Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Buyang Huanwutang （BYHWT） on platelet function and inflammatory cytokines in the rat model of acute blood stasis.MethodThe model of acute blood stasis was established with SD rats by ice water bath combined with injection of epinephrine. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups： normal group， model group， BYHWT （3.2 g·kg-1） group， and aspirin （60 mg·kg-1） group. The rats were injected with epinephrine hydrochloride on day 8 after 7 days of modeling. The macroscopic indexes of triditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndrome including tongue manifestation and pulse manifestation were observed， while hemorheological indexes， blood coagulation， and platelet aggregation were detected. The serum levels of the inflammatory cytokine matrix metalloprotein-9 （MMP-9） and the adhesion factor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 （ICAM-1） and were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）.ResultThe pulse distention of rats in the model group was lower than that in the normal group （P<0.01）， while BYHWT improved the pulse distention of the rats with the syndrome of blood stasis （P<0.01）. In the model group， the tongue showed the characteristics of blood stasis syndrome， with dark purple veins at the tongue bottom and lower values of R， G， B on the tongue surface than those in the normal group （P<0.01）， which， however， can be recovered by BYHWT （P<0.01）. The blood viscosity at high， medium， and low shear stress and the plasma viscosity in the model group were higher than those in the normal group （P<0.01， P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， BYHWT restored the whole blood viscosity under high， medium and low shear stress and plasma viscosity （P<0.05，P<0.01）. The model group had shorter prothrombin time （PT）， shorter thrombin time （TT）， and higher fibrinogen （FIB） than the normal group （P<0.05， P<0.01）. BYHWT improved the TT and reduced the FIB in the rats with blood stasis syndrome （P<0.01）. The platelet aggregation rate induced by arachidonic acid （AA） and adenosine diphosphate （ADP） in the model group was higher than that in normal group （P<0.01） and BYHWT decreased the platelet aggregation rate of the rats with blood stasis syndrome （P<0.01）. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the model group exhibited excessive platelet activation， obvious pseudopodia， and increased aggregation of platelets compared with the normal group， while platelet activation and aggregation were rare in the BYHWT group. The serum levels of MMP-9 and ICAM-1 in the model group were higher than those in the normal group （P<0.01）， which were decreased in the BYHWT group （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionThe SD rats with the syndrome of acute blood stasis induced by ice water bath combined with injection of epinephrine demonstrate obvious changes in platelet function and morphology， inflammation， and abnormal cell adhesion. In the treatment of acute blood stasis in rats， BYHWT may reduce thrombosis and improve blood consistency and cohesion by mitigating inflammation， down-regulating cell adhesion factor overexpression， and improving platelet shape and function.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate effect of lyophilized powder of modified Huangqi Gancaotang on proliferation， apoptosis， invasion， migration， and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human non-small cell lung cancer cells （A549， PC9） and possible mechanism.MethodEffect of 1.0， 2.0， 4.0， 8.0， 12.0 g·L-1 modified Huangqi Gancaotang on the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells was detected by cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） assay. A549 and PC9 cells were classified into the blank group and the low-， medium-， and high-dose Huangqi Gancaotang groups （2.0， 4.0， 8.0 g·L-1）. Plate cloning assay was used to examine the effect of modified Huangqi Gancaotang on cell cloning ability. Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry were employed to detect the apoptosis， and scratch assay and Transwell migration assay were applied to examine cell migration and invasion abilities， respectively. Mammosphere assay was used to examine the sphere-forming ability of tumor cells， and real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） to detect the mRNA expression of stemness-related molecules octamer-binding transcription factor 4 （Oct-4）， human sex-determining region Y-box 2 （Sox2）， and homeobox transcription factor （Nanog） to assess cancer stem cell activity. The protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 （Bcl-2）， Bcl-2-associated death promoter （Bad）， Bcl-2-associated X protein （Bax）， cleaved Caspase-3， Caspase-3， E-cadherin， N-cadherin， vimentin， matrix metalloproteinase-2 （MMP-2）， β-catenin， c-Myc， Cyclin D1， and zinc-finger transcription factor （Slug） was determined by Western blot.ResultThe proliferation ability of A549 and PC9 cells was significantly inhibited after 24 h and 48 h treatment with 1.0， 2.0， 4.0， 8.0， and 12.0 g·L-1 lyophilized powder of modified Huangqi Gancaotang compared with that in the blank group and the inhibition was dose- and time-dependent （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the blank group， the low-， medium-， and high-dose modified Huangqi Gancaotang suppressed the cloning ability of A549 and PC9 cells （P< 0.05， P<0.01）， and high-dose modified Huangqi Gancaotang induced apoptosis of A549 and PC9 cells （P<0.01）. In comparison with the blank group， the low-， medium-， and high-dose modified Huangqi Gancaotang inhibited the invasion and migration of A549 and PC9 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the blank group， the low-， medium-， and high-dose modified Huangqi Gancaotang significantly decreased volume of the microspheres of A549 cells and the mRNA expression of Oct-4， Sox2， and Nanog in A549 and PC9 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the blank group， the medium- and high-dose modified Huangqi Gancaotang down-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 （P<0.05， P<0.01）， up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bad， Bax， and cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3 （P<0.05， P<0.01） in A549 and PC9 cells， decreased the expression of MMP-2， N-cadherin， and vimentin （P<0.05， P< 0.01）， and raised the E-cadherin expression （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Moreover， the medium-dose and high-dose modified Huangqi Gancaotang all reduced the expression of β-catenin， c-Myc， Cyclin D1， and Slug in A549 and PC9 cells （P<0.01）.ConclusionModified Huangqi Gancaotang can inhibit the proliferation， invasion， migration， activity of cancer stem cells， and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human non-small cell lung cancer （A549， PC9） cells and induce apoptosis， and the mechanism is the likelihood that it regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the intervention of Huanglian Jiedutang on atherosclerosis （AS） in apolipoprotein E knockout （ApoE-/-） mice induced by the high-fat diet.MethodThe ApoE-/- mouse model of AS was induced by the high-fat diet， and Huanglian Jiedutang was used to intervene in the AS in the ApoE-/- mice. The pathological changes of aorta were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The levels of serum total cholesterol （TC）， triglyceride （TG）， high-density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C）， and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C） were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The protein expression levels of sirtuin-1 （SIRT1） and nuclear factor-kappa B （NF-κB） were determined by Western blot assay， and the mRNA expression levels of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase （AMPK）， peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors α （PPARα）， tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 （NLRP3） were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）.ResultAs compared with the normal group， there was a large amount of lipid accumulation in the blood vessels of the model group. In the model group， the levels of serum TG， TC， and LDL-C were increased （P<0.01）， and the level of HDL-C was decreased （P<0.01）. The protein expression level of SIRT1 in the aorta was decreased， while that of NF-κB was increased in the model group （P<0.01）. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6， TNF-α， and IL-1β were higher （P<0.01）， while those of AMPK in the liver were lower in the model group （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the Huanglian Jiedutang group reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory reaction in the aorta of mice with AS， reduced the levels of TC， TG， and LDL-C （P<0.01）， and increased the level of HDL-C （P<0.01）. Huanglian Jiedutang significantly increased the protein expression level of SIRT1 in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice （P<0.01） and decreased the protein expression levels of NF-κB in the aorta （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Huanglian Jiedutang down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α， IL-6， IL-1β， and NLRP3 in the aorta （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of AMPK and PPARα in the liver of ApoE-/- mice （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionHuanglian Jiedutang has a certain intervention effect on the formation of atherosclerotic aortic plaque in ApoE-/- mice. Its mechanism may be related to the decrease of serum TC， TG， and LDL-C levels， the increase of HDL-C levels， thus playing a role in lowering blood lipid， the increase of SIRT1 protein， the decrease of NF-κB protein， the decrease of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-6， which protects blood vessels from inflammatory injury， and the improvement of AMPK and PPARα levels to participate in autophagy and apoptosis.
Keywords：Huanglian Jiedutang;apolipoprotein E knockout （ApoE-/-） mice;atherosclerosis;anti-inflammation;autophagy and apoptosis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and mechanism of Wumeiwan against Lewis lung cancer in mice with syndrome of cold and heat in complexity based on hepatocyte growth factor/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor （HGF/C-Met） signaling pathway.MethodTwenty healthy male mice were classified into blank group， model group （equivalent volume of distilled water， ig）， cisplatin group （4.0 mg·kg-1 cisplatin， ip）， and Wumeiwan group （12.5 mL·kg-1 Wumeiwan， ig）， with 5 in each group. Lewis lung cancer with the syndrome of cold and heat in complexity was induced in mice except the blank group by gavage of propylthiouracil， Zhimu Shigaotang， and Fanxieye， ice-water swimming， and subcutaneous injection of dry yeast suspension and Lewis cell suspension under the right armpit. After modeling， administration began and lasted 6 weeks. After the experiment， the tumor weight， tumor volume， tumor inhibition rate， and lung cancer metastasis-inhibiting proportion were measured and calculated. The pathological morphology of lung tissue was observed based on hematoxylin and eosin （HE） staining. The growth state of tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression of HGF and C-Met was detected by Real-time polymerase chain reaction （PCR）， and the protein expressions of HGF， C-Met， survivin， and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein （XIAP） by Western blot.ResultCompared with the blank group， the model group showed high mRNA expression of HGF and C-Met and protein expression of HGF， C-Met， surviving， and XIAP （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， Wumeiwan group displayed low proportion of positive cells， positive cell density， positive score （P<0.05）， histochemical score， tumor weight， tumor volume （P<0.01）， mRNA expression of HGF and C-Met （P<0.01）， and protein expression of HGF， C-Met， surviving， and XIAP （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the cisplatin group displayed decrease in the proportion of positive cells， density of positive cells （P<0.05）， positive score， tumor weight， tumor volume （P<0.01）， mRNA expression of HGF and C-Met （P<0.01）， and protein expression of HGF， C-Met， surviving， and XIAP （P<0.01）， and insignificant variation in the histochemical score. Wumeiwan group had high mRNA expression of HGF （P<0.01）， and insignificant variation in the proportion of positive cells， positive cell density， histochemical score， positive score， tumor weight， tumor volume， mRNA expression of C-Met， and protein expression of HGF， C-Met， surviving， and XIAP.ConclusionWumeiwan can slow down the progression of Lewis lung cancer in mice with syndrome of cold and heat I complexicity by inhibiting HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.
Keywords：Wumeiwan;cold and heat in complexity;lung cancer;hepatocyte growth factor/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor （HGF/C-Met）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effects of the water extracts of Trichosanthis Radix-Polygonati Rhizoma at different ratios on glucose and lipid metabolism in KKAy mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes and explore the mechanism of the extract in alleviating insulin resistance based on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）/forkhead box O1 （FoxO1） signaling pathway.MethodThe 8-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were taken as the normal control group， and KKAy male mice of the same age were randomly assigned into a model group， a metformin group， Trichosanthis Radix-Polygonati Rhizoma groups at the ratios of 1∶1 （Trichosanthis Radix 30 g， Polygonati Rhizoma 30 g）， 1∶3 （Trichosanthis Radix 15 g， Polygonati Rhizoma 45 g）， and 1∶5 （Trichosanthis Radix 10 g， Polygonati Rhizoma 50 g） according to blood glucose level and body weight， with 6 mice in each group. The administration lasted for 8 weeks， and the body weight （BW） and fasting blood glucose （FBG） of mice were recorded at the same time points of the 2nd， 4th， 6th， and 8th weeks， respectively. Oral glucose tolerance test （OGTT） was performed at the 7th week. After drug administration， the serum levels of total cholesterol （TC）， triglyceride （TG）， low-density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C）， high-density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C）， and fasting insulin （FINS） were measured， and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance （HOMA-IR） index was calculated. The liver tissue samples were stained with hematylin-eosin （HE） and periodic acid-Schiff （PAS） for observation of the fat distribution and glycogen content. The protein levels of PI3K， Akt， p-Akt， FoxO1， and p-FoxO1 in the liver were determined by Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group， the model group showed increased food intake， FBG， glucose tolerance， FINS， HOMA-IR， TC， TG， and LDL-C （P<0.01）， and down-regulated protein levels of PI3K， Akt， phosphorylaison （p）-Akt， FoxO1， and p-FoxO1 in the liver （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， Trichosanthis Radix-Polygonati Rhizoma lowered FBG and HOMA-IR （P<0.05， P<0.01）. In particular， the combination at the ratio of 1∶3 showed the best performance （P<0.01） comparable to metformin. Furthermore， Trichosanthis Radix-Polygonati Rhizoma at different ratios lowered blood glucose at different time points of OGTT （P<0.05） and TC and LDL-C （P<0.01）. Additionally， the combination at the ratio of 1∶3 reduced TG （P<0.01）. The liver of mice in the drug administration groups showed regular morphology， with few lipid droplets and rich glycogen. Western blot showed that Trichosanthis Radix-Polygonati Rhizoma up-regulated the protein levels of PI3K and p-Akt， down-regulated the protein level of FoxO1， and up-regulated the protein level of p-FoxO1 （P<0.05）.ConclusionTrichosanthis Radix-Polygonati Rhizoma， especially at the ratio of 1∶3， lowered the FBG， TC， LDL-C， and HOMA-IR index， promoted liver glycogen synthesis， and reduced steatosis in KKAy mice， which may be related to the regulation of PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway in the liver.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix-Paeoniae Radix Alba on dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease mouse model with the syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang.MethodThe C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into normal group， a model group， low-， medium， and high-dose （3.25， 6.5， 13 g·kg-1） Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix-Paeoniae Radix Alba groups， and a selegiline group （0.01 g·kg-1）. The mouse model of Parkinson's disease with the syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang was established by intragastric administration of Fuzitang combined with intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1，2，3，6-tetrahydropyridine （MPTP）. The behavioral changes were evaluated by rotarod test and pole test. The protein levels of Ras homolog gene family member A （RhoA）， Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 （ROCK2）， myosin light chain 1 （MLC1）， and α-synuclein in the substantia nigra were determined by Western blot. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR （Real-time PCR） was employed to determine the mRNA levels of RhoA， ROCK2， and MLC1 in the substantia nigra. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） and interleukin-1β （IL-1β）. The ultrastructural changes of mouse neurons were observed under a transmission electron microscope.ResultCompared with the normal group， the modeling shortened the latency to fall， increased the average total time in the pole test （P<0.01）， and up-regulated the levels of RhoA， ROCK2， MLC1， TNF-α， α-synuclein， and IL-1β in the substantia nigra （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， different doses of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix-Paeoniae Radix Alba and selegiline prolonged the latency to fall， shortened the average total time in the pole test （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and down-regulated the levels of ROCK2， MLC1， α-synuclein， TNF-α， and IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner （P<0.05）. Further， the modeling decreased the number of cytoplasmic organelles and caused mitochondrial swelling and abnormal shape of endoplasmic reticulum compared with the normal group. The neurons in high-dose Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix-Paeoniae Radix Alba and selegiline groups showed intact nuclei， clear cell boundary， and normal endoplasmic reticulum shape.ConclusionThe combination of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba may improve the motor coordination ability of Parkinson's disease mouse model with the syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang by inhibiting the neuroinflammation mediated by the RhoA/ROCK2 signaling pathway in the brain.
Keywords：Parkinson's disease;syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang;1-methyl-4-phenyl-1，2，3，6-tetrahydropyridine （MPTP）;Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix-Paeoniae Radix Alba;Ras homolog gene family member A （RhoA）;Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 （ROCK2）;neuroinflammation
Abstract：ObjectiveBased on the antidepressant activity， the optimal ratio of Rehmanniae Radix and Lilii Bulbus in Baihe Dihuangtang was optimized and its possible mechanism was preliminarily explored.MethodA total of 100 male mice were randomly divided into normal group， model group， Rehmanniae Radix single decoction group， Lilii Bulbus single decoction group， and 5 different ratios of Baihe Dihuangtang group （Rehmanniae Radix-Lilii Bulbus 5∶6， 5∶5 ， 5∶4， 5∶3， 5∶2）， fluoxetine hydrochloride group. Except for the normal group， the remaining 9 groups were treated with chronic unpredictable mild stress method （CUMS） for 21 consecutive days to establish the depression mouse model.The Rehmanniae Radix single decoction group， Lilii Bulbus single decoction group and 5 different ratios of Baihe Dihuangtang group were administered with corresponding drugs at a dose of 2 g·kg-1 respectively， and fluoxetine hydrochloride group was administered fluoxetine hydrochloride at a dose of 0.01 g·kg-1， the normal group and the model group were respectively given an equal volume of normal saline by gavage for 21 consecutive days. The antidepressant effect of Baihe Dihuangtang with different ratios was evaluated by behavioral experiments. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor （BDNF） and tyrosine kinase receptor B （TrkB） in hippocampus. The level of total superoxide dismutase （SOD） in hippocampus was detected by hydroxylamine method. The level of reduced glutathione （GSH） in hippocampus was detected by spectrophotometric method. The levels of glutathione peroxidase （GPX） and glutathione S-transferase （GST） in hippocampus was detected by colorimetric method. The level of malondialdehyde （MDA） in hippocampus was detected by thiobarbituric acid method， and preliminary exploration of its antidepressant mechanism.ResultCUMS caused a significant decrease in the preference rate of sugar water and a significant prolongation of forced swimming and tail suspension immobility time （P<0.01）， while the different ratios of Baihe Dihuangtang and the single decoction of Rehmanniae Radix and Lilii Bulbus were significantly reversed to varying degrees. Abnormalities of the above indicators were observed （P<0.05， P<0.01）， especially when the ratio of 5∶6 had the most obvious effect on the above indicators， Moreover， CUMS caused the hippocampal BDNF and the expression of TrkB， SOD and glutathione antioxidant-related indexes were significantly decreased （P<0.01）， and the levels of lipid peroxidation product MDA was significantly increased （P<0.01）. However， the superior ratio of Baihe Dihuangtang （Rehmanniae Radix-Lilii Bulbus 5∶6， 5∶5， 5∶4） and the single decoction of Rehmanniae Radix and Lilii Bulbus significantly reversed the abnormality of the above indicators to varying degrees （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionIn summary， 5 different ratios of Baihe Dihuangtang and the single decoction of Rehmanniae Radix and Lilii Bulbus can produce antidepressant effect， especially when the ratio of 5∶6 had the most obvious effect on the above indicators， and the antidepressant effect gradually weakens with the proportion of Lilii Bulbus in the recipe decreases， and its mechanism may involve enhancing the nutritional level and antioxidant defense ability of hippocampal central nervous system.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the effect of serum containing Sanwubai San on TGF-β1 induced epithelial mesenchymal transition （EMT） of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells and its mechanism in vitro based on transforming growth factor-β/Smad（TGF-β/Smad）signaling pathway.MethodTwenty-eight male SD rats （SPF grade， three months） were randomly divided into blank group and Sanwubai low （0.031 25 g·kg-1·d-1， ig）， medium （0.062 5 g·kg-1·d-1， ig） and high （0.125 g·kg-1·d-1， ig） dose groups， seven in each group. The blank group was given the same volume of ultrapure water （ig）. The gavage was performed once a day for seven consecutive days. The serum containing the drug was taken from the abdominal aorta 45 min after the last administration. Cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） method was used to detect the effect of serum in Sanwubai San high dose group on the activity of SGC-7901 cells. Changes of cell morphology after treatment with TGF-β1 and serum containing Sanwubai San were observed by microscopy， and the migration rate and invasion rate of the SGC-7901 cells were detected by cell scratch assay and transwell assay， respectively. Western blot was used to detect the expression of E-cadherin， snail， TGF-β1， Smad3， p-Smad3 and Smad7 proteins.ResultCompared with the blank group， 10%， 15% and 20% high-dose Sanwubai San inhibited the activity of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. Compared with the conditions in the blank group， the cells in the model group lost spindle shape， and most cells became round and long. Compared with the model group， the Sanwubai San groups had decreased pseudopodia and small cells with the morphology returning to normal. Compared with the conditions in the blank group， enhanced ability of cell migration and invasion （P<0.01）， lowered expression of E-cadherin and Smad7 （P<0.01）， and increased expression of Snail， p-Smad3 and TGF-β1 （P<0.01） were found in the model group， with the total protein level of Smad3 remaining unchanged. Compared with the conditions in the model group， the cell migration ability was inhibited in the Sanwubai San high and medium dose groups （P<0.01） after 24 h， and the ability was inhibited in all three Sanwubai San groups after 48 h （P<0.01）， while the invasion ability was enhanced. In addition， the Sanwubai San high and medium dose groups had elevated expression of E-cadherin （P<0.01） and Smad7 （P<0.01）， and decreased expression of Snail （P<0.01）， and the expression of TGF-β1 andp-Smad3 was down-regulated in the three Sanwubai San groups （P<0.01）.ConclusionSanwubai San could inhibit TGF-β1 induced EMT in SGC-7901 cells， and its mechanism might be related to the regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.
Keywords：gastric cancer;epithelial mesenchymal transition;Sanwubai San;TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway;traditional Chinese medicine
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Hedysarum polysaccharides （HPS） on the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway in db/db mice with diabetic nephropathy.MethodFifty db/db mice were randomly divided into model group， irbesartan group， and high， middle， and low-dose HPS experimental groups according to their body mass， with 10 mice in each group， and another 10 C57BL/6 mice were selected as a normal group. The normal group and the model group were given 5 mL·kg-1·d-1 distilled water， the irbesartan group was given 22.75 mg·kg-1·d-1 irbesartan suspension， and the high， middle， and low-dose HPS experimental groups were given 200， 100， and 50 mg·kg-1·d-1 HPS suspensions， respectively. The mice in the 6 groups were given intragastric administration once a day for 12 weeks. The general state， blood glucose （GLU）， 24 h urine protein （UTP）， blood creatinine （SCr）， and urea nitrogen （BUN） of mice in each group were determined. The pathological changes in the kidney tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining （HE）. The protein and mRNA expression levels of Wnt1， β-catenin， glycogen synthesis kinase-3β （GSK-3β）， and phosphorylated GSK-3β （p-GSK-3β） in the kidney were detected by Western blot and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）.ResultAfter treatment for 12 weeks， as compared with the normal group， the general state of mice in the model group was worse and the pathological ultrastructural lesions of kidney tissues were obvious. The levels of GLU， 24 h UTP， SCr， and BUN in the model group increased （P<0.01）. As compared with the model group， the general state and renal pathological ultrastructure of mice in the high and middle-dose HPS groups were improved to some extent， and the levels of SCr， BUN， and 24 h UTP in the high and middle-dose HPS groups decreased （P<0.05，P<0.01）. As compared with the normal group， the expression levels of Wnt1， β-catenin， GSK-3β， and p-GSK-3β protein and mRNA in the model group were higher （P<0.01）， while the expression levels of Wnt1， β-catenin， GSK-3β， and p-GSK-3β protein and mRNA in the high and middle-dose HPS groups were lower than those in the model group （P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionHPS can alleviate the renal injury of diabetic nephropathy to some extent， and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Dahuang Xiezhuo prescription on the changes in renal pathology and reactive oxygen species （ROS）/thioredoxin-interacting protein （TXNIP）/NOD-like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3） pathway expression in the kidney tissues of rats with 5/6 nephrectomy， and to explore the mechanism of Dahuang Xiezhuo prescription in protecting renal function and delaying renal interstitial fibrosis and the possibility.MethodNinety healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group， a model group， low， medium， and high-dose （6.825， 13.65， 27.30 g·kg-1） Dahuang Xiezhuo prescription groups， and a Niaoduqing granule group （2.60 g·kg-1）. Except the sham operation group， 5/6 nephrectomy was used to replicate the rat model of chronic renal failure （CRF）. After modeling， each administration group was given the corresponding dose of drug suspension by intragastric administration， once a day for consecutive 8 weeks. After administration， serum creatinine （SCr） and urea nitrogen （BUN） levels and 24 h urinary protein quantification （UTP） levels were detected. Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expressions of thioredoxin （TRX）， TXNIP， and NLRP3. The protein expressions of TRX， TXNIP， NLRP3， apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD （ASC）， transformation growth factor-β （TGF-β）， Collagen Ⅳ， α-smooth muscle actin （α-SMA）， and fibronectin （FN） were detected by immunohistochemistry.ResultAs compared with the sham operation group， serum levels of SCr， BUN， and UTP in the model group were increased （P<0.05）， TRX， TXNIP， NLRP3， ASC， TGF-β， Collagen Ⅳ， α-SMA， and FN proteins were increased （P<0.01）， and renal interstitial fibrosis significantly occurred. As compared with the model group， the levels of SCr， 24 h BUN， and UTP in the low， medium， and high-dose Dahuang Xiezhuo prescription groups and the Niaoduqing granule group were decreased to varying degrees （P<0.05）， TRX， TXNIP， NLRP3， ASC， TGF-β， Collagen Ⅳ， α-SMA， and FN were decreased （P<0.01）， and renal interstitial fibrosis was improved to varying degrees.ConclusionDahuang Xiezhuo prescription can protect renal function and delay renal interstitial fibrosis in rats with CRF.
Keywords：Dahuang Xiezhuo prescription;chronic renal failure;renal interstitial fibrosis;oxidative strss;thioredoxin-interacting protein （TXNIP）;NOD-like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of icariin on the recombinant Ras homolog family member A （RhoA）/Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase （ROCK） signaling pathway in rats with Alzheimer's disease （AD）， and to explore the mechanism of icariin in ameliorating the neuronal and dendritic damage.MethodThe β-amyloid 1-42 （Aβ1-42， 2.5 g·L-1） was used to induce AD in rats via lateral ventricle injection， and the rats were divided into a model group， a low-dose icariin group （0.03 g·kg-1）， a middle-dose icariin group （0.06 g·kg-1）， a high-dose icariin group （0.09 g·kg-1）， and a control group. The control group and the model group were given an equal volume of normal saline at a dose of 10 mL·kg-1. The cognitive function of rats was assessed by the Morris water maze. The pathological morphology of the rat hippocampal CA1 area was observed by Nissl staining. Dendritic spine density and dendritic length in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were observed by Golgi-Cox staining. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin （IL）-1β， IL-6， RhoA， ROCK1， and ROCK2 in the hippocampus. Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression levels of TNF-α， IL-1β， IL-6， RhoA， ROCK1， and ROCK2 in the hippocampus.ResultAs compared with the control group， the escape latency of the rats in the model group was increased （P<0.01）， while the number of crossing the platform and the dwelling time in the target quadrant were decreased （P<0.01）. As compared with the model group， the escape latency of the rats in the middle and high-dose icariin groups was decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， while the number of crossing the platform and the dwelling time in the target quadrant were increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. As compared with the control group， the number of neurons， dendritic spine density， and dendritic length in the hippocampal CA1 area of the rats in the model group were decreased （P<0.01）. As compared with the model group， the number of neurons， dendritic spine density， and dendritic length in the hippocampus of the rats in the middle and high-dose icariin groups were increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. As compared with the control group， the mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α， IL-1β， IL-6， RhoA， ROCK1， and ROCK2 in the hippocampus of the rats in the model group were increased （P<0.01）. As compared with the model group， the mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α， IL-1β， IL-6， RhoA， ROCK1， and ROCK2 in the hippocampus of the rats in the middle and high-dose icariin groups were decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionIcariin improves cognitive function and neuronal and dendritic damage in AD by inhibiting the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.
Keywords：Alzheimer's disease;icariin;Ras homolog family member A （RhoA）/Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase （ROCK） signaling pathway;neuronal and dendritic damage
Abstract：ObjectiveTo develop and validate a predictive model to individually predict the risk of patients with stroke in the eICU Collaborative Research Database for early clinical identification and intervention.MethodIndividual patient data （200 859 cases） from a national multicenter cohort study （eICU database） were selected， and the patients with stroke in neurological diseases （9 037 cases） were selected for statistical analysis. The main outcome was hospital mortality. The Glasgow Coma scale （GCS） was used to divide all patients with stroke into stroke in meridian and stroke in viscera （GCS≤14 for stroke in viscera and GCS=15 for stroke in meridian）. The patients were then divided into a training set and a test set according to 7∶3， respectively， to evaluate the differences in hospital mortality between the two groups. The multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors affecting the prognosis of the two groups， and a predictive model was established. Receiver operator characteristic （ROC） curves were used to assess the discrimination of the predictive model.ResultThe predictive model based on 9 037 patients with stroke was established. The predictors of the stroke in meridian （4 475 cases） included pulmonary infection， mechanical ventilation， acute physiology， and chronic health status scoring system Ⅳ （APACHE Ⅳ） score. The predictors of the stroke in viscera （4 562 cases） included anticoagulation therapy （AT）， mechanical ventilation， acute physiology， and APACHE Ⅳ score. According to the predictors， the predictive models of the stroke in meridian and the stroke in viscera were constructed， respectively. The areas under the curve （AUC） of ROC of the training set and the test set of the predictive models of the stroke in meridian were 0.845 ［95% confidence interval （CI） （0.811， 0.879）］ and 0.807 ［95% CI （0.751， 0.863）］， respectively. The areas under the ROC curve of the training set and test set of the predictive models of the stroke in viscera were 0.799 ［95% CI （0.781， 0.817）］ and 0.805 ［95% CI （0.778， 0.832）］， respectively. The AUC of the predictive model of the training set and the test set were both above 0.7.ConclusionThe model established in this study can conveniently， directly， and accurately predict the hospital mortality risk of patients with stroke. Physicians and other healthcare professionals can use this predictive approach to provide early care planning and clinical interventions for patients with stroke during their hospital stay.
Keywords：stroke;stroke in meridian;stroke in viscera;predictive model
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect and safety of Buyang Huanwutang in treatment of connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary fibrosis in the patients with syndrome of Qi deficiency and blood stasis and explore the possible anti-fibrosis mechanism of Buyang Huanwutang.MethodSixty-six patients with connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary fibrosis with syndrome of Qi deficiency and blood stasis were randomized to receive either Buyang Huanwutang combined with routine therapy or routine therapy for 4 weeks. The primary outcome indicator was change in forced vital capacity （FVC） from the baseline， and the secondary outcome indicators included the changes in percentage of predicted forced vital capacity （FVC%pred）， percentage of forced expiratory volume in first second to predicted value （FEV1%pred）， King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease （K-BILD） total score， 6 minute walking distance （6MWD）， hydroxyproline （HYP）， matrix metalloproteinase （MMP）， tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 （TIMP-1）， and transforming growth factor-β （TGF-β） from baseline. Patients in line with the inclusion criteria were included in the primary analysis， and sensitivity analysis was performed after multiple imputation of missing data. Safety set was adopted for safety analysis.ResultThe 66 patients （included in the sensitivity analysis） meeting the inclusion criteria included 34 in the observation group and 32 in the control group， and 60 patients finally received the whole trial intervention （included for primary analysis）. Compared with the baseline， the FVC increased in the observation group and decreased in the control group after intervention （P<0.01）， which was consistent between the sensitivity analysis and the primary analysis. The changes in FVC%pred， FEV1%pred， 6MWD， and K-BILD total score from baseline in the observation group were superior to those in the control group （P<0.01）， with consistent results between the sensitivity analysis and the primary analysis. TIMP-1 in the observation group decreased compared with baseline （P<0.05）， while TIMP-1 in the two groups showed no significant changes from the baseline The observation group outperformed the control group in the changes in HYP， MMP-9， and TGF-β from baseline （P<0.05）. The common adverse events were cough， diarrhea， nausea， rash， and upper gastrointestinal tract infection， the incidence of which showed no statistical difference between the two groups.ConclusionBuyang Huanwutang can improve lung function， motor function， and quality of life in patients with connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary fibrosis and has good safety. The mechanism may be related to the reduction of TGF-β， MMP-9， and TIMP-1 levels and maintaining of MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance.
Keywords：Buyang Huanwutang;connective tissue disease associated pulmonary fibrosis（CTD-ILD）;syndrome of Qi deficiency and blood stasis;therapeutic effect;safety
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the metabolic stability of lucidin by incubating liver microsomes and liver S9 from 4 species， and to compare the species differences in metabolism of lucidin in vitro.MethodA qualitative and quantitative method of lucidin based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry （UHPLC-HRMS） was established and verified. Lucidin was incubated with rat， mouse， beagle dog， human liver microsomes and liver S9 to investigate the metabolic stability parameters， metabolites， metabolic pathways.ResultHepatic clearance （CLh） of lucidin was in order of mouse>rat>beagle dog>human in both phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ incubation system. Its metabolic stability was good in rat， beagle dog and human， while it showed metabolic instability and moderate metabolic stability in mouse microsomes and liver S9， respectively. A total of 5 metabolites were rapidly identified， including 3 oxidation metabolites of phase Ⅰ and 2 sulfation metabolites of phase Ⅱ. The production rate of metabolites was consistent with the results of metabolic stability.ConclusionThe established UHPLC-HRMS is simple and specific， which can be used for the study on the metabolic stability and metabolites of lucidin. Its metabolic stability and metabolite production rate in vitro are significantly different among species， the metabolic characteristics of rat and beagle dog are similar to human， which provides an important reference for subsequent research in vivo， safety evaluation and animal model selection of lucidin.
Keywords：lucidin;liver microsomes;anthraquinones;sulfonic metabolism;stability;Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma;species differences
Abstract：ObjectiveTo obtain content characteristics of inorganic elements in Scutellariae Radix （aged 1-4 years）， and to explore the feasibility of identifying the growth years of Scutellariae Radix based on characteristic spectrum of inorganic elements combined with chemometric models.MethodAfter microwave digestion， the contents of Mn， Zn， Ca， Fe， Mg， Na， K， Cr， Cu， Se， As， Cd， Hg， Pb and Ni in 21 batches of Scutellariae Radix were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry （ICP-OES） and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry （ICP-MS）. Meanwhile， characteristic spectrum of inorganic elements in samples was drawn. The identification model was constructed to discriminate the growth years of Scutellariae Radix based on the combination of principal component analysis （PCA）， Fisher discriminant function and support vector machine （SVM）.ResultThe contents of Mn （7.79-36.48 μg·g-1）， Zn （10.12-31.43 μg·g-1）， Cu （6.38-17.20 μg·g-1）， K （2.98-13.89 μg·g-1）， Mg （3.45-7.78 μg·g-1） and Ca （2.32-7.09 μg·g-1） in Scutellariae Radix were detected by ICP-OES and ICP-MS， and their contents increased with the prolongation of growth years. PCA results showed that Cu， Ni， Cd， Na， Mg， Fe， Ca， Zn， Mn and Hg were characteristic elements of Scutellariae Radix. Samples with different years could be divided into four categories in the spatial characteristic diagram of Fisher discriminant analysis. The correct rate of SVM model for identifying the growth years of samples was 95.2%.ConclusionThis established method is accurate and rapid for discriminating the growth years of Scutellariae Radix， which can provide reference for the identification of other Chinese medicinal materials. It is suggested that some elements should be considered as indexes in subsequent construction of the quality evaluation system of Scutellariae Radix.
Keywords：Scutellariae Radix;inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry （ICP-OES）;inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry （ICP-MS）;inorganic elements;characteristic spectrum;chemometrics;growth years
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the quality changes of Platycladi Semen before and after the deterioration of moth-eaten and rancidity during storage.MethodFour types samples of Platycladi Semen， including normal， moth-eaten， oxidative rancidity and hydrolytic rancidity， were determined for volatile components， odor， and taste based on headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry （HS-SPME/GC-MS） and electronic sensory techniques such as electronic nose and electronic tongue. Volatile components were identified by searching the database and manual comparison， the odor and taste were determined by the response values of the electronic nose and electronic tongue sensors， and the difference between samples before and after deterioration was studied by multivariate statistical analysis.ResultA total of 85 compounds were identified in Platycladi Semen samples. Compared with the normal samples， the number of volatile compounds in samples after hydrolytic rancidity decreased by 5， the number of volatile compounds in samples after moth-eaten and oxidative rancidity increased by 1 and 21， respectively. Aldehydes and acids accounted for majority of types. Among them， the contents of N-hexanoic acid， hexanal and propionic acid in the samples of oxidative rancidity reached 11.49%， 10.21% and 7.52%， which became the key indicators of rancidity. There was significant variance among the odor components corresponding to W1W， W2W and W1S sensors by electronic nose analysis. It was indicated that the value of sourness in deteriorated samples generally increased by mean of electronic tongue analysis. Compared with normal samples， the moth-eaten samples had changed slightly and rancidity samples had changed significantly especially oxidative rancidity samples of volatile components， odor and taste by multivariate statistical analysis.ConclusionIn terms of Platycladi Semen， the oxidative rancidity caused by nature storage for 12 months has the greatest impact on the quality. Therefore， it should be mainly to prevent oxidative rancidity to ensure the quality of Platycladi Semen.
Abstract：Jianwei Xiaoshi tablets， as a common variety of Chinese patent medicine with "one product with many manufacturers"， have many manufacturers and huge market sales. However， the phenomenon about uneven quality and discrepant price is prominent. Based on this， this study was carried out for the quality evaluation of Jianwei Xiaoshi tablets by applying the high-quality evaluation criteria with the quality as core for Chinese patent medicine， which was based on the full production cycle， from the multi-dimension including raw material selection， production process， quality control， post-marketing research and so on. The evaluation results showed that the quality evaluation scores of Jianwei Xiaoshi tablets from different manufacturers varied greatly （ranging from 35 to 66）， indicating that the quality was significantly different. In the actual production， generally inadequate attention was paid to the quality of raw materials， and the quality of raw materials was insufficient with the score ratio of 43%， especially the poor consistency control of them. The role of good manufacturing practice was obvious， and the scores of production process were generally high with the average score ratio of 62%， and the maximum up to 80%. The technological advancement of the manufacturer was outstanding. The score ratio of quality control was only 31% that the internal quality standard of each manufacture almost stayed at the qualified line， which was equal to the national standard， and the consistency of products was insufficient. The post-marketing research was lacking with the score ratio of 37%. Manufacturers with high brand awareness and market share were upper scores， while the others lagged far behind. The results of this evaluation are in line with the overall prediction， which can provide a reference for the high-quality evaluation of Chinese patent medicine， and supply the scientific data for high-quality and high-price application.
Keywords：Chinese patent medicines;one product with many manufacturers;high-quality evaluation;Jianwei Xiaoshi tablets;production cycle;consistency evaluation;high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze changes of the chemical composition in Euodiae Fructus before and after processing with Coptidis Rhizoma decoction， so as to provide scientific basis for elucidating the processing mechanism of this decoction pieces.MethodUltra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF/MS） was performed on a Titank C18 column （2.1 mm×100 mm， 1.8 μm）， the mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile for gradient elution， the column temperature was set at 40 ℃， the flow rate was 0.25 mL·min-1. Electrospray ionization （ESI） was used to scan in positive and negative ion modes， and the scanning range was m/z 50-1 250. The chemical constituents in Euodiae Fructus were identified before and after processing by reference substance comparison， database matching and literature reference， and MarkerView™ 1.2.1 software was used to normalize the obtained data， SIMCA-P 14.1 software was employed to perform principal component analysis （PCA） and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis （OPLS-DA） on MS data of raw and processed products to screen the differential components before and after processing.ResultA total of 50 compounds were identified， including 48 kinds of stir-fried products with Coptidis Rhizoma decoction and 44 kinds of raw products. After processing， six compounds were added， including danshensu， noroxyhydrastinine， oxyberberine， 13-methylberberrubine， protopine and canadine. However， two kinds of compounds， including （S）-7-hydroxysecorutaecarpine and wuchuyuamide Ⅱ， were not detected after processing. In general， after processing， the overall contents of phenolic acids and flavonoids decreased significantly， the overall content of limonoids increased， and the overall content of alkaloids did not decrease insignificantly. The results of PCA and OPLS-DA showed that there were significant differences in the composition and content of the chemical components of Euodiae Fructus before and after processing， and a total of 12 variables such as quercetin， dihydrorutaecarpine and dehydroevodiamine were obtained by screening.ConclusionEuodiae Fructus stir-fried with Coptidis Rhizoma decoction mainly contains phenolic acids， flavonoids， limonoids and alkaloids. The composition and content of the chemical components have some changes before and after processing. The addition of processing excipients and hot water immersion are the main reasons for the difference， which can provide experimental basis for interpretation of the processing mechanism of this characteristic processed products of Euodiae Fructus.
Keywords：Euodiae Fructus;Coptidis Rhizoma;ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF/MS）;traditional Chinese medicine processing;chemical constituents;principal component analysis （PCA）;orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis （OPLS-DA）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the correlation between the appearance color of the sample powder and the contents of five non-sugar components of wine-processed Polygonatum kingianum rhizoma during processing， and determine the feasibility of color quantitative value for judging the processing end point of the wine-processed products， and to screen steroidal saponins and flavonoids as markers for the control of the wine-processed products during processing.MethodThe changes of apparent color of the sample powder at different time points of the wine-processed products were measured by colorimeter， and the total color value （E*ab），the total color difference value （ΔE*ab） were calculated. The contents of protodioscin， pseudoprotodioscin， dioscin， diosgenin and narcissoside in the wine-processed products （No. S0-S10） after processing for 0， 5， 10， 14， 16， 18， 20， 22， 24， 26， 28 h were determined simultaneously by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry （UHPLC-MS/MS）. Cluster analysis （HCA）， principal component analysis （PCA）， partial least squares discriminant analysis （PLS-DA） and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the chromaticity value of the sample powder and the content of the five components.ResultDuring processing of wine-processed P. kingianum rhizoma， E*ab of the sample powder showed a decreasing trend and the apparent color changed from light yellow to lacquer black. The contents of the five components showed an obvious dynamic change trend with time， and showed different laws. HCA results showed that the processing process of the wine-processed products could be divided into three stages， namely， the early stage （samples S0-S1）， the middle stage （samples S2-S4） and the late stage （samples S5-S10）. PCA results showed that there were significant differences in color and contents of five components between the initial sample and the processing samples， and the difference between samples S8 and S9 was the smallest. PLS-DA results showed that the variable importance in the projection （VIP） values of b*， the contents of pseudoprotodioscin， narcissoside， diosgenin and protodioscin were >1. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the contents of protodioscin， diosgenin and narcissoside had a significant positive correlation with E*ab （P<0.01）， the content of diosgenin had a significant negative correlation with E*ab （P<0.01）， while the content of pseudoprotodioscin had no linear correlation with E*ab.ConclusionIn the process of wine-processed P. kingianum rhizoma， there is a certain linear correlation between color quantitative value and chemical composition， and the processing end point can be determined objectively. It can be considered that protodioscin can be used as a marker for the control of the wine-processed products.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the changes of primary metabolites and phenols in the fruits of Acanthopanax senticosus at different development stages, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the rational utilization of A. senticosus fruit resources.MethodThe primary metabolites and phenols in the fruits at different development stages were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and then compared by multivariate statistical analysis.ResultA total of 274 chromatographic peaks were obtained by GC-MS-based non-targeted metabonomics and 24 differential metabolites were screened out by multivariate statistical analysis. The differential metabolites were mainly concentrated in pentose phosphate pathway, galactose metabolism, ascorbic acid and aldose metabolism pathways. After color conversion, the pentose phosphate pathway and galactose metabolism were activated and increasing sugars were accumulated. The ascorbic acid and aldose metabolism pathways were active before color conversion, with high accumulation of the end product ascorbic acid. The ultra-high liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) identified 28 phenols in the fruits at different development stages. Flavonoids were accumulated mainly at the green ripening stage before color conversion, and phenolic acids were accumulated mainly after color conversion.ConclusionThe accumulation of primary metabolites and phenols in A. senticosus fruits varies significantly among different development stages
Abstract：The high morbidity and fatality rates of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases seriously harm human health，greatly affect the quality of life and increase the burden of disease. Thus， more and more attention has been paid to the relationship between heart and brain. "Simultaneous treatment of heart and brain" is the continuous deepening and development of the theory of "simultaneous treatment of different diseases" in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， and exploring the relationship between heart and brain as well as the current situation of Chinese medicine treatment has important clinical significance for the establishment of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine diagnosis and treatment programs of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Through a systematic theoretical tracing of the "simultaneous treatment of heart and brain"，the authors held that cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases had the same origin，and that heart and brain took blood as the material basis and governed mind jointly. They also expounded the modern biological relationship of the simultaneous treatment of heart and brain. In other words，the pathogenic factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were the same， with complicated comorbidities， and the disorders of neurohumoral reflex and endocrine system and immune system regulation could affect each other's function. Additionally，the present situation of clinical application of Chinese medicine for simultaneous treatment of heart and brain and its intervention effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were discussed. It was found that these Chinese medicines could protect cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through multi-target，multi-pathway and multi-link regulation. Combined with the existing problems in the current research，the authors thought and looked forward to the practical strategies of treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine by paying attention to key groups，focusing on dominant diseases，giving full play to the value of Chinese medicine，and scientifically explaining the connotation of simultaneous treatment of heart and brain， in order to provide ideas and reference for the follow-up transformation application research and better guidance of clinical practice.
Keywords：simultaneous treatment of heart and brain;traditional Chinese medicine;present situation;transformation research
Abstract：Cognitive impairment secondary to cardiovascular disease is a common complication in the elderly population， which seriously threatens the health of patients and affects the long-term quality of life. Cardiovascular diseases can lead to vascular endothelial injury， cerebral hypoperfusion， and brain lesions， and then cause cognitive impairment. Cardiovascular risk factors also increase the risk of secondary cognitive impairment in patients. It is particularly important to seek for early diagnosis and traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） and western medicine prevention and treatment. Based on the "holistic concept"， TCM puts forward the theory of "the connection of heart and brain". The heart and brain are connected and both are in charge of mental activities. Heart injury affects the brain， resulting in abnormal consciousness， which is considered to be the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment secondary to cardiovascular disease in TCM. Later generations of doctors propose the theory of "simultaneous treatment of the heart and the brain" on the basis of "treating different diseases with the same treatment" and "the connection of heart and brain". The theory contains two meanings. One is that different diseases can be treated by the same method because of the same etiology and pathogenesis. The other is the coexistence of different diseases and the treatment should be targeted to the same risk factors. This paper systematically discussed the TCM pathogenesis of cognitive impairment secondary to cardiovascular disease and the prevention and treatment strategy of "simultaneous treatment of the heart and the brain". In this paper， the deficiency of qi and blood was the foundation， and the interaction of blood stasis and poison and the obstruction of the pulse and the loss of the body were the key factors. Activating blood， detoxifying arteries， and connecting the orifices were the main treatment method for the disease. This paper is expected to enrich the connotation of "simultaneous treatment of the heart and the brain"， and provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment secondary to the cardiovascular disease with TCM.
Keywords：simultaneous treatment of the heart and the brain;cognitive impairment;prevention and treatment with traditional Chinese medicine;cardiovascular disease;treating different diseases with the same treatment
Abstract：As China is about to enter an era of deep aging， the coexistence of multiple diseases is gradually increasing. Coronary heart disease （CHD） and cognitive dysfunction also show increasing incidence year by year. The two diseases affect and cause each other， becoming the major chronic diseases harmful to the health of the elderly. It is of great clinical significance to explore the methods integrating traditional Chinese and western medicine for the prevention and treatment of the two diseases. The relationship between CHD and cognitive dysfunction in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） was first recorded in Huangdi’s Internal Classic （Huang Di Nei Jing）. As the understanding of CHD and cognitive dysfunction is deepening， the influences of stasis and toxin on both diseases have attracted increasing attention. According to the theories of TCM， CHD and cognitive dysfunction have common points in the etiology and pathogenesis. Therefore， the theory of treating different diseases with same method provides a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of different diseases with the same pathogenesis. Moreover， this theory conforms to the principle of integrated and individualized prevention and treatment of multi-disease coexistence in modern medicine. This paper systematically proposed that the coexistence of stasis and toxin is a major pathogenesis of CHD and cognitive dysfunction. We then explored the possible mechanisms of the blood-activating and toxin-removing method in the treatment of CHD and cognitive dysfunction based on the theory of treating different diseases with same method. The mechanisms include the regulation of ceramide metabolism， activation of silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 （SIRT1）， inhibition of pyroptosis， regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-κB （MAPK/NF-κB） signaling pathway， inhibition of mitochondrial division， and regulation of DNA methylation. We hope this paper will provide an idea for the future research on the prevention and treatment of CHD and cognitive dysfunction with TCM.
Keywords：activating blood and removing toxin;treating different diseases with the same method;coronary heart disease;cognitive dysfunction;silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 （SIRT1）;mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-κB （MAPK/NF-κB） signaling pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo determine the influence of Buzhong Yiqitang on miRNA expression in thyroid tissues of mice with autoimmune thyroiditis （AIT）.MethodThirty female 8-week-old NOD.H-2h4 mice were randomly assigned into normal control group， model group， and Buzhong Yiqitang group （BG）， 10 in each group. Mice were subjected to a diet containing 0.05% sodium iodide for 8 weeks to build the AIT mouse model. After 8 weeks of administration （ig）， samples were collected. A thyroid biopsy was performed on each group of mice， and differential miRNAs in thyroid tissues from each group of mice were analyzed based on experimental validation and bioinformatics.ResultCompared with the conditions of normal control group， thyroid lymphocytes had significant inflammatory infiltration， and there was an increase in serum TgAb level and interleukin（IL）-6 and IL-17 expression and a decrease in IL-1β expression in mice of the model group （P<0.05， P<0.01）. In addition， 154 differentially expressed miRNAs were found. Compared with the conditions of model group， the degree of thyroid tissue inflammation was alleviated， and serum TgAb level， and IL-1β， IL-6 and IL-17 expression of mice treated with the Buzhong Yiqitang were reduced （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Additionally， 112 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the BG group. Validation using real-time polymerase chain reaction（Real-time PCR） showed the same trend for miR-326-3p， miR-128-3p， miR-223-5p， miR-141-3p， miR-871-3p， and miR-204-3p as that obtained from miRNA sequencing. In particular， gene ontology（GO） functions were enriched for regulation of T cell activation， oxidative stress， and miRNA binding. Pathways identified by Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes（KEGG）database tended to be enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases（PI3K）/protein kinase B（Akt）， mitogen-activated protein kinase（MAPK）， and cyclic adenosine monophosphate（cAMP） signaling pathways. Based on miRNA prediction differences， three key genes were identified： SMAD3， JAK2， and STAT3.ConclusionBushong Yiqitang might treat autoimmune thyroiditis by regulating 6 miRNAs.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo systematically review the intervention effect of Chinese medicine on the structure and function of testicular Sertoli cells in animal models of impaired spermatogenesis.MethodThe databases， such as China National Knowledge Infrastructure （CNKI），VIP，Wanfang Data，EMbase，and Pubmed，were searched for experimental studies on the effect of Chinese medicine on the structure and function of testicular Sertoli cells in animal models with impaired spermatogenesis. The included studies were evaluated for risks of bias，and the outcome indicators were analyzed with RevMan and Stata software.ResultThirty studies were included，involving 37 randomized controlled trials （RCTs）. As indicated by the Meta-analysis results， compared with the model group，Chinese medicine increased sperm density（SMD=2.42，95% confidence interval（CI）［1.47，3.37］，P<0.000 01）， promoted sperm motility（SMD=2.35，95%CI ［1.70， 2.99］，P<0.000 01）， up-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of Vimentin （related to Sertoli cell cytoskeleton）， elevated the levels of Occludin and Claudin-11 （related to tight junction of blood-testis barrier）， boosted the levels of β-catenin and N-cadherin （related to adherens junction of blood-testis barrier）， raised the level of connexin 43 （Cx43， related to gap junction of blood-testis barrier）， improved the function of Sertoli cells， increased the serum content of Inhibin B （INHB）， and up-regulated the levels of testicular follicle-stimulating hormone receptor （FSHR）， INHB mRNA， androgen-binding protein （ABP） mRNA， transferrin（TF），stem cell factor（SCF），SCF mRNA，glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor （GDNF），GDNF mRNA，bone morphogenetic protein 4（BMP4），and BMP4 mRNA （P<0.05）.ConclusionChinese medicine can effectively increase sperm density and motility of animal models of impaired spermatogenesis，and improve the structure and function of testicular Sertoli cells. However，affected by the quality of the included studies，the above conclusion needs to be further verified by relevant high-quality studies.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of Linggui Zhugantang in the treatment of heart failure.MethodCNKI，Wanfang Data，VIP，CBM，PubMed，ClinicalKey，Cochrane Library ，Web of Science ，Medline and Embase were systematically searched to screen randomized controlled trials（RCT）of Linggui Zhugantang in the treatment of heart failure. Meta-analysis was performed on the included studies using RevMan 5.3ResultTwenty-seven studies were included with a total sample size of 3 569 cases，including 1 816 in experimental group and 1 753 in control group. Meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional drugs alone，combination of Linggui Zhugantang and conventional drugs improved the marked effective rate [relative risk（RR）=1.41，95% confidence interval（CI）[1.29，1.54]，P<0.000 01] and the total effective rate（RR=1.21，95%CI[1.17，1.25]，P<0.000 01），decreased the levels of serum B-type brain natriuretic peptide （BNP）[mean difference（MD）=-390.08，95%CI[-538.84，-241.52]，P<0.000 01] and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide（NT-proBNP）（MD=-713.83，95%CI[-828.41, -599.25]，P<0.000 01）， left ventricular end-diastolic diameter（LVDD）（MD=-5.23，95%CI[-7.18, -3.29]，P<0.000 01）, left ventricular end-systolic diameter（LVSD）（MD=-4.54，95%CI[-6.75，-2.33]，P<0.000 01）, tumor necrosis factor-α（TNF-α）（MD=-37.53，95%CI [-50.72，-24.34]，P<0.000 01）and interleukin-6（IL-6）（MD=-23.64，95%CI [-47.40，0.11]，P=0.05）, increased left ventricular ejection fraction（LVEF）（MD=5.73，95%CI [3.33，8.14]，P<0.000 01），and cardiac output [stroke volume (SV) ]（MD=5.90，95%CI[4.56，7.25]，P<0.000 01）. In addition, the combination prolonged the 6 minute walking test distance（MD=51.08，95%CI [33.01，69.16]，P<0.000 01），reduced the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome score（MD=-3.50，95%CI [-4.92，-2.07]，P<0.000 01），and improved quality of life（MD=-7.26，95%CI [-10.43，-4.09]，P<0.000 01），with higher safety（RR=0.36，95%CI [0.17，0.79]，P=0.01）.ConclusionLinggui Zhugantang combined with conventional drug therapy could improve cardiac function，reduce cardiac fibrosis，and improve prognosis, with high safety.
Abstract：Heart failure with high prevalence is the endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases. Once diagnosed， patients usually need lifelong medication， which seriously affects their quality of life. The drugs commonly used to treat heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors， beta-blockers， aldosterone receptor antagonists， and diuretics. However， the long-term use of those drugs can lead to side effects such as hypotension， depletion of body fluid， and electrolyte imbalance and even increase mortality. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， Qi deficiency and blood stagnation is the major cause of heart failure and when Qi is not moving， blood is not flowing. Therefore， the TCM clinical treatment of heart failure uses the Chinese medicinal materials which replenish Qi， activate blood， and dispell stasis to treat both internal cause and external symptoms. Recent studies have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicines such as Astragali Radix， Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma， Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma， Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma， Angelicae Sinensis Radix， as well as the compound formulas such as Buyang Huanwutang， Simiao Yongantang， Qili Qiangxin capsules， and Qishen Yiqi drops， play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of heart failure via replenishing Qi， activating blood， and dispelling stasis. Inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses， mitigation of myocardial fibrosis， improvement of calcium cycling， and protection of mitochondrial function represent the key mechanisms for the treatment of heart failure with Chinese medicinal materials. Focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms and signaling pathways of heart failure， this paper systematically describes the pharmacological effects， molecular mechanisms， and research progress in the clinical application of Chinese medicinal herbs with effects of replenishing Qi， activating blood， and dispelling stasis and their compound formulas in the prevention and treatment of heart failure， aiming to provide scientific evidence for the development and clinical use of anti-heart failure Chinese medicinal materials.
Keywords：heart failure;myocardial fibrosis;calcium cycling;Chinese medicinal materials with effects of replenishing Qi， activating blood， and dispelling stasis;New York Heart Association （NYHA） classification
Abstract：Alzheimer's disease （AD） is a common degenerative disease of the central nervous system in the elderly， with memory impairment and behavioral changes as the main clinical manifestations. Modern research has demonstrated that many herbs with both medicinal and edible values have anti-oxidation and anti-aging activities. In addition， these herbs are naturally safe and play a role in disease prevention and health care. The 110 medicinal and edible herbs announced by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China in 2021 were studied. The relevant papers published in the last five years were searched against CNKI， VIP， Wanfang Data， PubMed and other databases. The effects， mechanism， and active ingredients of the medicinal and edible herbs against Alzheimer's disease were summarized. The results showed that more than 30 herbs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma， Curcumae Longae Rhizoma， Astragali Radix， Corni Fructus， Gastrodiae Rhizoma， Angelicae Sinensis Radix， Cistanches Herba， Croci Stigma， Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma， Ganoderma and their active ingredients were effective in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Among them， ten herbs that met the requirements were screened out for analysis. The medicinal and edible herbs and their active ingredients can act on multiple targets and treat Alzheimer's disease via multiple signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB （NF-κB）， mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 （MEK5）/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 （ERK5）， cytochrome C （CytC） and cysteine aspartate-specific protease （Caspase）-3/（Caspase）-9， Wnt/β-catenin， and brain-derived neurotrophic factor （BDNF）/tyrosine kinase receptor B （TrkB）/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）， thus improving learning， cognitive ability， and memory ability. Most of the medicinal and edible herbs have the tropism to the heart， spleen， liver， and kidney meridians and tonifying effect.
Keywords：Alzheimer's disease;medicinal and edible herbs;active ingredients;research progress
Abstract：Psoriasis is a common clinical chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex and diverse etiology and unrevealed pathogenesis. In traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， psoriasis is caused by internal and external factors. To be specific， external factors such as external wind， cold， dampness， heat， insects， and other pathogenic factors can result in Qi obstruction， blood stasis， and loss of nourishment in the skin， and internal and external factors such as wind， dampness， and toxic qi attacking the exterior， heat and dryness in the blood aspect， difficulty in flourishing due to blood dryness， and blood deficiency in the body， combined with external contraction of wind and dryness trigger the disease. Modern doctors have conducted research from the blood aspect， including blood heat， blood deficiency， blood stasis， and blood dryness. Modern medicine believes that it is related to genetics， immunity， infection， and other factors， and the research on its mechanism focuses on genetic susceptibility， immune system disorder， bacterial infection， and other aspects. At present， various clinical therapies are available， mainly including systematic treatment and local external application of drugs. While treating psoriasis， TCM mainly employs oral administration or external application of Chinese medicine and traditional therapies to regulate the immune system and gene targets and resist oxidation， with high safety and few adverse reactions. At present， although the research on the mechanism of TCM in the treatment of psoriasis has been gradually deepened， there are few detailed summaries on the mechanism of TCM in the prevention and treatment of psoriasis. Based on the research on TCM and western medicine in the treatment of psoriasis， this paper reviewed the mechanism of TCM in the prevention and treatment of psoriasis and proposed a comprehensive clinical and experimental research profile， aiming to provide references for further exploring the pathogenesis， treatment， and corresponding mechanism of psoriasis.
Keywords：psoriasis;etiology;traditional Chinese medicine prevention and treatment;mechanism of action;research progress
Abstract：The incidence of diabetes has been on the rise as the result of lifestyle changes， especially the high-fat diet and reduced exercise. Thus， it has become a global public health problem and it is an urgent task to explore effective therapy. There has been an explosion of research on the relationship of transforming growth factor-β （TGF-β） signaling pathways with diabetes complications and tumors， but the role of the pathways in the occurrence and progression of diabetes remains unclear. TGF-β signaling pathways can be activated by many factors， directly or indirectly leading to the apoptosis of islet β cells and insulin resistance （IR）， and thus they are expected to become new targets for the treatment of diabetes. TGF-β-related signaling pathways involve AMP-activated proteinkinase （AMPK）， protooncogene （c-Myc）， Ski-relatednovel protein N （SnoN）， Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 （Smurf1）， miR-335-5p， and other signaling molecules. They participate in the occurrence and development of IR， apoptosis of islet β cells， insulin secretion disorder， fibrosis of adipocytes， and metabolic disorder of adipocytes， and inhibit the browning of white adipose tissue， playing an important part in the pathological process of human diabetes. According to traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， the pathogenesis of diabetes is the deficiency of Qi and Yin， and the late stage is characterized by the syndrome of Qi deficiency， and Yang deficiency and blood stasis， which should be treated according to the principle of replenishing Qi and nourishing Yin， warming Yang and activating blood. It has been found that the efficacy of some Chinese medicinals and compound prescriptions on diabetes is closely related to the TGF-β signaling pathways. This paper reviews TGF-β-associated signaling pathways， elucidating the roles of them in pathogenesis of diabetes， and analyzes the relationship of TGF-β-associated signaling pathways with the effect of compound Chinese medicine prescriptions against diabetes. This study is expected to lay a theoretical basis for the research on the treatment diabetes.
Abstract：Ferroptosis is a newly discovered non-apoptotic regulatory form of cell death characterized by accumulation of iron-dependent lipid peroxides and reactive oxygen species （ROS）. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that can induce cell cycle arrest， apoptosis， autophagy， and senescence to maintain genomic stability by mediating transcriptional regulation of a variety of key cellular genes. Recent studies have found that p53 can also regulate ferroptosis bidirectionally by multiple cellular responses including iron metabolism， polyunsaturated fatty acid （PUFAs） metabolism， amino acid metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate （NADPH）-mediated metabolisms， and participate in the pathological progression of diseases such as tumors， nervous system diseases， cardiovascular diseases， liver disease， and kidney disease. This paper provided a systematic review of the mechanism of p53-mediated ferroptosis in the outcome of related diseases and its influencing factors. And the research advance in the mechanisms of targeted regulation of p53-mediated ferroptosis in the prevention and treatment of cancer， stroke， acute ischemic cardiomyopathy， chronic heart failure， atherosclerosis， ulcerative colitis， and adjuvant arthritis by traditional Chinese medicine was also elaborated. This paper was expected to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment against related diseases.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;ferroptosis;p53;review
Abstract：Hepatoma is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive system worldwide， and a main factor leading to cancer-related deaths. Its incidence is increasing year by year， posing a serious threat to human health. Currently， hepatoma is mainly treated by surgical resection， liver transplantation， radiation and drugs， but there are certain adverse reactions and problems of high recurrence rate and low survival rate. Chinese medicine has unique advantages in improving the comprehensive curative effect of hepatoma and reducing adverse reactions. With a variety of active ingredients， Chinese medicine can induce hepatoma cell apoptosis， inhibit the proliferation， migration and reverse multidrug resistance through multiple targets， thus exerting anti-hepatoma effect. It has become an important means for the prevention and treatment of hepatoma as well as a rich resource for anti-hepatoma drug research and development. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway， one of the most classical pathways in cancer， is involved in tumor cell proliferation， cell cycle， migration， invasion and tumor angiogenesis. Recently， many studies have reported that the active ingredients of Chinese medicine can play an anti-hepatoma role through this pathway. Therefore， this paper summarized the domestic and foreign literature in recent years， analyzed the relationship between wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the specific mechanism of hepatoma occurrence and development， and combed the literature on the effect of flavonoids， terpenoids， alkaloids， polysaccharides and other active ingredients of Chinese medicine on inducing hepatoma cell apoptosis， regulating cell cycle and inhibiting the invasion and metastasis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In addition， the paper summarized the research progress of relevant active ingredients of Chinese medicine against hepatoma， to explore their specific mechanism against hepatoma through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway， so as to provide theoretical reference for further development of anti-hepatoma drugs.