Abstract：This paper systematically combs and analyzes the existing research related to the textual research of famous classical formulas， summarizes the problems and deficiencies of the current research， and puts forward the key points and suggestions of the textual research of famous classical formulas， so as to provide reference for the research related to the textual research of famous classical formulas. This paper discusses from the perspectives of paying attention to the similarities and differences of ancient and modern drug textual research connotation， paying attention to the comprehensive utilization of multi-dimensional information， paying attention to the combing and textual research of different key links of drug historical evolution， paying attention to the combing of the evolution of modern scientific name textual research， paying attention to the textual research principle of respecting the ancient but not sticking to it， and paying attention to the basic knowledge of philology， and puts forward the current situation， problems and countermeasures of formula textual research to herbal textual research based on the in-depth summary and analysis of the results， absorbs the advantages of previous scholars， supplements the shortcomings of previous research， and forms a unique research system according to the characteristics of famous classical formulas. That is， pay attention to the context of historical changes and cross-sectional analysis. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the historical changes of different key links such as the origin， authentic production areas， medicinal parts and processing， the reasonable key information of famous classical formula drugs in different periods was given by fully absorbing the research results of modern times and combining the current productivity and cognitive level， laying a foundation for the development of famous classical formulas.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;drugs;herbal textual research;ideas and methods;key problems;key points and suggestions
Abstract：Through consulting the ancient herbs， medical books and modern literature， this paper made textual research on the name， origin， producing area， quality evaluation， collection and processing of medicinal materials of Sang （Mori Folium， Mori Cortex， Mori Ramulus， Mori Fructus） in famous classical formulas， in order to provide a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing medicinal materials of Sang. According to the research， Mori Folium and Mori Cortex were first used as medicines in Shengnong Bencaojing ， Mori Ramulus was first used as medicine in Jinxiaofang， and Mori Fructus was first used as medicine in Xinxiu Bencao. Before the Tang dynasty， there were Nyusang and Shansang. Since Tang dynasty， there were many sources of medicinal materials of Sang， including Baisang （Morus alba）， Jisang （M. australis）， Shansang （M. mongolica）， etc. According to textual research， the mainstream varieties were M. australis， M. alba and their cultivated varieties. In modern times， according to the relevant information and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia， M. alba is the original base. In ancient times， the origin of mulberry changed with the development of sericulture， mulberry has been widely planted since the Song dynasty. In the Ming and Qing dynasties， mulberry has been planted most in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. In modern times， they are mainly produced in Jiangsu， Zhejiang， Anhui， Hunan and other places. In recent years， due to the related policies and strategies such as "moving silkworms from east to west"， the center of silkworm breeding has gradually transferred to the west. As for the quality evaluation and harvesting and processing of mulberry medicinal materials， Most of the ancient and modern records of Mori Folium are the same. They are harvested after frost， and dried after removing impurities. The quality is better when the leaves are large and thick， yellowish green， holding prickly hands and undergoing frost. The harvesting period of Mori Cortex is slightly different in ancient and modern records. Ancient books record that it can be harvested all the year round， but in modern times， it is mostly harvested from late autumn to the next spring. The processing methods include removing soil and fibrous roots， scraping off yellow-brown rough skin， peeling off white skin and drying in the sun. The quality is better when they are white， thick， flexible， free of rough skin and full of powder. There are few records about the collection， processing and quality evaluation of Mori Ramulus and Mori Fructus in ancient Chinese herbal books. According to modern literature， Mori Ramulus is usually collected in late spring and early summer， with leaves removed， slightly dried， sliced while fresh， and dried in the sun. The best quality of Mori Ramulus is fine and tender with the yellow and white section. Mori Fructus is harvested from April to June when the fruit turns red， and dried in the sun， or slightly steamed and dried in the sun， and it is better to be big， dark purple， oily and thick. There are many processing methods of mulberry medicinal materials. Ancient books record stir frying， baking， burning and steaming of Mori Folium， in modern times， there is honey-roasted method， but most of them are used as raw products. In ancient materia medica， Mori Cortex has firing method， baking method， stir-frying method， honey-fried method， etc. In modern times， there are stir-fried and honey-fried methods， and most of them are used as raw products. Ancient books record that Mori Ramulus has cutting and frying methods， while modern ones have cutting， frying， wine-processed and bran-processed methods. Processing methods of Mori Fructus are consistent in ancient and modern times， and they are mostly dried after being cleaned or steamed. Based on the research results， it is suggested that M. alba should be selected as mulberry medicinal materials in the famous classical formulas， and appropriate medicinal parts and processing methods can be selected according to the indications of the famous classical formulas.
Abstract：Chinese medicines of Doukou includes Amomi Fructus Rotundus， Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen， Galangae Fructus and Myristicae Semen. They have a long medicinal history and are also commonly used in cooking and seasoning. Due to the similar names and limited to the traffic conditions in ancient times， the records of Doukou in ancient literature are often confused with many plants in the same family， and there are still many kinds of confused products. In order to promote the development of famous classical formulas containing the medicinal materials， the ancient literature of Doukou in the past dynasties was comprehensively combed from the aspects of name， origin， genuine area， medicinal parts， harvesting and processing and processing methods. It has been found that the basic original plants of Amomi Fructus Rotundus are Amomum kravanh and A. compactum， the original plant of Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen is Alpinia katsumadai and it often confused with Tsaoko Fructus. The main source of Galangae Fructus recorded in the ancient materia medica is the fruit of A. officinarum， while the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia stipulates that the original plant is A. galanga. Myristica fragrans is the original plant of Myristicae Semen. It was found that except M. fragrans， the other three kinds of medicinal origin of Doukou had changed， there are many other plants confused with each other. The four kinds of Doukou are produced in Southeast China and Southeast Asia， and most of Amomi Fructus Rotundus and Myristicae Semen are imported. The Chinese medicines of Doukou have clear medicinal parts and simple processing methods， the main methods in the past dynasties are cleaning， stir frying and simmering， and the processed products are selected according to the needs of different diseases. It is suggested to use the dry mature seeds of A. katsumadai in Houpo Wenzhongtang， which is from Guangxi， Guangdong， Hainan， Fujian and Yunnan and so on， among which Wanning in Hainan province is genuine producing area. The fruits should be harvested in summer and autumn， and dried to 90% dry in the sun， or slightly scalded with water and dried to half dry in the sun， and removed the peel， taken out the seed group， dried in the sun and then be used as medicine.
Abstract：The name， origin， place of origin， medicinal parts， harvesting and processing of lotus are verified by consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines and medical books， combined with modern literature， providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing lotus. According to textual research， the original base of lotus is Nelumbo nucifera since ancient times， rhizome （Nelumbinis Rhizomatis Nodus）， leaf （Nelumbinis Folium）， seed （Nelumbinis Semen）， embryo （Nelumbinis Plumula）， receptacle （Nelumbinis Receptaculum）， stamen （Nelumbinis Stamen） and other medicinal parts of N. nucifera can be used as medicine and have different clinical effects. Nelumbinis Semen was originally produced in Henan， and then gradually expanded to Jiangnan. Today， it can be cultivated and planted throughout the country， with Fujian， Hunan， and Jiangxi as the authentic production areas. After combing the medicinal parts of N. nucifera and the historical evolution of its processing， it is suggested that the dried and mature fruits of N. nucifera taking in autumn and removing the shell and Nelumbinis Plumula should be used in Qingxin Lianziyin. Nelumbinis Folium in Erdongtang should be harvested in summer and autumn， and the raw products was used as medicine and processed in accordance with the provision of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Abstract：Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties， this article makes a systematic textual research on the name， origin， producing area， quality， harvesting and processing of Zisu （Perillae） in the famous classical formulas， so as to clarify the information of the drug in different historical periods and provide a reference for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The main origin of Perillae in the ancient literature was Perilla frutescens var. frutescens （purple leaf type）， followed by P. frutescens var. acuta （purple leaf type）， but not Baisu. Modern chemical composition studies also show that there are obvious differences between Perillae and Baisu， which provides a scientific basis for distinguishing them. Although they are often treated as a species in plant classification， P. frutescens var. frutescens （purple leaf type） is recommended in the development of famous classical formulas， and Baisu should be avoided. Perillae is widely distributed， but its producing area did not record in most of the literature in the past dynasties， or the producing area is described as everywhere today. In the period of the Southern and Northern dynasties， the medicinal parts of Perillae included stems， leaves and seeds， and doctors in the Ming dynasty began to pay attention to the differentiation of different medicinal parts. The harvesting and processing methods of Perillae in the past dynasties are close to that of today. Perillae Fructus is mostly stir-fried and ground into medicine， Perillae Folium and Perillae Caulis are mainly simple cleansing. In production， we can refer to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Perillae;origin;producing area;medicinal part;processing;herbal textual research
Abstract：By referring to the materials of ancient materia medica， prescriptions and medical books， combining with modern literature， this paper made textual research on the name， origin， producing area， quality evaluation， harvesting and processing methods of Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix in famous classical formulas， so as to provide a basis for the selection and use of Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix in the development of famous classical formulas. Through textual research， it can be seen that Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix is the correct name in all dynasties， but it still has many aliases. The main strain of Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix was Ligusticum sinense and L. jeholense， in addition， there are also L. tenuissimum， Sinodielsia yunnanensis， and Conioselinum vaginatum， L. sinense var. hupehense used in different regions. Since modern times， the textual examination of its scientific name is more complicated. Different foreign scholars have given many scientific names from their local observation， but most of them do not match the actual situation of Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix in ancient China. It is probably because they did not collect the original plants of Chinese Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix and conduct accurate identification. After the founding of the People's Republic of China， the L. sinense and L. jeholense was identified as the original plants through systematic investigation and arrangement of Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix. Since modern times， L. sinense is distributed in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River and the south of the region， a small amount of production in Sichuan， Hubei， Hunan and Jiangxi. L. jeholense is distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the north of the region， mostly produced in Liaoning and Hebei. The ancient harvesting period of Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix was concentrated in January and February according to the lunar calendar with thick roots， dry， fragrant， heavy quality as the best. But now the collection of roots and rhizome more than concentrated in spring before seedling emergence and autumn when leaves were gone， and take the large， dry， yellow， strong， fragrant， less roots， residual short as the best. In the past dynasties， raw products were the main processing methods， and there were also roasting， grinding and so on. Based on the research results， it is suggested that the raw roots and rhizomes of L. sinense and L. jeholense should be used in the development of famous classical formulas.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;herbal textual research;Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix;origin;production area;harvesting;processing
Abstract：In this paper， the name， origin， quality evaluation， producing area and processing methods of Platycodonis Radix used in the famous classical formulas are researched by consulting related materia medicas， prescription books and medical books of the past dynasties. It was found that Platycodonis Radix was the correct name in the materia medicas of the past dynasties， which was named for its "roots are strong but the stems are straight". Its dominant base of the past dynasties was Platycodon grandiflorus， and since the Ming and Qing dynasties， Hexian county of Anhui has been respected as the representative authentic producing area. In modern times， it has been concluded that the quality of Platycodonis Radix is best if the body is dry， thick and uniform， solid， white in color， and bitter in taste. In ancient times， the processing methods of Platycodonis Radix were mainly removing the reed head and floating skin， rice simmering and drying， and slicing and micro-frying. In modern times， its processing methods have been mainly simplified to peeling and cutting into thick slices. Therefore， it is recommended to use the dry roots of P. grandiflorus and its raw products in the famous classical formulas.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Platycodonis Radix;origin;producing area;quality evaluation;processing;herbal textual research
Abstract：In this paper， the name， classification， origin and other aspects of Schizonepetae Herba in the famous classical formulas were researched by referring to the related herbal literature， medical books and prescription books in the past dynasties. The results showed that Schizonepetae Herba first appeared in Shennong Bencaojing （《神农本草经》） as Jiasu， while Jingjie first appeared in Wupu Bencao （《吴普本草》）， and the name of Jingjie was mainly used as the rectification of name in later generations. The name of Jiasu is mostly derived from its smell， and the name of Jingjie is mostly derived from its pronunciation. Schizonepeta tenuifolia has been highly praised in the past as a original material， and its genuine producing area is Jiangsu， Hebei and other places， medicinal part is whole herb with spike. In modern times， the quality of Schizonepetae Herba is best described as having thin stems， green spike， and aroma. In clinical application， the raw products of Schizonepetae Herba is mainly used， and the carbonisata is mainly used for hemostasis. Famous classical formulas of Huaihuasan and Danggui Yinzi are all made of Schizonepetae Spica， so it is recommended to use the dried panicle of S. tenuifolia. In Liangxue Dihuangtang， Schizonepetae Herba Carbonisata is used， therefore， it is suggested to adopt the processing method of Schizonepetae Herba Carbonisata in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Schizonepetae Herba;name;origin;producing area;processing;herbal textual research
Abstract：Ephedrae Herba is a commonly used medicine for dispersing wind and cold， which has a long medicinal history. By referring to the herbal literature， medical books and prescription books， this paper intends to carry out herbal textual research on the name， origin， medicinal part， producing area， harvesting and processing methods of Ephedrae Herba in famous classical formulas， in order to provide the basis for the development of relevant famous classical formulas. According to textual research， the main base of ancient Ephedrae Herba was Ephedra sinica. The medicinal part is the herbaceous stems of Ephedrae Herba. Before the Northern and Southern dynasties， the origin of the records was Jindi and Hedong， which is now Shanxi province. In the Northern and Southern dynasties and later generations， the producing area expanded， and now it is mainly distributed in Hebei， Shanxi， Shaanxi， Inner Mongolia， Gansu， Liaoning and other places， among which Inner Mongolia is the main producing area. The harvesting and processing methods in the past dynasties are to harvest the stems in autumn， dry them in the shade or air to 70%-80% dry， and then dry them in the sun. The processing methods in the past dynasties mainly include removing the knots， wine-fried， honey-fried， processing with vinegar and so on， at present， only honey-fried is still in use. Based on the research results， it is suggested that Ephedrae Herba in famous classical formulas should be selected the dry herbaceous stems of E. sinica. If the processing requirements are not indicated， it is suggested to use raw products of Ephedrae Herba.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Ephedrae Herba;hebral textual research;medicinal part;harvesting and processing;processing methods;origin
Abstract：In this paper， the name， origin， medicinal properties， specifications， clinical efficacy， producing area， quality evaluation and processing methods of Forsythiae Fructus in the famous classical formulas are researched by consulting related herbal literature， medical books and prescription books. The results showed that Forsythiae Fructus was sourced from Hypericum ascyron and its genus plants before Song dynasty， and it is used as medicine in many parts. After Song dynasty， Forsythiae Fructus is sourced from the fruit of Forsythia suspensa. Since the Ming dynasty， Forsythiae Fructus is divided into Qingqiao and Laoqiao according to different harvesting time. According to the research results， it is suggested to refer to the following suggestions for the application of Forsythiae Fructus in the development of famous classical formulas：①F. suspensa should be chosen as the origin since the Ming and Qing dynasties. ②If there is no special requirement for the source of prescriptions， it is recommended that Laoqiao be used in famous classical formulas since the Ming and Qing dynasties. ③The harvest time of Qingqiao should be from July 15th to August 15th， and Laoqiao should be in September， and it should be the husk after the seeds have been removed.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Forsythiae Fructus;herbal textual research;Oleaceae;medicinal parts;product specifications;efficacy;harvesting and processing
Abstract：In order to provide the basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing Myrrha， the name， origin， quality evaluation， harvest and processing of Myrrha were systematically researched by consulting the ancient herbal and medical books， combining with the modern related literature. According to textual research， the results showed that Commiphora myrrha was the main base in ancient times， which was produced in Somalia， Ethiopia and northern Kenya. In addition， raw and fried products of Myrrha were the commonly used specifications in ancient herbal medicine， which are still used today. Nowadays， Myrrha， fried Myrrha and vinegar-processed Myrrha were the commonly used specifications. Among the three specifications， Myrrha is the raw products after cleaning， fried Myrrha is a kind of processed products， which has relevant records in ancient materia medica and is still used today. Vinegar-processed Myrrha is a new processing specification in modern times. Based on the research results， it is suggested that Myrrha in Shentong Zhuyutang should be the purified raw Myrrha in accordance with the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Abstract：By referring to the relevant ancient herbal literature， medical records and prescription books， the textual research of Violae Herba has been conducted to verify the name， origin， producing area， quality evaluation and processing method changes. The results showed that the name of Zihua Diding originated from its flower color and plant morphological characteristics. The primitive plant of Violae Herba is Viola genus of Violaceae， V. yedoensis， as stipulated in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia， has been the mainstream in past dynasties of China. Violae Herba is mainly wild， and it is widely distributed throughout the country. Since modern times， the quality of Violae Herba is better with integrity， green color and yellow root. There are few records on the harvesting and processing methods of Violae Herba in ancient times， most of which are directly used after drying. It is suggested that the collection and processing methods of Violae Herba in the famous classical formulas can be implemented in accordance with the provisions of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Abstract：In this paper， through consulting relevant records in materia medica， medical and prescription books， and combining with modern literature， the name， origin， producing area， collection and processing of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix in famous classical formulas from The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas （The First Batch） was systematically sorted out and textual research was carried out， in order to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing Gentianae macrophyllae Radix. After textual research， it was found that Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was the rectification of name in the past dynasties. In addition， there were other names such as Qinjiao， Qingua and Qinzhua. Gentiana macrophylla， G. straminea， G. dahurica and G. siphonantha were the main origin of this herb in ancient literature. Among them， G. macrophylla is the mainstream. In the Southern and Northern dynasties， G. straminea and G. macrophylla produced in northern Sichuan were recommended as the best. In the early Tang dynasty， G. macrophylla from the Liupan Mountain area at the border of Shanxi and Gansu provinces was the mainstream. During the Northern Song dynasty， G. siphonantha from Linxia and Qilian Mountain of Gansu province and G. macrophylla from eastern Shaanxi province were two new producing areas. In the Ming and Qing dynasties， the abundant base and production areas of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix were gradually formed. In the past dynasties， harvesting was carried out in spring and autumn， and stored mainly by aeration drying or shade drying treatment. The processing methods are mainly the raw products after the net selection， cutting and drying， in addition to the frying， processing with wine and milk. G. macrophylla is recommended as the first choice for the herbal medicine involved in the famous classical formulas. Among them， wild products produced in Gansu and Shaanxi are the best， and raw products are recommended to be used. At the same time， it is suggested that G. siphonantha should be added to the subsequent edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia as one of origins of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix.
Abstract：In this paper， the name， origin， producing area and other aspects of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba in the famous classical formulas were carried out by consulting herbal literature， medical books， prescription books in the past dynasties and related modern documents. Through the textual research， it can be seen that the name of Bohe was used as the correct name in the mainstream of the past dynasties， and there were still multiple synonyms， most of which originated from the false transmission of dialectal accent， producing area and efficacy. There are many varieties recorded in the literature of the past dynasties such as Bohe， Longnao Bohe， Hubohe and Shibohe. According to the textual research， Bohe， Longnao Bohe and Yebohe are consistent with Mentha haplocalyx， whcih is the mainstream variety. Longnao Bohe is named for its form of producing area， Shibohe is Mosla chinensis， Daye Bohe is Agastache rugosa， and Nanbohe is M. crispata. Menthae Haplocalycis Herba has been widely planted since Tang dynasty. It was mainly grown in Jiangsu， Zhejiang， Jiangxi and Sichuan in Ming and Qing dynasties， and Jiangsu is the genuine production area. Its quality is best if it has dry body， no roots， many leaves， green color and strong smell. In ancient times， the stems and leaves of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba were often picked and dried in summer and autumn， which is basically the same as the records of modern times when the stems and leaves are luxuriant in summer and autumn， or when the flowers bloom to three rounds， they are picked in sunny days and cut in different times， and then dried in the sun or in the shade， and the raw products was often used as medicine in ancient and modern times. Before the Song dynasty， Menthae Haplocalycis Herba was recorded as pungent and warm. Until the Song dynasty， it was written as “extremely cool” in Lyuchanyan Bencao. It may have been thought in the early stage that it was similar to several warm herbs， such as Perilla frutescens， Stachys japonica， Elsholtzia ciliata and M. chinensis in appearance， all of which have the function of Xinsan， so it was recorded as warm. Since the Qing dynasty， Menthae Haplocalycis Herba has been recorded as cool property in the mainstream materia medica， Menthae Haplocalycis Herba recorded as pungent and cool in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia， and its effect is to dissipate wind heat， clear the head， relieve the pharynx and so on， the records of efficacy in ancient and modern times are basically the same. Based on the research results， it is suggested that raw products of M. haplocalyx should be selected when developing the famous classical formulas containing Menthae Haplocalycis Herba.
Abstract：In this paper， the name， origin， producing area， quality evaluation， harvest and processing methods of Cyperi Rhizoma used in the famous classical formulas are researched by consulting related herbal medicines， medical books， modern documents. The results showed that although some fake products such as Cyperus stoloniferus and Scirpus plants were used as Cyperi Rhizoma， the main source in the past generations is still C. rotundus. It is recommended to use C. rotundus in the famous classical formulas. Since the Tang dynasty， Guangdong， Guangxi and Zhejiang have always been high-quality production areas of Cyperi Rhizoma. Among them， those from western Guangdong are known as Guangxiangfu， Nanxiangfu is produced in Zhejiang province. Since the modern times， the quality of Cyperi Rhizoma is best if it has a big， firm physique and strong fragrant. The common processing method is vinegar processing. It is suggested that raw materials should be used as medicine in the famous classical formulas which do not clearly indicate the processing requirements， and different processed products should be selected according to the formulas with the processing requirements.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Cyperi Rhizoma;herbal textual research;origin;geoherbalism;processing methods;producing area
Abstract：In this paper， the name， origin， changes of producing area， medicinal parts， quality evaluation and processing methods of Arecae Semen in the famous classical formulas by consulting related herbal medicines， medical books and prescription books. The results showed that the names of Arecae Semen in the past dynasties were mostly derived from its shape， efficacy and producing area. The main base of the past generations was Areca catechu， the medicinal parts were its seeds （Arecae Semen） and pericarps （Arecae Pericarpium）. Arecae Semen is produced in Hainan province of China. Since modern times， it has been concluded that the best quality is large， heavy， firm， and unbreakable. The main processing methods of Arecae Semen in the past dynasties were netting， cutting and frying. Therefore， it is suggested that Arecae Semen should be used in Dayuanyin. If the processing requirements of Arecae Semen are not clearly indicated， it can be processed according to raw products in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Abstract：By consulting ancient herbal medicines， medical and prescription books， combined with modern documents， the textual research of Morindae Officinalis Radix has been conducted to verify the name， origin， changes in production areas， quality evaluation， harvesting， and processing methods， so as to provide reference and basis for the development and utilization of the famous classical formulas. After textual research， the production areas of Morindae Officinalis Radix has experienced great changes from north to south in history. The original plants involve 11 families， 14 genera and 21 species， and the mainstream varieties in ancient times were Damnacanthus officinarum and D. indicus， and the basis of Morindae Officinalis Radix in modern times has changed into the dry roots of Morinda officinalis produced in Guangdong province and other places. The medicinal parts of Morindae Officinalis Radix in ancient and modern times are all roots， and the quality is better if it has many beads， thick flesh， and purple color. Ancient medical books recorded that it was usually harvested in February and August， dried in the shade， and used to remove the wood core. And the modern harvesting and processing method is to dig throughout the year， first remove the fibrous roots， dry in the sun until 60%-70% dry， gently beat flatten and dry in the sun. The processing methods of the past dynasties are mainly salt-， vinegar-， wine-processed， etc. Based on the systematic research of Morindae Officinalis Radix， from the perspective of clinical experience and safety and effectiveness， it is recommended that the famous classical formulas should be developed from the mainstream variety since modern times， namely Morindae Officinalis Radix.
Abstract：By consulting ancient herbal medicines and medical books， combined with modern documents and field investigations， the textual research of Pheretima has been conducted to verify the name， origin， producing area， quality， harvesting and processing changes， and sort out the relationship of origin between ancient and modern times， so as to provide reference and basis for the development and utilization of the related famous classical formulas. Through textual research， it is known that there are many aliases for Pheretima， the rectification of name was "Qiuyin" or "Baijing Qiuyin" in materia medica books. In the Song dynasty and later prescription books， the prescription name is mostly Dilong. From the beginning of Yaowu Chuchanbian （《药物出产辨》）， Dilong was used as the rectification of name. It is widely distributed in our country， which is produced all over the country and mostly wild. According to ancient Pheretima with "Baijing Dilong"， "Jingbai Shenzi" and "Datiao" as the principles of medicine， combined with historical origin， producing area and easy access， it is confirmed that Pheretima used in ancient times to the present is mainly Pheretima aspergillum， and it also has many other Qiuyin as Pheretima for medicinal purposes. Chinese Pharmacopoeia has unified the origin of the Pheretima since the 1995 edition based on historical origins and actual harvesting conditions. The medicinal material processed by P. aspergillum was called Guangdilong， and the medicinal materials processed by P. vulgaris， P. guillelmi and P. pectinifera were called Hudilong. Since then， all the herbal books published in the future are in line with Chinese Pharmacopoeia that was implemented at that time. The authentic production areas of Guangdilong are Guangdong and Guangxi， and the authentic production areas of Hudilong is Jiangsu， Shanghai， Zhejiang and Anhui. The Guangdilong produced in Guangdong and Guangxi has the best quality. After harvesting， remove the soil and offal， wash and dry. Clinically cut into sections for medicine， or prepare medicine according to prescription. The Pheretima in ancient used "Baijing Dilong"， "Jingbai Shenzi" and "Datiao" as the mainstream quality evaluation standards. According to historical origins， P. aspergillum should be the main source of Pheretima， and its quality is better than other species. Therefore， it is recommended that Pheretima in Shentong Zhuyutang use P. aspergillum， which is produced in Guangdong， Guangxi and other places. After harvest， the abdomen was opened in time to remove the viscera and sediment， washed and dried.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Pheretima;herbal textual research;origin;producing area;quality evaluation;harvesting and processing
Abstract：By consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines and medical books， combined with modern documents， the textual research of Polygonati Rhizoma has been conducted to verify the name， origin， bitter-flavored Polygonatum species， Latin name evolution， origin， quality evaluation， harvesting and processing changes， so as to provide reference and basis for the development and utilization of the famous classical formulas. Through textual research， it can be seen that there are many other names for Polygonati Rhizoma， and Huangjing is the correct name since Mingyi Bielu. Based on the original research， it is concluded that P. sibiricum and P. cyrtonema were the mainstream of Polygonati Rhizoma before the Tang dynasty， and P. kingianum was added in the Qing dynasty. According to the shape of medicinal materials， these Polygonatum species were called Jitou Huangjing， Jiangxing Huangjing and Dahuangjing. The harvest time of Polygonati Rhizoma is spring and autumn. After harvest， it is steamed and dried in the sun， and its processing method is mainly "nine steaming and nine storms". Bitter-flavored Polygonatum is mainly P. cirrhifolium， P. zanlanscianense， P. curvistylum and P. verticillatum， which are not suitable for medicine. Based on textual research， it is recommended that when developing famous classical formulas and health products with Polygonati Rhizoma as the main raw material， the origin and producing area should be clear and fixed， and P. sibiricum or P. cyrtonema with clear origin should be used. It is necessary to conduct germplasm survey and sampling in the producing area， establish a planting base and a traceability system for Polygonati Rhizoma， in order to control the quality and stabilize the efficacy of the products. The processing method of Polygonati Rhizoma can be determined according to the product function positioning.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Polygonati Rhizoma;origin;Polygonati Rhizoma with bitter taste;species;evolution of scientific name;herbal textual research
Abstract：By consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines and medical books， the textual research of Armeniacae Semen Amarum has been conducted to verify the name， origin， producing area， quality evaluation， harvesting and processing changes. Through textual research， Shennong Bencaojing began to contain Xinghe. After Xinxiu Bencao， Xingheren were gradually taken as the mainstream name， Xingren was first used as the correct name since Leigong Paozhilun， and gradually became the mainstream rectifying in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Before the Qing dynasty， there was no distinction between Armeniacae Semen Amarum and Armeniacae Semen Dulcis in the materia medica works， while the differences between them were clearly defined in some works of the Qing dynasty， but did not record them separately. In order to make them more accurate in clinical application， Armeniacae Semen Amarum was recorded as the correct name in the 1953 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia， and Armeniacae Semen Dulcis was included in the provincial standards. The original plants of Armeniacae Semen Amarum from Prunus armeniaca （Armeniaca vulgaris in Flora of China） and its cultivated varieties with bitter seeds were taken as the mainstream， which are reflected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Its yellow ripe fruit was generally harvested in May， the seed kernel was taken out for drying or baking， finally the seed coat was removed to use. It is recorded that the production area of Armeniacae Semen Amarum is Taihang Mountain area of Shanxi province in ancient times. At present， its producing area is mainly concentrated in Shanxi， Shandong， Hebei and other places in north China. Historical literature pointed out that Armeniacae Semen Amarum had small toxicity， and heat treatment could reduce toxicity and increase efficiency， its main processing method was blanching and stir-frying. In addition， it is generally believed that raw products with seed coat can enhance its sweating effect since the Ming and Qing dynasties. Until now， three processed products are stipulated in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia， namely raw products， boiled and fried products. Based on textual research， it is recommended that A. vulgaris should be used as the original plant of Armeniacae Semen Amarum in famous classical formulas， and the use of processed products should follow the processing requirements marked in the formulas.
Abstract：Through consulting the ancient herbal and medical books， combined with the field investigation， the name， origin， collection and processing of Dendrobium medicinal materials were researched， which provided a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this kind of herbs. Due to the wide distribution of D. officinale， the Dendrobium species represented by D. officinale and D. huoshanense， which are short， fleshy and rich in mucus， should be the most mainstream of Dendrobium medicinal materials in previous dynasties. Compared with Shihu， Muhu with loose texture， long and hollow is born on trees. According to the characteristic description， it should be D. nobile， D. fimbriatum and so on， of which D. nobile was the mainstream. The Chinese meaning of Jinchai was confused in the past dynasties， so it was not suitable to be treated as a plant name. The production areas of Dendrobium medicinal materials in the past dynasties have changed with the discovery of varieties， artificial cultivation and other factors. Lu'an， Anhui province， was the earliest recorded in the Han and Wei dynasties. Since the Tang and Song dynasties， it had been extended to Guangdong and Guangxi， and it was considered that "Dendrobii Caulis in Guangnan was the best". In the Ming dynasty， Sichuan and Zhejiang products were highly praised， and in the Qing dynasty， Huoshan products were highly praised. Dendrobium medicinal materials had been used as medicine by stems in all dynasties. The medicinal materials were divided into fresh products and dry products. The fresh products can be used immediately after removing the sediment from the roots. The dry products need further processing， most of them used wine as auxiliary materials for steaming， simmer to paste or decoction into medicine. D. officinale and D. huoshanense have special processing specifications since the middle of Qing dynasty， that is， "Fengdou". According to the research results， in Ganluyin， the effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials is mainly heat clearing， and D. nobile with bitter taste can be selected. The main effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials in Dihuang Yinzi is tonic， D. officinale or D. huoshanense can be selected.
Abstract：In this study， name， origin， producing areas， harvesting time and processing methods of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma were systematically researched by consulting the literature of ancient herbs， medical and prescription books， so as to provide a basis for the development of famous classical formula containing this herb. According to textual research， the main base of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma was Alisma plantago-aquatica and A. orientale. A. canaliculatum and A. gramineum and other genera were sometimes used as the source of Alismatis Rhizoma， there was a confusion of medicinal varieties. The earliest producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma was in today's Henan province， and later Hanzhong， Shaanxi province， became the high-quality producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma. Since the Ming dynasty， its production area expanded to Fujian. In the Qing dynasty， Jian'ou in Fujian was the authentic production area of Alismatis Rhizoma. In the period of the Republic of China， Sichuan and Jiangxi were added to the production areas of Alismatis Rhizoma. Based on the research results， it is suggested that the dried tubers of A. orientale from Fujian and Jiangxi or A. plantago-aquatica from Sichuan should be used in the famous classical formulas. In ancient times， Alismatis Rhizoma was processed by wine， but most of the standards and specifications in modern times are no longer included the processing specifications of Alismatis Rhizoma with wine. Although salt-processed Alismatis Rhizoma is commonly used in modern times， it didn't become one of the main processing methods until the Qing dynasty. According to the relevant national documents， it is suggested that Alismatis Rhizoma without clear processing requirements in famous classical formulas should be used as raw products， and the formulas with processing requirements should be selected as processed products such as salt and wine according to the meaning of the formulas.
Abstract：By consulting the ancient herbal and medical books， combined with modern literature， the name， origin， geoherbalism， harvesting and processing changes of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas were sorted out. According to the research， ancient doctors only approved three kinds of bamboo medicinal materials， namely， Jinzhu （䈽竹）， Kuzhu （苦竹） and Danzhu （淡竹）， and took bamboo leaves， made Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli （竹沥） for medicine. Bamboo medicinal materials with different origins have different properties， tastes and effects， after clinical optimization， it is gradually considered that Danzhu is the best source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli. According to the morphological description of the original plants and the attached drawings， it is considered that the Danzhu in ancient Chinese materia medica should be Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis， which has been included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia as one of the genuine sources of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias. Therefore， It is suggested that P. nigra var. henonis can be added as the source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas， and the medicinal part is the dry middle layer of its stem. Ginger-processed can increase the anti emetic effect of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias， and the three formulas involving Bambusae Caulis in Taenias from The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas （The First Batch） all contain ginger， and the processing method of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias is not marked in the original formula， so it is suggested to use raw products in the three formulas of Jupi Zhurutang， Wendantang and Zhurutang.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Bambusae Caulis in Taenias;textual research on materia medica;origin;processing;geoherbalism;quality evaluation
Abstract：In this paper， the name， varieties， raw materials and manufacturing technology of maltose in the famous classical formulas were researched by consulting the herbal medicines， medical books， prescription books and modern literature of past dynasties， which provided the basis for the development and utilization of formulas containing maltose. Through textual research， it can be seen that the name of maltose has been derived from its shape， texture， preparation method， raw materials and producing area. In ancient times， maltose was mainly divided into soft and hard types according to the texture. Those who are wet and soft as honey are called "syrup" or "jelly"， while those who are hard and white are called "malt" and "sugar". In modern times， they are mostly called malt sugar， only jelly is used as medicine， and malt is mostly used as food. Throughout the ages， medicinal maltose were made of Oryza sativa var. glutinosa as the raw material and Hordeum vulgare as malt， prepared by fermenting， decocting and concentrating. The maltose made from other cereals such as Setaria italica var. germanica， Panicum miliaceum is slightly inferior in quality. The 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia did not include maltose， but included malt sugar， a pharmaceutical excipient， which was a crystal powder with high purity. But maltose was included in the national food standard and the local processing specification. Based on the textual research results， it is suggested that malt syrup in GB/T 20883-2017 can be used as the reference for the development of formulas containing maltose， and O. sativa var. glutinosa， H. vulgare are clearly used as raw materials.
Abstract：Based on various ancient documents such as materia medica， prescription books， classics and history， combined with relevant research materials in modern times， this paper made a textual research on the name， origin， geoherbalism， harvesting time， processing methods of Chuanxiong Rhizoma， which provides a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this herb. According to the textual research， the original name of Chuanxiong is Xiongqiong （芎䓖）， which was first recorded in Shennong Bencaojing ， there are many aliases and trade names in the past dynasties. Since the Song dynasty， doctors all take Xiongqiong produced in Sichuan as the best medicine， so they take Chuanxiong as the rectification of name. In the early stage， the origin of Chuanxiong Rhizoma was relatively complicated， and the main origin was Ligusticum chuanxiong， which was a cultivated and domesticated species of Ligusticum. However， wild related plants of Ligusticum are still used as medicine. After the Ming dynasty， new cultivated varieties appeared in various places， such as Jiangxi L. sinense cv. Fuxiong， which gradually turned to self-production and self-marketing after the Republic of China. After several changes in the authentic producing area of Chuanxiong Rhizoma， Tianshui in Gansu province was highly praised in the Tang dynasty， and Dujiangyan in Sichuan province was the best place in the Song dynasty and later dynasties. Chuanxiong Rhizoma has been widely used in the past dynasties as raw products， and it has also been processed with excipients. For example， wine-processed products can enhance the effect of promoting blood circulation， promoting Qi circulation and relieving pain. There are other processing methods such as stir-frying and vinegar processing. Chuanxiong Rhizoma in the famous classical formulas can be selected according to this research conclusion.
Abstract：Through the combing of ancient books of Chinese herbal medicine in the past dynasties， a textual research of Coptidis Rhizoma involved the name， origin， medicinal parts， producing area， quality evaluation， harvesting and processing methods in famous classical formulas was conducted in this paper. After textual research， the mainstream varieties of Coptidis Rhizoma in the Ranunculaceae family before Tang and Song dynasties were Coptis chinensis and C. chinensis var. brevisepala， after the Ming and Qing dynasties， C. deltoidea， C. teeta and C. omeiensis were gradually praised. In ancient times， the authentic producing area of Coptidis Rhizoma has the characteristics of gradually moving to the west. The eastern Coptidis Rhizoma was highly praised in the early stage， while in the later stage， western Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was highly praised. In the early stage， western Coptidis Rhizoma probably originated from C. chinensis and its genus， while Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was cultivated， and no wild species has been found so far. As Coptidis Rhizoma has mixed use of multiple origins in ancient books of past dynasties， based on the current shortage of market resources in C. teeta and C. deltoidea， there are also endangered and protected plants of C. chinensis var. brevisepala and C. omeiensis， combined with the mainstream medicines and resources of past generations， it is recommended to choose C. chinensis as the base of the formulas. In ancient times， there were many processing methods for Coptidis Rhizoma， such as frying and wine-， ginger-， honey-processed. In the process of developing famous classical formulas， the appropriate processing specifications of Coptidis Rhizoma should be selected based on the original source records and the requirements of the medicinal material.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Coptidis Rhizoma;herbal textual research;origin;processing;genuine medicinal materials;harvesting and processing
Abstract：In this paper， the name， origin， producing area， quality evaluation， harvesting and processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix used in the famous classical formulas were researched by consulting related ancient materia medica， medical books and prescription books. The results showed that the name of Scrophulariae Radix originated from its shape and color. Scrophularia ningpoensis， one of the eight flavors of Zhejiang， has been highly praised in the past as a genuine base， and its authentic production area is Zhejiang. Quality of Scrophulariae Radix is best if it has a dry body， thin skin， thick branches， firm physique， black inner color， net basal part of stem， and no fine whiskers. In ancient times， the origin processing was divided into two types， including sun-dried after steaming and directly sun-dried. While it mostly used a combination of drying and sweating in modern times. Before the Ming dynasty， the processing of Scrophulariae Radix was mainly steamed. Occasionally， the stir-frying appeared. In the Ming dynasty and after the Ming dynasty， wine processing emerged such as hot wine mixed roasting， wine washing， wine steaming， because the ancients believed that wine could enhance its efficacy and reduce its cold property. In the Qing dynasty， the method of steaming and baking appeared in the water and fire system. According to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia， the processing of Scrophulariae Radix includes removing rhizome residues and impurities， washing， moistening， cutting into thin slices， and drying， or soaking slightly， steaming thoroughly， drying slightly， cutting into thin slices， and drying. Referring to the relevant national documents， it is suggested that raw products of Scrophulariae Radix should be used in Liangditang and Simiao Yong′antang.
Abstract：This paper made a systematic textual research on the historical evolution and changes of the name， origin， producing area， harvesting and processing methods of Jujubae Fructus used in famous classical formulas by referring to the ancient literature， so as to provide a basis for the sampling and research of the formulas containing the medicinal materials. According to textual research， there are many names of Jujubae Fructus， most of which are named by characters or producing areas， which are called Dazao. Ziziphus jujuba has always been the mainstream variety in all dynasties， and Z. jujuba var. inemmis has also been used. Considering that the differences between the two are not obvious， we can use Z. jujuba and Z. jujuba var. inemmis as the origins of Dazao. The germplasm resources of Jujubae Fructus are rich， which are distributed all over the country. Qingzhou （now Shandong）， Jinzhou （now Shanxi） Jiangzhou （now Shanxi）， Puzhou （now Shanxi） have been recorded as authentic producing areas of Jujubae Fructus in the past dynasties， especially in Shandong. At the beginning of the 21st century， the planting of Jujubae Fructus in Xinjiang gradually developed， and now has a high market recognition， becoming an emerging production area of high-quality samples. Harvest period of Jujubae Fructus is mostly August in the past dynasties， and this is basically the same as today. The main processing method is simple cleansing and drying. Through textual research， it is suggested that Jujubae Fructus in famous classical formulas should be mainly from Shandong， Shanxi and other traditional high-quality producing areas， the processing method should follow the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia for simple cleansing and drying.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Jujubae Fructus;origin;producing area;harvesting and processing;processing;herbal textual research
Abstract：Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties， this article makes a systematic textual research on the name， origin， producing area， quality， harvesting and processing of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex used in the famous classical formulas， and clarifies its information of each link in different historical periods， so as to provide a reference and basis for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The results showed that the main varieties of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex were Magnolia officinalis or M. officinalis var. biloba. The main production areas are Hubei， Sichuan， Chongqing and other places， forming the famous authentic medicine. The processing methods of the past dynasties are mainly cleansing and processing with ginger. In the formulas clearly marked with ginger processing， ginger-processed products is suggested to choose. If not clearly marked， raw or ginger-processed products can be used as needed.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex;origin;producing area;harvesting and processing;processing methods;herbal textual research
Abstract：Through consulting the ancient and modern literature， this paper makes a textual research on the name， origin， producing area， harvesting and processing methods of Asini Corii Colla， so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing the medicinal material. Before the Tang dynasty， cow leather was the main source of Asini Corii Colla， and donkey was rare as an introduced species. From the end of Tang dynasty to Song dynasty， due to the development of doctors' understanding of the properties and effects of medicines， with the increase of the number of donkeys and the limitation of the use of cow leather， the source of Asini Corii Colla changed from cow leather to donkey skin. During the Ming and Qing dynasties， the theory of medicine property was further developed， and all doctors basically agreed that black donkey skin and E-well water were two essential factors for making genuine Asini Corii Colla. Therefore， it is suggested that Asini Corii Colla should take Equus asinus as the authentic origin in the development of the famous classical formulas， attach importance to the quality of water source， take Liaocheng in Shandong province as the authentic producing area， and the processing should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Abstract：Through consulting the ancient and modern literature， this paper makes a textual research on the name， origin， producing area， harvesting and processing of Poria， so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing this medicinal material. The description of Poria and the characteristics of the attached figures in the Chinese herbal literature of the past dynasties are consistent with Poria cocos. The medicinal parts are dried sclerotia or P. cocos peel. Poria was originally produced in Taishan， Shandong province. In the Tang dynasty， along with the change of pine forest resources， producing area of Poria was transferred to Huashan area in Shaanxi province. In the Ming dynasty， the authentic producing area was transferred to Yunnan， and has continued to now. In ancient times， the processing methods of Poria were steaming， boiling， slicing， mashing and other subsequent processing after peeling. It is suggested that Poria in famous classical formulas should be sliced according to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Poria;herbal textual research;geoherbalism;processing method;processing in producing area
Abstract：Through consulting the ancient herbal medicine， prescription books and medical books， combined with modern relevant literature， standards and other information， this paper made a textual research on the name， origin， producing areas， harvesting and processing methods of Astragali Radix according to different historical development periods， providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing Astragali Radix. According to the textual research， the original name of Astragali Radix is Huangqi， and "Qi" originally refers to the medicinal material Zhimu. Some people began to mistake it for Huangqi in the Ming dynasty， and then gradually used Astragali Radix as a medicinal material. The mainstream basis of Astragali Radix can be determined as the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus or A. membranaceus. In different historical periods， A. floridus， A. chrysopterus， A. emestii and other plants of Astragalus or even non-Astragalus were used as local Astragali Radix. The earliest production areas of Astragali Radix were Sichuan， Shaanxi， and Gansu， and then gradually expanded to the northeast. Since the Song dynasty， Mianqi in Shanxi province has been regarded as the genuine variety. In the Qing dynasty， besides Shanxi province， Inner Mongolia was also regarded as a genuine place. In the Republic of China， Huangqi produced in northeast China was praised highly. It is mainly produced in Shanxi， Inner Mongolia， Gansu， northeast and other provinces. The main commodity is cultivated products， and the quality of wild imitation cultivation in Datong and Xinzhou is better than other places. There are many processing methods of Huangqi recorded in the materia medica and prescription books， most of which are raw products， and honey processing is the mainstream of processed products. Based on the current situation of resource cultivation and production， 11 famous classical formulas in The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas （The First Batch） containing Huangqi suggested that all use A. membranaceus var. mongholicus， especially those from Datong and Xinzhou in Shanxi Province. In addition to honey processing of Qingxin Lianziyin， it is suggested to use raw products for other formulas.