intestinal flora;diabetes;mechanism of action;study progress
Abstract：In traditional Chinese medicine， it is believed that the spleen is the foundation of acquired nature and the source of Qi and blood. All life activities of a person since birth depend on the water and grain essence transported by spleen and stomach. The liver helps the spleen to strengthen the movement， the liver and spleen cooperate with each other. The liver and the spleen are invigorated， so that the Qi and blood are sufficient. The external energy can nourish the limbs， muscles and fur. The Qi and blood can be supplied to the internal organs， meridians and bones， and the body can be nourished both inside and outside to strengthen the acquired foundation. Emotional dissatisfaction can lead to stagnation of liver Qi， loss of spleen Qi， failure to dredge Qi， and deficiency of spleen Qi， forming the syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency. Its clinical manifestations include the symptoms of liver Qi stagnation such as depression， stamina， and chest fullness， as well as symptoms of spleen deficiency such as anorexia， abdominal distension， loose stools. Xiaoyaowan is an effective classic prescription for the treatment of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome， which is based on the dosage form of Xiaoyaosan in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It has the effect of relieving depression， nourishing blood and invigorating spleen. In modern research， it has been found that Xiaoyaowan has good curative effect in the treatment of endocrine diseases， liver diseases， immune diseases， and neurological diseases， etc. It was praised by the famous medical scientist YE Tian-shi in the Qing Dynasty as "the holy medicine for women"， with a wide range of significant curative effects gynecology. Progress has been also made in pharmacological research. In this article， we have searched and consulted the relevant literature reports of Xiaoyaowan in recent years， summarized the key directions of the pharmacological research literature， and proposed deficiencies to provide relevant basis for the in-depth study of Xiaoyao pill in the future.
Abstract：Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with a variety of complex mechanisms. Current researchers generally believe that its cause may be related to living environment， daily mood， heredity， behavior habits， et al， but its specific pathogenesis has not yet been studied clearly. With the rapid increase in the number of breast cancer patients worldwide， the clinical treatment methods in most countries have also been continuously improved. At present， the methods such as surgery， radiotherapy and chemotherapy， immunotherapy， and endocrine therapy are mainly adopted in clinical practice. These methods have increased the survival rate of patients， but still with the possibility of recurrence and metastasis， and there are obvious sequelae. Some postoperative patients also experience psychological pressure and burden， which would greatly affect the quality of life. A large number of experiments and clinical experience have proved that due to its unique advantages， traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） has serially improved its current status in the extensive treatment of breast cancer. No matter in post-operative rehabilitation or in the process of co-radiation and chemotherapy， it has played an increasingly prominent role. TCM can improve human immunity， regulate the body's environment， effectively prevent the recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer， improve postoperative recovery， reduce the complications of radiation treatment and iatrochemistry， expressively improve the quality of life of patients， and prolong the survival time of patients. In recent years， the effectiveness of TCM in the treatment of breast cancer has brought more and more great trust from the patients in TCM， and most patients are willing to actively receive TCM treatment， so the mechanisms and approaches of TCM intervention in the treatment of breast cancer still need further research and exploration by our medical workers. By consulting the latest domestic and foreign literature， we reviewed the research progress on five approaches of TCM intervention in the treatment of breast cancer， including signaling pathways， immunotherapy， endocrine therapy， chemotherapy， and radiotherapy. Signal pathway intervention was explained mainly based on wingless-type MMTV integration site family members（Wnt）signaling pathway ， B-cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）-associated X protein（Bax）/Bcl-2/cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3（Caspase-3）signaling pathway， phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase（PI3K）/protein kinase B（PKB/Akt）/mammalian target of rapamycin（mTOR）signaling pathway， a highly conserved signal transduction pathway to regulate cell-cell communication（Notch）signaling pathway， mitogen-activated proteinkinase （MAPK） signaling pathway， etc. This article aims to provide reference for the treatment of breast cancer by Chinese medicine.
Keywords：breast cancer;traditional Chinese medicine;signal pathway;immunotherapy;endocrine therapy;radiotherapy and chemotherapy
Abstract：Presently， tumor has become an important factor threatening human health， and how to cure tumor effectively is still one of the most important problems in the modern medical field. Mongolian medicine has a long history， and is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， with distinctive national characteristics. It has been gradually formed and developed by absorbing Tibetan medicine，Indian medical theory and TCM. It has the advantages of a low toxicity，diverse structures and effect in modulating immune responses，with a important value and application perspectives. This paper focused on literatures from China National Knowledge Infrastructure，WanFang and Pubmed databases in recent years，with Mongolian medicine，anti-tumor and mechanism of action as the key words. The relevant literatures were collected， and the anti-tumor mechanisms of Mongolian medicinal in inhibiting cell proliferation， affecting cell cycle，inducing apoptosis，suppressing tumor invasion and metastasis，controlling angiogenesis and regulating immune status were summarized， in the hope to provide a reference for prevention and treatment of tumors with Mongolian medicine. The survey results showed that the study methods for Mongolian medicine at this stage were mostly simple， with a low overall level and based on in vitro cell level. However，the antitumor mechanism of Mongolian medicine compounds was not deeply studied. The material basis and mechanism of Mongolian medicine shall be further studied by modern medicine and bioscience techniques. Long-term goals and plans shall be established to form their own characteristics and advantages.
Keywords：Mongolian medicine;anti-tumor;mechanism of action;tumor;study progress