Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Xiangsha Liu Junzitang （XSLJZ） on gastric emptying rate and expression levels of corticotropin-releasing factor （CRF） and urocortin 2 （UCN2） in rats with functional dyspepsia （FD） due to spleen deficiency.MethodForty-eight 10-day-old male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal group （n=8） and iodoacetamide （IA） group （n=40）， and they separately received 2% sucrose solution and 0.1% sucrose solution containing IA for six successive days. Following the removal of mother rats， the three-week-old IA-treated rats were randomized into five groups， namely the model group， mosapride group， and low-， middle-， and high-dose XSLJZ groups， with eight rats in each group. At the age of six weeks， rats in all groups expert for the normal group were modeled by the modified multiple platform method for 14 d. Afterwards， the ones in normal group and model group were treated with 10 mL·kg-1 distilled water， and those in the treatment groups with 1.6×10-3 g·kg-1 mosapride and 2.8， 5.6， and 11.2 g·kg-1 XSLJZ by gavage， respectively， for 14 d. The grasping ability and gastric emptying rate were determined. The histological changes in gastric antrum were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The protein and mRNA expression levels of CRF and UCN2 in gastric antrum were detected by Western blot and real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）.ResultNo obvious change or organic lesion was observed in gastric antrum of rats in each group. Compared with the normal group， the model group exhibited lowered gastric emptying rate and grasping ability （P<0.01）， up-regulated CRF protein and mRNA expression in gastric antrum （P<0.01）， and down-regulated UCN2 protein and mRNA expression （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， XSLJZ at the middle and high doses enhanced the grasping ability and gastric emptying rate （P<0.05， P<0.01） and down-regulated CRF mRNA expression to varying degrees （P<0.05， P<0.01）. XSLJZ at the high dose decreased CRF protein expression （P<0.05） and up-regulated UCN2 protein and mRNA expression （P<0.01）.ConclusionThe mechanism of XSLJZ in invigorating spleen and promoting gastric motility of FD rats may be related to its reduction of CRF and elevation of UCN2 in gastric antrum.
Keywords：Xiangsha Liu Junzitang;functional dyspepsia;gastric motility;corticotropin-releasing factor;urocortin 2;spleen deficiency syndrome
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Danzhi Xiaoyaosan-containing serum on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells， and to find out whether the action mechanism is related to its intervention in energy metabolism.MethodThirty six-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into the blank group， Danzhi Xiaoyaosan （8.99 g·kg-1） group， and Xihuangwan （0.55 g·kg-1） group. The serum was isolated after drug intervention for seven days. The cell viability was detected by methyl thiazolyl-tetrazolium （MTT） assay， the cell cycle by flow cytometry， and the apoptosis by Annenxin V/propidium iodide （PI） double staining. Following the determination of intracellular glucose content using the glucose testing kit， the expression of glucose transporter 1 （GLUT1） was measured by immunofluorescence staining. Seahorse XFe cell energy metabolism analyzer was used to detect the extracellular acidification rate （ECAR） and oxygen consumption rate （OCR）. The expression levels of hexokinase 2 （HK2）， pyruvate kinase M2 （PKM2）， and lactate dehydrogenase A （LDHA） were assayed by Western blot.ResultCompared with the blank group， Danzhi Xiaoyaosan-containing serum inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells， with the best effect observed after intervention with 15% Danzhi Xiaoyaosan-containing serum for 48 h （P<0.01）， blocked the MDA-MB-231 cells in G0/G1 phase（P<0.01）， and down-regulated the GLUT1 expression， basal glycolysis， glycolysis capacity， glycolytic reserve， basal respiration， adenosine triphosphate （ATP） production， spare respiratory capacity（P<0.01）， as well as the protein expression of HK2， PKM2， and LDHA in MDA-MB-231 cells（P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionDanzhi Xiaoyaosan-containing serum inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation， promotes apoptosis， and induces cell cycle arrest， which may be related to its reversal of energy metabolic reprogramming in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of modified Da Chaihutang on cholesterol gallstone （CS） in mice due to damp-heat based on the farnesoid X receptor （FXR）/fibroblast growth factor 15 （FGF15）/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 （FGFR4） pathway and explore the molecular biological mechanisms of CS differentiated into damp-heat syndrome from the perspective of correspondence between prescription and syndrome.MethodForty-eight six-week-old mice were randomly divided into the blank group， model group， modified Da Chaihutang （23.4 g·kg-1） group， and ursodeoxycholic acid （0.12 g·kg-1） group， with 12 mice in each group. The ones in the latter three groups were exposed to "internal dampness + external dampness + high-cholesterol diet" for 12 weeks for inducing CS due to damp-heat. Mice in the modified Da Chaihutang group and ursodeoxycholic acid group were gavaged with the corresponding drugs， while those in the model and blank groups with the same amount of normal saline for a total of four weeks. Before and after modeling， mice in each group were subjected to open field tests for determining their activities and mental states. Such general conditions as body mass， food intake， fur， and urine and stool of mice in each group were observed and recorded weekly for judging the damp-heat syndrome. After the intervention， the sampled liver and gallbladder tissues of mice in each group were stained with hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining， and the serum γ-glutamyltransferase （GGT）， alkaline phosphatase （ALP）， and total bilirubin （TBIL） were determined. The total cholesterol （TC） and total bile acid （TBA） contents in bile were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The mRNA and protein expression levels of FXR， FGF15， FGFR4， and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene （CYP7A1） were assayed by real-time fluorescence quantitative polynucleotide chain reaction （Real-time PCR） and Western blot.ResultCompared with the blank group， the model group exhibited enlarged gallbladder， brown turbid bile with flocculent precipitation visible to the naked eye， obvious damp-heat syndrome， lipoid degeneration in the liver tissue， rough and thickened gallbladder wall， elevated ALP， GGT， and TBIL in serum （P<0.01） and TC in bile （P<0.01）， reduced TBA （P<0.01）， up-regulated FXR， FGF15， and FGFR4 mRNA and protein expression in ileum （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and down-regulated CYP7A1 mRNA and protein expression （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the two medication groups displayed improved bile turbidity， and the bile in the modified Da Chaihutang group became clearer. After intervention， the damp-heat syndrome of mice in the modified Da Chaihutang group was significantly alleviated. The liver and gallbladder lesions of mice in the two medication groups were significantly relieved， manifested as reduced serum ALP， GGT， and TBIL （P<0.01）. The reduction in ALP and TBIL of the modified Da Chaihutang group was more significant （P<0.01）. The TC contents in the bile of mice from the two medication groups were significantly lowered， whereas the TBA contents were elevated （P<0.01）， with more significant changes present in the modified Da Chaihutang group （P<0.01）. The mRNA and protein expression levels of FXR， FGF15， and FGFR4 in the modified Da Chaihutang group were down-regulated （P<0.05， P<0.01）， while the mRNA and protein expression levels of CYP7A1 rose （P<0.05）， except that the elevation in FGF15 and FGFR4 protein expression and reduction in CYP7A1 protein expression were not significant. The mRNA and protein expression levels of FXR， FGF15， and FGFR4 in the ursodeoxycholic acid group all decreased， among which the reduction in FXR was remarkable （P<0.05）， and the mRNA and protein expression levels of CYP7A1 were significantly up-regulated （P<0.05）.ConclusionModified Da Chaihutang significantly improves the stone， liver function， bile composition， abnormal cholesterol-bile acid metabolism， and damp-heat syndrome in the model mice of CS differentiated into damp-heat syndrome， which may be related to its regulation of key factors FXR， FGF15， FGFR4， and CYP7A1 mRNA and protein expression in the cholesterol-bile acid metabolism pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effects of Gegen Qinliantang（GGQL） on the proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells as well as on the expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate （cAMP）， G protein-coupled receptor 119 （GPR119）， and glucagon-like peptide-1 （GLP-1）， so as to explore its potential hypoglycemic mechanism.MethodTwenty-five Wistar rats were gavaged with GGQL at the dose of 23 g·kg-1 crude drug， twice a day， which meant that 6 mL was administered into each rat per day for preparing the GGQL-containing serum. After seven consecutive times of administration， the intestinal epithelial L （NCI-H716） cells were cultured with different concentrations （1%， 2.5%， 5%， 7.5%， and 10%） of GGQL. The cell proliferation was evaluated using cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） and the apoptosis by flow cytometry. The GLP-1 and cAMP contents in cell supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The mRNA and protein GLP-1 and GPR119 levels were assayed by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） and Western blot， respectively.ResultCompared with the control group， GGQL significantly reduced the proliferation of NCI-H716 cells（P<0.05）. As the GGQL concentration increased， its inhibitory effect became more obvious. GGQL at each concentration significantly promoted the apoptosis of NCI-H716 cells （P<0.05）. Compared with the control group， GGQL significantly up-regulated the expression of cAMP， GLP-1， and GPR119 （P<0.05）. The results showed that the effect of GGQL was positively correlated with its concentration， and 10% GGQL exhibited the best effect.ConclusionGGQL effectively inhibits the proliferation of NCI-H716 cells and promotes their apoptosis， and it may promote the secretion of GLP-1 by up-regulating the expression of cAMP and GPR119.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the intervention effect of Danggui Buxuetang on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in diabetic kidney disease （DKD） rats from its improvement of podocyte mitochondrial dysfunction.MethodSD rats were randomly divided into the control group and modeling group， and the ones in the latter group rats were fed a high-glucose and high-fat diet and then intraperitoneally injected with a small dose of streptozotocin （STZ） for inducing type 2 diabetes. The successfully modeled rats were randomized into the model group， high- and low-dose （1.44 and 0.72 g·kg-1） Danggui Buxuetang groups， and irbesartan （0.017 g·kg-1）group and gavaged with the corresponding drugs， while those in the normal and model groups with an equal volume of normal saline. After 20 weeks of drug intervention， the urinary microalbumin-to-urine creatinine ratio （UACR） and serum malondialdehyde （MDA） content and manganese superoxide dismutase （MnSOD） activity in each group were measured. The pathological changes in renal tissue were observed by Masson trichrome staining， and periodic acid-silver metheramine （PASM） staining， followed by the observation of ultrastructural changes in podocytes under the transmission electron microscope （TEM）. The expression level of reactive oxygen species （ROS） in rat kidney tissue was detected using a fluorescent probe dihydroethidium （DHE）. The protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ -coactivator -1α （PGC-1α）， nucleotide-binding domain like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3）， and Wilms tumor protein-1 （WT-1） were measured by immunohistochemistry （IHC）， and the expression levels of NLRP3， interleukin-1β （IL-1β），and WT-1 in podocytes by immunofluorescence （IF） assay. The mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α and NLRP3 in the renal tissues were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）， and the protein expression levels of PGC-1α， MnSOD， NLRP3， and IL-1β were assayed by Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group， the model group exhibited elevated UACR and MDA content， weakened MnSOD activity （P<0.01）， glomerular hypertrophy， thickened basement membrane， mesangial hyperplasia， increased extracellular matrix， K-W nodules， podocyte mitochondrial swelling， disordered mitochondrial cristae， foot process fusion or loss， vacuolization， increased ROS （P<0.01）， enhanced NLRP3 and IL-1β but diminished WT-1 expression in podocytes， down-regulated PGC-1α mRNA expression （P<0.01） and PGC-1α and MnSOD protein expression （P<0.01）， and up-regulated NLRP3 mRNA expression and NLRP3 and IL-1β protein expression （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， Danggui Buxuetang high-dose group significantly decreased UACR and MDA， enhanced MnSOD activity （P<0.05， P<0.01）， improved renal histopathology and podocyte mitochondrial ultrastructure， decreased ROS （P<0.05， P<0.01） and NLRP3 and IL-1β expression in podocytes， enhanced WT-1 expression in podocytes， up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α and MnSOD， and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionDanggui Buxuetang alleviates oxidative stress， reduces inflammatory response， protects kidney， and delays the progression of DKD possibly by improving the mitochondrial dysfunction in podocytes of DKD rats.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Danggui Buxuetang on the podocyte injury and receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/receptor-interacting protein kinase3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein （RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL） signaling pathway in diabetic kidney disease （DKD） ratsand to explore its possible mechanism against DKD.MethodEight of the 50 SD rats were randomly classified intoa normal group， and the remaining were fed a high-glucose and high-fat diet for six weeks and then intraperitoneally injected with 0.035 g·kg-1streptozotocin （STZ） for inducing type 2 diabetes. After successful modeling，they were randomized into the model group，high- and low-dose （1.44，0.72 g·kg-1） Danggui Buxuetang groups， and irbesartan （0.017 g·kg-1）group. After 20 weeks of drug intervention， the fasting blood glucose （FBG）， kidney index （KI），and urinary microalbumin-to-urine creatinine ratio （UACR）were detected in each group. The pathological changes in renal tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining， followed by the observation of ultrastructural changes in podocytes under the transmission electron microscope. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） and interleukin-6 （IL-6） in renal tissue of rats were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）， and the protein expression levels of RIPK1， RIPK3， and MLKL in rat kidney tissue by immunohistochemistry. The apoptosis rate of podocytes was detected by in situ nick end-labeling （TUNEL） assay. The mRNA expression levels of RIPK1， RIPK3， and MLKL in kidney tissue of rats were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）， and the protein expression levels of RIPK， RIPK3， and MLKL and podocyte marker Wilms tumor protein-1 （WT-1） in rat kidney tissue were assayed by Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group， the model group exhibited elevated FBG， UACR， and KI （P<0.01）， glomerular hypertrophy， thickened basement membrane， increased extracellular matrix， mesangial hyperplasia， foot process fusion or loss， enhanced apoptosis in renal tissue， up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 levels （P<0.01） and RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL mRNA and protein expression （P<0.01）， and down-regulated WT-1 protein expression. Compared with the model group， Danggui Buxuetang high-dose group significantly reduced the levels of FBG， UACR， and KI， improved renal histopathology， podocyte loss， and apoptosis in renal tissue， down-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 levels and RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL mRNA and protein expression （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and up-regulated WT-1 protein expression.ConclusionDanggui Buxuetang alleviates podocyte injury and delays the development of DKD possibly by regulating the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL signaling pathway.
Keywords：Danggui Buxuetang;diabetic kidney disease （DKD）;podocytes;receptor-interacting protein kinase（RIPK）;mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein （MLKL）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Danggui Buxuetang on podocyte pyroptosis in diabetic kidney disease （DKD） rats and to explore the possible mechanism of its prevention and treatment of DKD and podocyte pyroptosis.MethodEight of the 50 male SD rats were randomly classified into a normal group， and the remaining 42 were fed a high-glucose and high-fat diet for six weeks and then intraperitoneally injected with 35 mg·kg-1 streptozotocin （STZ） for inducing type 2 diabetes. After successful modeling， they were randomized into the model group， low- （0.72 g·kg-1） and high-dose （1.44 g·kg-1） Danggui Buxuetang group， and irbesartan （0.017 g·kg-1） group and gavaged with the corresponding drugs， while those in the normal group and model group with an equal volume of normal saline， once per day， for 20 weeks. During the medication， the fasting blood glucose （FBG） and 24 h urine protein （24 h-UTP） were measured regularly. After administration， the pathological changes in renal tissues were observed by periodic acid-silver metheramine （PASM） staining， followed by the observation of ultrastructural changes in podocytes under the transmission electron microscope （TEM）. Serum levels of interleukin-1β （IL-1β） and interleukin-18 （IL-18） were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The DNA damage in renal tissue cells of rats was detected by in situ nick end-labeling （TUNEL） assay. The protein expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein （TXNIP）， cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease-1 （Caspase-1）， and gasdermin D （GSDMD） in renal tissues of rats were detected by immunohistochemistry （IHC）， the expression levels of nucleotide binding domain like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3） and Wilms tumor protein-1 （WT-1） in podocytes by immunofluorescent （IF） staining， and the expression levels of TXNIP/NLRP3/Caspase-1/GSDMD pathway proteins and Synaptopodin in renal podocytes by Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group， the model group exhibited increased FBG and 24 h UTP， glomerular hypertrophy， mesangial hyperplasia， increased extracellular matrix， thickened basement membrane， K-W nodules， vacuolar degeneration in renal tubular epithelial cells， foot process fusion or loss， elevated serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels and TUNEL-positive cells in renal tissue， enhanced NLRP3 but diminished WT-1 expression in podocytes， down-regulated Synaptopodin protein expression， and up-regulated TXNIP/NLRP3/Caspase-1/GSDMD protein expression （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， Danggui Buxuetang high-dose group remarkably lowered FBG， 24-h UTP， and TUNEL-positive cells in renal tissue， improved renal histopathology and podocyte injury and loss， down-regulated NLRP3 expression in podocytes and TXNIP/NLRP3/Caspase-1/GSDMD protein expression levels， and up-regulated WT-1 expression in podocytes and Synaptopodin protein expression （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionDanggui Buxuetang inhibits podocyte pyroptosis to reduce proteinuria and delays the development of DKD possibly by regulating the TXNIP/NLRP3/GSDMD signaling pathway.
Keywords：Danggui Buxuetang;diabetic kidney disease （DKD）;podocyte pyroptosis;reactive oxygen species;nucleotide binding domain like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3）;thioredoxin interacting protein （TXNIP）
Abstract：The increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes has made diabetic kidney disease （DKD） the main cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Despite current pharmacological interventions for blood glucose control and renin-angiotensin system inhibition， the risk of kidney disease progression and complications remains high. At present， the pathogenesis of DKD has been clarified to be related to chronic inflammatory response， oxidative stress， glucose and lipid metabolism disorders， and hemodynamic abnormalities. According to recent studies， the programmed cell deaths （PCD） of renal intrinsic cells such as pyroptosis and necroptosis play a key role in the occurrence and development of DKD. Pyroptosis and necroptosis， the two newly discovered routes of PCD， can protect the hosts from being invaded by microbial pathogens， but their dysregulation is associated with multiple autoimmunity and autoinflammatory responses. Pyroptosis and necroptosis are closely interlinked and cross-regulated. Different from apoptosis， these two cellular suicide mechanisms cause membrane rupture and release of cell contents through their respective gasdermin D （GSDMD） and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein （MLKL）， with damage-associated molecular patterns （DAMPs） and inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β （IL-1β） involved to trigger inflammation， and chronic inflammatory responses are key factors leading to the progression of DKD. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has long been employed for the prevention and treatment of DKD and the resulting clinical outcomes are remarkable. TCM has been proved to exert a protective effect against DKD by affecting the expression of nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3） inflammasome， receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 （RIPK3）， and MLKL. This paper reviewed the relationship of pyroptosis and necroptosis with DKD and its intervention with TCM.
Keywords：diabetic kidney disease （DKD）;pyroptosis;necroptosis;inflammation;traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Bufei Yishen prescription on airway mucus hypersecretion and Notch signaling pathway related protein Notch3 and enhancer of split homologue 1 （HES1） in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease （COPD） and to explore its action mechanism.MethodForty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into the control group， model group， Bufei Yishen prescription group， and aminophylline （APL） group，with 12 rats in each group. The stable COPD rat model was established via cigarette smoking exposure combined with Klebsiella bacterial infection for 12 weeks， and the corresponding drugs （3.7 g·kg-1·d-1 Bufei Yishen prescription and 54 mg·kg-1·d-1 APL） were administered by gavage during the next eight weeks. After the last administration at week 20， the lung tissue was sampled for observing the pathological changes and the rat lung function was detected. The tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， and mucoprotein 5AC （MUC5AC） in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch3， HES1， and MUC5AC in lung tissues were assayed.ResultCompared with the control group， the model group exhibited significantly weakened pulmonary function （P<0.05，P<0.01）， reduced average number of alveoli （P<0.01）， elevated mean linear intercept （P<0.01）， and up-regulated TNF-α， IL-6， and MUC5AC in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and Notch3， HES1， and MUC5AC mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue （P<0.05，P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， Bufei Yishen prescription and APL remarkably enhanced pulmonary function， alleviated its pathological injury （P<0.05，P<0.01）， and down-regulated TNF-α， IL-6， and MUC5AC in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch3， HES1， and MUC5AC in lung tissues （P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionThe mechanism of Bufei Yishen prescription in inhibiting airway mucus hypersecretion of COPD rats was related to its regulation of Notch3 and HES1.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the role of protein kinase B （Akt） overexpression in the inhibition of human bladder cancer 5637 cell proliferation by erianin and related mechanisms.MethodThe 5637 cells stably over-expressing Akt were induced using the lentivirus vector. The 5637 cells infected with the empty vector were classified into blank group. Then the Akt group， empty vector combined with erianin （62.5 μg·L-1） group， and Akt combined with erianin （62.5 μg·L-1） group were set up. The cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） assay， and the clone formation of 5637 cells in each group was determined in the clone formation experiment. The cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to assay the protein expression levels of phosphorylated （p）-Akt， Akt， p21. The glycolysis of 5637 cells was determined in glucose uptake and lactate secretion assays.ResultCompared with the blank group， erianin inhibited the proliferation of bladder cancer 5637 cells （P<0.05）. Overexpression of Akt partially reversed the inhibitory effect of erianin on the proliferation of bladder cancer 5637 cells （P<0.05）. Clone formation assay showed that erianin inhibited the clone formation of bladder cancer 5637 cells （P<0.05）， which was partially reversed by the overexpressed Akt （P<0.05）. As revealed by comparison with the blank group， erianin arrested the bladder cancer 5637 cells in G1 phase （P<0.05）， which was also reversed by the overexpressed Akt （P<0.05）. Western bolt showed that erianin promoted the expression of p21 but suppressed the expression of p-Akt and Akt （P<0.05）. By contrast， the overexpression of Akt down-regulated the elevated p21 protein expression induced by erianin （P<0.05）. Compared with the blank group， erianin inhibited the glucose uptake and lactate secretion of bladder cancer 5637 cells （P<0.05）. Overexpression of Akt weakened the inhibitory effect of erianin against the glycolysis of 5637 cells （P<0.05）.ConclusionErianin is able to inhibit the proliferation of bladder cancer 5637 cells， promote the expression of p21， and inhibit the expression of p-Akt. Overexpressed Akt reduces the inhibitory effect of erianin on the proliferation of bladder cancer 5637 cells， suggesting that Akt plays an important role in the inhibition of 5637 cell proliferation by erianin， which has provided a new target for the application of erianin in the treatment of bladder cancer.
Keywords：erianin;bladder cancer;cell proliferation;protein kinase B （Akt）;glycolysis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the anti-tumor activity and mechanism of Lycopus lucidus polysaccharide （LLP） in vitro.MethodCell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of LLP （0， 5， 10， 15， 20 g·L-1） on the proliferation of A549 cells at different time points （24，48，72 h）. The migration and invasion abilities of A549 cells were detected by wound healing assay and transwell assay after LLP （10， 20 g·L-1） treatment for 24，48 h. Propidium iodide （PI） single staining was applied to determine the effect of LLP of different concentrations （10，20 g·L-1） on the cell cycle of A549. The apoptosis of A549 cells induced by LLP （10， 20 g·L-1） was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI kit. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） was adopted to measure effect of LLP （10， 20 g·L-1） on gene expression of cysteine aspartate protease-3 （Caspase-3），cysteine aspartate protease-8 （Caspase-8），cysteine aspartate protease-9 （Caspase-9），cyclin-dependent kinase-1 （CDK-1）， and Cyclin B1 in A549 cells. Western blot was used to detect the effect of LLP on protein expression of Caspase-3，Caspase-8，Caspase-9，B-cell lymphoma 2 （Bcl-2）-associated X protein （Bax），CDK-1，cyclin-dependent kinase-4 （CDK-4），cyclin-dependent kinase-6 （CDK-6），Cyclin B1，and Cyclin D1 in A549 cells.ResultCompared with the blank group， the LLP group showed decreased proliferation， migration， and invasion of A549 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）， increased proportion of G0/G1 phase （P<0.05）， enhanced apoptosis rate （P<0.05， P<0.01）， elevated mRNA expression of Caspase-3，Caspase-8，and Caspase-9 （P<0.05，P<0.01）， reduced mRNA expression of CDK-1 and Cyclin B1 （P<0.05，P<0.01）， up-regulated protein expression of Caspase-3，Caspase-8，Caspase-9， and Bax （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and down-regulated protein expression of Bcl-2， CDK-1， CDK-4， CDK-6， Cyclin B1， and Cyclin D1 （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionLLP can inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells， block the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase （also G2/M phase）， and induce cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and death receptor pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of quantitative pulmonary administration of the essential oil from Alpiniae Zerumbet Fructus （EOAZF） on porcine pancreatic elastase （PPE）-induced emphysema in mice and explore its action mechanism.MethodC57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five group， namely the control group， model group， low- （2 mg·kg-1） and high-dose （20 mg·kg-1） EOFAZ groups， and positive control dexamethasone （DEX，1 mg·kg-1） group. The mice were treated with pulmonary administration of PPE using a microsprayer aerosolizer， once every seven days， for four times in total， for inducing emphysema. During this period， EOFAZ were administered with a quantitative microsprayer aerosolizer once every other day， for 14 times. The lung tissues were then sampled and stained with hematoxylin-eosin （HE） for observing the morphological changes and calculating the pulmonary mean linear intercept （MLI）. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， and interleukin-6 （IL-6） in the plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The activities of superoxide dismutase （SOD） and catalase （CAT） and the content of malondialdehyde （MDA） in the lung tissues were measured using the biochemical assay kits. The protein expression levels of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 （Nrf2）， quinone oxidoreductase1 （NQO1）， B cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）-associated X protein （Bax）， and Bcl-2 in lung tissues were detected by Western blot.ResultThe results of lung morphological observation and MLI detection showed that compared with the control group， the model group showed obvious inflammatory infiltration， alveolar enlargement and fusion， and increased MLI （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， EOFAZ effectively alleviated the pathological changes such as alveolar dilatation， pulmonary inflammatory cell infiltration， and lung cell apoptosis caused by PPE， and decreased the MLI （P<0.05）. As revealed by ELISA， the inflammatory level of mice in the model group increased significantly （P<0.01）， while the TNF-α， IL-1β， and IL-6 levels in the plasma were decreased after quantitative administration of EOFAZ （P<0.01）. Compared with the control group， the model group exhibited significantly enhanced oxidative stress （P<0.01）. After treatment with EOFAZ by quantitative administration， the activities of SOD and CAT in the lung tissue were increased （P<0.01） and the content of MDA was decreased （P<0.01）. Western blot results demonstrated that the apoptosis-related protein expression in the model group was increased significantly as compared with that in the control group （P<0.01）， whereas the expression levels of antioxidant stress proteins Nrf2 and NQO1 declined （P<0.05）. The relative protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax/Bcl-2 in the EOFAZ groups was lower than that in the model group （P<0.01）， while the expression of antioxidant stress proteins Nrf2 and NQO1 was higher （P<0.05）.ConclusionQuantitative pulmonary administration of EOFAZ effectively alleviates the inflammation and oxidative stress， reduces lung cell apoptosis， and hinders the occurrence and development of emphysema. Its antioxidant mechanism is closely related to the up-regulation of Nrf2 and its downstream NQO1.
Keywords：essential oil from Alpiniae Zerumbet Fructus （EOFAZ）;quantitative pulmonary administration;emphysema;oxidative stress;apoptosis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish blood stasis models in zebrafish using three inducers and select the optimal model for evaluating the activity of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in promoting blood circulation.MethodArachidonic acid （AA）， ponatinib， and isoprenaline （ISO） were used to induce blood stasis models in zebrafish. A normal group， a model group， a positive drug group， and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma water extract freeze-dried powder groups at different concentrations were set up. The staining intensity of cardiac erythrocytes and the fluorescence intensity of cardiac apoptotic cells were calculated， the anti-thrombotic effect and anti-myocardial hypoxia activity of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were evaluated. The activities of water extract and 70% methanol extract of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were compared based on the preferred AA- and ISO-induced blood stasis models in zebrafish and the difference in the chemical composition was analyzed by UHPLC LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS.ResultAfter induction by AA and ponatinib， the staining intensity of cardiac erythrocytes was reduced （P<0.01）， and the fluorescence intensity of cardiac apoptotic cells increased after the induction by ISO （P<0.01）. The freeze-dried powder of the water extract of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could antagonize the thrombosis in the AA-induced model （P<0.01） and the myocardial apoptosis in the ISO-induced model （P<0.05）， while no significant improvement in the thrombosis was observed in the ponatinib-induced model. The freeze-dried powder of 70% methanol extract of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could inhibit myocardial apoptosis in the ISO-induced blood stasis model （P<0.01）， and the effect was stronger than that of the freeze-dried powder of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma water extract. The difference in chemical composition lay in some saponins （such as ginsenoside Re）， amino acids， and acetylenic alcohols.ConclusionAA， ponatinib， and ISO all can serve as inducers for the blood stasis model in zebrafish. AA- and ISO-induced models can be used to evaluate the activity of freeze-dried powder of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma water extract in promoting blood circulation. The chemical compositions of the freeze-dried powders of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma extracted with water and 70% methanol are quite different. For the ISO-induced blood stasis model， the freeze-dried powder of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma extracted with 70% methanol has a stronger ability against myocardial hypoxia. Saponins and acetylenic alcohols may be closely related to the effects of promoting blood circulation and resolving blood stasis.
Keywords：zebrafish;Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma;blood stasis model;myocardial hypoxia;thrombus
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the curative effect of Jiedu Huayu granules （JDHY） in the treatment of chronic liver failure （CLF） with the syndrome of toxic heat and stasis and investigate the influence on the inflammatory state.MethodA total of 136 patients were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group with 68 cases in each group. In addition to the comprehensive western medicine treatment， patients in the control group received Yinchen Haotang granules orally at 1 dose/day and those in the observation group received JDHY at 10 g/time，3 times/day. The treatment lasted for eight weeks. The endotoxin （ET），diamine oxidase （DAO），aromatic amino acids （AAA），branched chain amino acids （BCAA），blood ammonia，calcitonin （PCT），tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α），interleukin （IL）-1，IL-6，IL-17，regulatory T cells （Treg cells），helper T cells 17 （Th17），Th17/Treg ratio，total bilirubin （TBil），albumin （Alb），alanine aminotransferase （ALT），aspartate aminotransferase （AST），prothrombin activity （PTA）， and D-dimer （D-D） levels before and after treatment were detected. The Child-Pugh grading scores of liver function， toxic heat and stasis syndrome scores， and the model scores of end-stage liver disease（MELD） before and after treatment were recorded. The fatality rate and survival were recorded at the follow-up for 48 weeks.ResultCompared with the control group after treatment， the observation group showed decreased ET，DAO， and blood ammonia， increased BCAA/AAA ratio （P<0.01）， reduced PCT，TNF-α，IL-1，IL-6， and IL-17 （P<0.01）， elevated Treg cells， dwindled Th17 and Th17/Treg ratio （P<0.01）， diminished TBil，ALT，AST， and D-D levels， and up-regulated Alb and PTA（P<0.01）. The Child-Pugh grading score，MELD score， and toxic-heat and stasis syndrome score of the observation group were lower than those of the control group （P<0.01）. The total response rate in the observation group was 93.65% （59/63），which was higher than 79.03% （49/62） in the control group （χ2=5.683，P<0.05）. The fatality rate of the observation group eight weeks after treatment was 6.35% （4/63），which was lower than 19.35% （12/62） of the control group （χ2=4.757，P<0.05）. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups 16，24， and 48 weeks after treatment. As revealed by the Log-rank test，the difference in survival curves between the two groups was not statistically significant.ConclusionJDHY can remove toxins from the body，regulate immune function，relieve inflammation，improve liver function， and reduce the severity of the disease in CLF patients with the syndrome of toxic heat and stasis. It is significant in clinical efficacy and worthy of clinical application.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe and analyze the effect of modified Shenling Baizhusan on gastrointestinal dysfunction and protein-energy wasting （PEW） of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis （CAPD） patients with the syndrome of spleen deficiency， blood stasis， and dampness.MethodA total of 66 CAPD patients with the above syndrome were randomized into the observation group and control group， 33 cases in each group. However， 3 cases in each group dropped out， finally leaving 30 cases in each group. Both groups received CAPD and conventional symptomatic treatment. On this basis， the observation group was given modified Shenling Baizhusan （1 bag/day， once in the morning and again in the evening， 12 weeks）， and the control group the bifidobacterium capsules （1.05 g/time， twice/day， 12 weeks）. Before and after treatment， the traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndrome score， gastrointestinal symptom rating scale （GSRS） score， and malnutrition-inflammation score （MIS） in two groups were recorded， and the levels of serum albumin （ALB）， prealbumin （PA）， transferrin （TRF）， gastrin-17 （G-17）， tumor necrosis factor alpha （TNF-α）， interferon-γ （IFN-γ）， and interleukin-10 （IL-10） were detected. Moreover， body mass index （BMI） was calculated.ResultAfter treatment， the alleviation of the TCM syndrome in the observation group was better than that in the control group （Z=-2.591， P<0.05）， and the TCM syndrome score in the observation group was lower than that in the control （P<0.05）. The symptom scores， MIS， and G-17 of the observation group were significantly decreased compared with those before observation and in the control group （P<0.05）. After treatment， the GSRS scores of the two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment （P<0.05）， particularly the observation group （P<0.05）. ALB， PA， TRF， and BMI of the observation group after treatment were increased compared with those before treatment and those of the control group after treatment （P<0.05）. After treatment， serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of the two groups were significantly reduced compared with those before treatment （P<0.05）， and the levels of the two in the observation group were significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group （P<0.05）. After treatment， IL-10 level of the observation group was higher than that before treatment and in the control group （P<0.05）.ConclusionThe modified Shenling Baizhusan can relieve the gastrointestinal dysfunction and PEW in CAPD patients with the syndrome of spleen deficiency， blood stasis， and dampness.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the chemical structure of gardenia blue pigment and its inhibitory activity against monoamine oxidase B （MAO-B）， in order to seek a potential feasible way for rational utilization and value enhancement of iridoids in Gardeniae Fructus.MethodIridoid glycosides in Gardeniae Fructus were hydrolyzed by cellulase to obtain their aglycones and reacted with amino acids. Then， the products were purified by column chromatography packed with D101 macroporous resin and preparative liquid chromatography to obtain gardenia blue pigments， and the gardenia blue pigments were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance （NMR） and mass spectrometry （MS）. Benzylamine was used as the reaction substrate of MAO-B and in vitro incubated with gardenia blue pigment monomers， high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） was employed to determine the production of benzaldehyde for evaluating the inhibitory effect of gardenia blue pigments on MAO-B， the mobile phase was methanol （A） -50 mmol·L-1 potassium phosphate buffer （B， pH 3.2） （2∶3）， and the detection wavelength was 245 nm.ResultEight compounds of gardenia blue pigment A-H were synthesized and identified. In MAO-B inhibition test， compared with geniposide， the inhibitory activity of gardenia blue pigment D and E was significantly enhanced （P<0.05）. Compared with the 6β-hydroxygeniposide， the inhibitory activity of gardenia blue pigment G and H was significantly enhanced （P<0.05， P<0.01）. All the four gardenia blue pigments showed better MAO-B inhibitory activity than the prototype compounds.ConclusionGardenia blue pigment is a simple compound formed by one molecule of amino acid and one molecule of iridoid. Some gardenia blue pigments have better MAO-B inhibitory activity than the prototype compounds. The activity of gardenia blue pigment produced by different substrates is different， and the high-value gardenia blue pigment can be prepared based on experimental optimization， which can expand the application range of gardenia blue pigment and enrich the comprehensive utilization of iridoids from Gardeniae Fructus.
Abstract：ObjectiveIn order to establish a systematic quality evaluation system for Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulteration， portable near-infrared （NIR） spectroscopy was used to identify Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus and its adulterants and detect their adulteration quantity.MethodA total of 72 batches of Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus samples were collected and 570 batches of adulterated products （dry bulbs of Fritillaria thunbergii， F. ussuriensis， F. pallidiflora and F. hupehensis， Bulbus Tulipae， flour） were prepared， NIR spectral data of samples were collected by the portable NIR spectrometer. Linear discriminant analysis （LDA） was used to establish the qualitative correction models of Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus-adulterants and adulterants of different categories， partial least squares （PLS） was used to establish the quantitative correction models of adulteration quantity of different kinds of adulterants.ResultThe recognition rates of qualitative analysis model of Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus and its adulterants were 99.49% （calibration set） and 100.00% （validation set）， respectively. In different adulterant models， the recognition rates of calibration set and validation set were 70.47% and 73.68%， respectively. Moreover， the correlation coefficientsof validation set （R2P） of the six quantitative models of adulteration ratio were 0.840 2 （Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulterated with F. thunbergii dry bulbs）， 0.960 2 （Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulterated with F. ussuriensis dry bulbs）， 0.765 7 （Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulterated with F. pallidiflora dry bulbs）， 0.902 5 （Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulterated with F. hupehensis dry bulbs）， 0.957 4 （Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulterated with Bulbus Tulipae）， 0.976 1 （Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus adulterated with flour）， the root mean square error of prediction （RMSEP） were 10.948 5， 5.463 9， 13.256 4， 8.549 2， 5.655 3， 4.235 6， respectively. The two qualitative models and six quantitative models showed good prediction performance.ConclusionThe portable NIR spectroscopy can be used to identify Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus and its adulterants in real time， the method is rapid and accurate， which can meet the requirements of nondestructive identification of Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus on site.
Keywords：portable near infrared spectrometer;Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus;authenticity;qualitative analysis;quantitative analysis;linear discriminant analysis;partial least squares
Abstract：ObjectiveTo determine the chemical constituents of burdock （Arctium lappa） leaves， and elucidate dynamic accumulation rule of four main components， in order to provide the basis for determining the suitable harvest time of burdock leaves.MethodSilica gel， macroporous resin， Sephadex LH-20， octadecylsilane chemically bonded silica （ODS）， microporous resin （MCI） column chromatography and reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） were used to isolate the main chemical constituents in burdock leaves.Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. HPLC-diode array detector （DAD） was used to analyze the dynamic accumulation of four components in burdock leaf. HPLC-DAD was performed on a Shim-pack GIST C18 column （4.6 mm×250 mm， 5 μm） with mobile phase of acetonitrile （A）-0.3% phosphoric acid aqueous solution （B） （0-9 min， 13%A； 9-10 min， 13%-24%A； 10-30 min， 24%A）， flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1， column temperature of 40 ℃， and detection wavelength at 328 nm.ResultSeventeen compounds were isolated from burdock leaves， and identified as caffeic acid （1）， rutin （2）， kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside （3）， quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside （4）， kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside （5）， chlorogenic acid （6）， isochlorogenic acid A （7）， daucosterol （8）， ursolic acid （9）， anemarrhenoside B （10）， （-）-secoisolariciresinol （11）， vladinol D （12）， melitensin （13）， esculetin （14）， 1-（-2-ethylphenyl）-1，2-ethanediol （15）， 1-（-4-ethylphenyl）-1，2-ethanediol （16）， 3-hydroxy-1-（4-hydroxy-3，5-dimethoxyphenyl）-1-propanone （17）. The contents of chlorogenic acid， rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside in burdock leaves showed an upward trend from April to August， and reached the highest in August. And the content of isochlorogenic acid A firstly increased and then decreased from April to August， and reached the highest in July.ConclusionCompounds 10， 12-17 were isolated from Arctium for the first time. Taking the contents of chlorogenic acid， rutin， kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside， and isochlorogenic acid A as indicators， considering the comprehensive development and utilization of burdock roots and leaves， it is recommended to harvest burdock leaves in mid-August.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study on the correlation between the apparent color， near-infrared spectroscopy and dynamic changes of index constituent content of samples during the processing of steamed Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma， and to provide reference for the processing process optimization and quality control of this decoction piece.MethodSamples were dried and crushed by setting three steaming temperature gradients of 100-105， 114-118， 130-136 ℃， and sampled at steaming times of 1， 2， 4， 8， 12， 24 h， respectively. The effects of different steaming temperatures and times on the color and absorption of steamed Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma at different infrared wavelengths were observed， and principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed on the obtained data by R 4.1.0 and SPSS 21.0 software to observe the changes in color and infrared absorption characteristics of samples. High performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） was employed to determine the content changes of notoginsenoside R1， ginsenoside Rg1， ginsenoside Rb1， ginsenoside Re， 20（S）-ginsenoside Rg3 and 20（R）-ginsenoside Rg3 before and after steaming of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma， mobile phase was acetonitrile （A）-water （B） for gradient elution （0-30 min， 19%A； 30-60 min， 19%-44%A； 60-78 min， 44%-74%A； 78-80 min， 74%-100%A； 80-86 min， 100%A； 86-87 min， 100%-19%A； 87-95 min， 19%A） with the detection wavelength of 203 nm.ResultDuring the steaming process of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma， with the increase of steaming temperature and time， the b* （yellow-blue value）， L* （brightness）， △E* （comprehensive color difference value） of sample powder showed a decreasing trend， while the a* （red-green value） showed an increasing trend， and the color gradually deepened from gray to brown and dark black. There was no significant difference in the infrared absorption between raw and steamed Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma sample powder in the low and medium wavelength bands， but significant difference in the infrared absorption of high band， especially in the band of 9 600-10 000 cm-1. HPLC showed that the contents of the original components （notoginsenoside R1， ginsenoside Rg1， Re and Rb1） decreased and 20（S）-ginsenoside Rg3 and 20（R）-ginsenoside Rg3 were newly produced after steaming of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The content proportion of these six index components reached the best when the steaming temperature at 130-136 ℃ and the steaming time of 1 h.ConclusionThe color and infrared absorption of samples are affected by the dynamic changes of chemical composition during the steaming process， and the composition change is the result of the joint influence of steaming temperature and time. In this paper， through multi-dimensional analysis of the apparent color indexes， the change pattern of near-infrared absorption characteristics and the index components of the samples， the different process parameters of steamed Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were evaluated holistically， and the quality transfer pattern of its processing process was initially revealed， which can provide scientific basis for processing optimization and quality evaluation of steamed Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study on the suitable cryopreservation conditions of Carthamus tinctorius seeds.MethodThe germination rate，relative conductivity，soluble sugar，soluble protein， and related enzyme activities of C. tinctorius seeds， as well as the hydroxysafflor yellow A （HSYA） content in Carthami Flos after storage and breeding for four months were detected under different temperature conditions （long-term storage，medium-term storage，short-term storage，room temperature，and ultra-low temperature refrigerator），different water content （8.1%，6.6%，5.2%，and 3.9%），and different storage time （2，4，6，8， 10 months）. SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis.ResultDuring the storage for 10 months，the changing trend of the germination rate of C. tinctorius seeds revealed that it was more suitable to store seeds with low water content at a lower temperature. The differences in germination rate of seeds caused by storage temperature，seeds water content， and storage time were statistically significant. After storage for 10 months，the germination rate was significantly correlated with other detection indexes.ConclusionThe proper water content of C. tinctorius seeds in long-term and medium-term storage is 5.2% or 6.6%，and that in short-term and ultra-low temperature refrigerator is 3.9% or 5.2%. As revealed by the comparison results， the optimal storage conditions for C. tinctorius seeds were long-term storage and water content of 5.2%， which resulted in the highest germination rate and content of soluble sugar and soluble protein and the lowest relative conductivity after storage for 10 months. Additionally， the content of hydroxy safflor yellow A （HSYA） in Carthami Flos obtained after breeding and regeneration for four months was higher than that obtained after room temperature storage.
Abstract：Trionycis Carapax is a commonly used Chinese medicine in clinical practice. Modern research on Trionycis Carapax mainly focuses on experimental research and clinical observation， which has been rarely reported in the literature. Based on the literature on medicinal herbs， medical books， prescriptions of all dynasties， this study carried out systematic textual research on the historical evolution and changes of the name， origin， producing areas， quality， efficacy， indications， processing methods， and contraindications of the Trionycis Carapax. As revealed by the textual analysis， the origin of Trionycis Carapax is Trionyx sinensis， and the carapace of T. steindachneri is not suitable for the preparation of Trionycis Carapax. The genuine producing areas of Trionycis Carapax include Yueyang， Jingzhou， southeast Anhui， and western Jiangsu in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river. Regarding the quality， the number of ribs of Trionycis Carapax， such as seven ribs and nine ribs， is often used as the quality evaluation standard in ancient Chinese herbal books. However， through literature research and field inspections on the medicinal material markets， it is not advisable to take rib number as a quality evaluation criterion in modern times. With the change of the times， the efficacy and indications of Trionycis Carapax have gradually expanded on the basis of Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica （Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing）， and later generations widely apply it in internal medicine， surgery， gynecology， pediatrics， etc. It should be noted that the treatment of labor heat and bone steaming by Trionycis Carapax is derived from Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica， not Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs （Yao Xing Lun） mentioned in ancient books such as Amplification on Materia Medica （Ben Cao Yan Yi）. The processing methods of Trionycis Carapax are diverse， which are dominated by traditional vinegar processing. In terms of contraindications， Trionycis Carapax should not be compatible with bauxite and marble and is contraindicated in pregnant women. Those with spleen deficiency， weak stomach， and liver deficiency without heat should use it with caution. This study is expected to provide the basis for radical reform and further development and clinical utilization of Trionycis Carapax.
Keywords：Trionycis Carapax;textual research;origin;quality;efficacy and indications;processing methods
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore medication regularity of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer （NSCLC） and thereby to lay a theoretical basis for clinical medication and drug development.MethodArticles on clinical treatment of intermediate and advanced NSCLC with TCM in the past 40 years were retrieved from CNKI， which were taken the data source. Then the articles were screened to establish a formula database， followed by frequency statistics， association rule analysis， cluster analysis， factor analysis， and complex network construction.ResultA total of 307 eligible articles were screened out， involving 483 formulas. The common syndrome of intermediate and advanced NSCLC was the deficiency of both Qi and Yin， with the common syndrome elements of Qi deficiency， Yin deficiency， phlegm， blood stasis， pathogenic heat （fire）， toxin， and pathogenic dampness. The frequently used medicinals mainly had the functions of tonifying deficiency， clearing heat， resolving phlegm and relieving cough and dyspnea， promoting urination and draining dampness， and activating blood and resolving stasis. The high-frequency medicinals were Astragali Radix， Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome， Ophiopogonis Radix， Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus， and Poria， which were mainly cold， bitter， sweet， and pungent， with tropism at lung， spleen， and stomach. The association rule analysis yielded 17 rules with strong association. Ten common factors were extracted from the factor analysis， and cluster analysis classified the medicinals into 5 groups. Complex network analysis suggested that the core formula was modified Liujunzi Tang and Yiqi Yangyin Jiedu prescription.ConclusionThe treatment principle for intermediate and advanced NSCLC is replenishing Qi and nourishing Yin， invigorating spleen and resolving phlegm， clearing heat and detoxifying， promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. The core combinations new prescription discovered by data mining are of important guiding significance， but they should be further verified in clinical practice and by experiments based on the theory of TCM.
Keywords：non-small cell lung cancer;data mining;traditional Chinese medicine;medication regularity
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Tongbi Jiangu prescription （TBJG） in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis （KOA） based on network pharmacology and molecular docking，and further verify it by cell experiments.MethodThe active components and the corresponding targets of TBJG were screened out according to the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform（TCMSP）. The targets of KOA were obtained from GeneCards，online mendelian inheritance in man（OMIM）， and DrugBank. The common targets of active components of TBJG and KOA were the targets of TBJG against KOA. The active component-target network and protein-protein interaction （PPI） network were constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.2. STRING was used for PPI network analysis. DAVID was used for gene ontology （GO） and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes （KEGG） enrichment analyses. Key targets and core active components were selected for molecular docking by AutoDock. The results of network pharmacology were verified by cell experiments and the pharmacodynamic responses were observed.ResultThe prediction of network pharmacology showed that there were 111 active components of TBJG in the treatment of KOA. The core active components were quercetin，kaempferol， and β-sitosterol，and the key targets were interleukin-1β（IL-1β）， matrix metalloproteinase-3 （MMP-3），and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）. Biological processes （BP） in GO analysis mainly involved inflammatory response，response to lipopolysaccharide，apoptosis signaling pathway，and regulation of DNA activity in binding transcription factor. Cellular components （CC） included plasma membrane protein complex，RNA polymerase Ⅱ transcription factor complex，membrane raft，and serine/threonine protein kinase complex. Molecular functions （MF） were mainly enriched in cytokine receptor binding，nuclear receptor activity，protein domain specific binding，serine hydrolase activity，chemokine receptor binding，and activity of nitric oxide synthase regulator. As revealed by the KEGG analysis， the relevant signaling pathways were nuclear factor（NF）-κB， Janus kinase（JAK）/signal transducer and activator of transcription（STAT）， and Wnt signaling pathways. Molecular docking results showed that the core active components had good binding activities with key targets. The experimental results showed that TBJG could down-regulate IL-1β， MMP-3，TNF-α， and NF-κB p65 expression levels （P<0.05），and up-regulated NF-κB inhibitor（IκB）-α（P<0.05）.ConclusionThe mechanism of TBJG in the treatment of KOA lies in the application of active components such as quercetin，kaempferol， and β-sitosterol with IL-1β，MMP-3， and TNF-α as key targets through the NF-κB，JAK/STAT， and Wnt signaling pathways.
Keywords：Tongbi Jiangu prescription;network pharmacology;knee osteoarthritis;molecular docking;mechanism of action
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the effective components of Periploca forrestii against rheumatoid arthritis（RA）by targeting tumor necrosis factor （TNF）-α based on network pharmacology and experimental verification.MethodThe preliminary research of the research group found that the alcohol extracts of P. forrestii （CDLF and CQAF） had significant anti-RA activities，and 10 monomers with such activities were identified. The anti-RA activities of active monomers，CDLF， and CQAF were compared by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）with interleukin（IL）-6，nitric oxide （NO），IL-1β， and prostaglandin E2（PGE2）as indicators. Network pharmacology was employed to analyze the possible molecular mechanism of P. forrestii against RA. The targeting ability of P. forrestii chemical monomers to TNF-α was verified by TNF-α molecular docking，surface plasmon resonance （SPR）， and TNF-α-induced L929 injury model.ResultELISA showed that the anti-RA activities of CDLF and CQAF were significantly stronger than those of identified 10 active monomers. Network pharmacology analysis showed that the core targets of P. forrestii against RA were signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 （STAT3），TNF， and IL-6. Gene Ontology（GO） analysis revealed collagen catabolism，inflammatory response，positive regulation of nuclear factor kappa-B（NF-κB） transcription factor activity，and positive regulation of B cell proliferation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （EKGG） pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated TNF signaling pathway，phosphoinositide 3-kinase（PI3K）/protein kinase B（Akt） signaling pathway，NF-κB signaling pathway，Toll-like receptor signaling pathway，mitogen-activated protein kinase（MAPK） signaling pathway， etc. Verification experiments by TNF-α molecular docking，SPR， and TNF-α-induced L929 injury model found that CDLF and CQAF had good binding activities and could manifestly antagonize TNF-α. However， the active components separated and identified from CDLF and CQAF did not show the same anti-TNF-α activity.ConclusionThe CDLF and CQAF of P. forrestii may treat RA by targeting TNF-α. The experiments found that the isolated chemical components had weaker binding activity to TNF-α than CDLF and CQAF. Meanwhile，the research group isolated chemical components with a minimum mass fraction of 0.25 ng·g-1 from P. forrestii， which suggested that the active components generated by binding to TNF-α with anti-RA activities were presumedly trace components .
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the potential pharmacological mechanism of Xinmaikang tablets in the treatment of atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease by using network pharmacology and cell experimental validation.MethodThe components of Xinmaikang tablets were searched by BATMAN-TCM database and the active ingredients and potential targets were screened. The atherosclerosis related disease targets were searched in GeneCards and online mendelian inheritance in man（OMIM） disease databases. The therapeutic targets were obtained by mapping the intersection of the tablets and disease targets. Therapeutic targets were uploaded to STRING database to construct protein-protein interaction（PPI） network. Cytoscape software was used to create a "drug-active component-therapeutic target" network map， and a network topology algorithm was used to screen key action targets. David software was used for gene ontology（GO） and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes（KEGG） function enrichment analysis. The key targets of drug therapy were validated by in vitro cell assay.ResultA total of 19 active ingredients， 132 potential targets and 4703 atherosclerotic disease-related target genes of Xinmaikang tablets were retrieved and screened， and 84 intersection targets were obtained. 3 key therapeutic targets of Xinmaikang tablets in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases were screened， including Calmodulin 1（CALM1）， voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C（CACNA1C） and Phosphatidylinositol 4，5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform（PIK3CA）. A total of 313 biological processes， 89 molecular functions and 53 cell components were obtained by GO enrichment. A total of 40 pathways were obtained from KEGG functional enrichment， including purine metabolism， renin secretion， CGMP/PKG signaling pathway and so on. In vitro cell experiment results verified that Xinmaikang tablets can up-regulate the expression of CALM1 and CACNA1C， down-regulate the expression of PIK3CA， so as to inhibit the activity of inflammatory response， and play a therapeutic role in atherosclerotic diseases.ConclusionXinmaikang tablets may treat atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease through betulin， methyleugenol and other compounds， through purine metabolism， renin secretion， cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and other pathways， which acts on CALM1， CACNA1C， PIK3CA and other targets.
Keywords：Xinmaikang tablets;atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease;mechanism of action;network pharmacology;cell experiment
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the material basis and mechanism of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma （NRER）-Agrimoniae Herba （AH）， the herbal pair effective in regulating the liver， invigorating Qi， and calming palpitations， in the treatment of premature ventricular contractions （PVCs） by network pharmacology and molecular docking.MethodThe chemical components and targets of NRER and AH were collected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP） combined with relevant literature. GeneCards，Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man（OMIM），and DrugBank were used to predict the potential targets against PVCs. STRING platform was used for protein-protein interaction （PPI） analysis. Metascape platform was used for Gene Ontology（GO） and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes（KEGG） enrichment analysis. Cytoscape 3.8.0 was used to construct the NRER-AH component-potential target-signaling pathway network. The main target proteins underwent molecular docking to the active components of NRER-AH by AutoDock 4.2.6.ResultThe targets of nine active components in NRER-AH （such as quercetin，kaempferol，and acacetin） against PVCs mainly involved tumor necrosis factor （TNF），mitogen-activated protein kinase 1（MAPK1），and protein kinase B1（Akt1）. The potential targets were mainly enriched in 26 signaling pathways，such as pathways in cancer and the advanced glycosylation end product （AGE）-receptor of advanced glycosylation end product（RAGE） signaling pathway. The results of molecular docking showed that the majority of the active components （92.59%） of NRER-AH had good binding activities with the main target proteins TNF，MAPK1，and Akt1.ConclusionThe active components of NRER-AH can regulate cardiac ion channels，resist inflammation， and combat oxidative stress to treat PVCs through multi-target and multi-pathway interventions. They can also improve symptoms related to depression and anxiety by inhibiting monoamine oxidase activity and protecting nerves from damage. This study is expected to provide research ideas and the theoretical basis for further exploring the material basis and mechanism of NRER-AH in the treatment of PVCs.
Keywords：Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma;Agrimoniae Herba;arrhythmia;network pharmacology;molecular docking
Abstract：Atractylodis Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used clinical Chinese medicine （TCM）， which was first recorded in Shennong Bencaojing （《神农本草经》）. At that time， it was called "Zhu"， which is the general name of Atractylodis Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. After Song dynasty， Atractylodis Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were separated. Atractylodis Rhizoma can be divided into Atractylodes lancea and A. chinensis. In history， A. lancea as authentic， that its quality is better than A. chinensis. However， the quality of Atractylodis Rhizoma was evaluated by the index component atractylodin in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The general results showed that the content of atractylodin in A. lancea was low， even failed to meet the specified standard， and its content in A. chinensis was significantly higher than that in A. lancea. The results were inconsistent with the records of ancient books and documents， and the quality theory of "genuine medicine is the best". It could not reflect the quality advantage of genuine Atractylodis Rhizoma， and may even affect the clinical application and development momentum of genuine medicine. In short， the quality standard of TCM should not only conform to the historical experience， but also have the connotation of modern science and technology， which can stand the test of practice. Based on this， the author intends to sort out relevant laws and regulations， sort out the literature related to the authenticity， composition and efficacy of Atractylodis Rhizoma， and analyze the rationality of the current standard of Atractylodis Rhizoma by integrating the relevant records of historical classics and modern research results， so as to provide a basis for the improvement of the quality standard of Atractylodis Rhizoma.
Abstract：Ovarian cancer （OC） is one of the three major gynecological malignancies. Due to its insidious onset at the early stage，most of OC patients are diagnosed at the advanced stage， making it become one of the most deadly gynecological tumors and thus a hot topic in the field of gynecology and oncology. Guizhi Fulingwan is a classic Chinese herbal compound derived from Synopsis of Golden Chamber （《金匮要略》） for the treatment of abdominal mass in women on account of its efficacy in resolving stasis， generating new blood， and eliminating mass. The articles concerning the treatment of OC with Guizhi Fulingwan were searched from such databases as China National Knowledge Infrastructure （CNKI）， PubMed，Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform， and Chongqing Weipu Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals （VIP） and collated for expounding its action mechanisms， in order to provide ideas for further research on its pharmacological effects，clinical application， and promotion. Clinically，Guizhi Fulingwan has been proved to control the growth of myoma，correct serological indexes，enhance chemotherapy sensitivity and anti-tumor immunity，reduce postoperative recurrence rate， and improve the quality of life of patients. As revealed by experimental research，Guizhi Fulingwan alleviates the pathological state of animal and cell models by promoting mitochondrial apoptosis and tumor immunity，inhibiting vascular factors，inducing cell cycle arrest， and reversing multidrug resistance. Guizhi Fulingwan exerts a certain therapeutic effect on OC through multi-target and multi-channel mechanisms， reflecting the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine in treating OC.
Keywords：Guizhi Fulingwan;ovarian cancer （OC）;clinical application;mechanism;research progress
Abstract：Because the early symptoms of ovarian cancer are not typical and there is a lack of effective screening methods， most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage， which seriously endangers the health of modern women. Platinum-based chemotherapy after tumor reduction is the first choice for patients with advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer， but almost all patients with recurrent ovarian cancer will eventually develop platinum resistance. Therefore， the search for natural， safe， and effective chemotherapeutic sensitizers has become an urgent and important topic in the study of ovarian cancer. With the increasingly extensive application of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） in the treatment of cancer， the research on Chinese herbal monomers is also deepening， and the mechanisms of Chinese herbal monomers in intervening in cisplatin （DDP）-induced resistance of ovarian cancer is becoming increasingly clearer. Based on the research status of Chinese herbal monomers available in many Chinese and English databases， it was found that Chinese herbal monomers were involved in the reversal of DDP-induced resistance of ovarian cancer via many routes， mainly through increasing the intracellular drug concentration， reversing the blocked apoptosis， correcting the abnormal intracellular signaling pathway， enhancing DNA damage and inhibiting DNA repair， regulating intracellular autophagy， and suppressing epithelial mesenchymal transition （EMT）. Chinese herbal monomers weaken the resistance of ovarian cancer to DDP from multiple targets and enhance the toxicity of DDP to ovarian cancer cells in vitro and transplanted tumors in vivo. Therefore， Chinese herbal monomers are expected to become natural sensitizers for ovarian cancer chemotherapy with DDP. However， the current studies on Chinese herbal monomers are still confined to the single experimental type， and their action mechanisms and toxic and side effects remain to be further clarified. The application of Chinese herbal monomers for sensitizing DDP chemotherapy still needs to be verified by multi-target， multi-level experimental studies and large-scale clinical studies in the future.
Abstract：Plant growth regulator （PGR） is mostly a class of chemical synthesis substance with physiological activities similar to plant hormones，which can promote cell elongation，induce vascular differentiation or accelerate tissue aging via regulating the physiological processes such as photosynthesis，respiration，transpiration，signal transduction，substance absorption and operation. PGR has the advantages of small dosage，high efficiency，low toxicity and less residue，and it is widely used in the planting of Chinese medicinal herbs. By consulting the relevant literature published in recent years，this paper briefly summarizes the main types of PGR，e.g.auxins，gibberellins，cytokinins，abscisic acid and ethylene，etc. On the other hand，this article analyzes and sums up the specific applications of PGR in the manufacture of Chinese herbal medicine，for instance，promoting seed germination，improving seed setting rate or fruit setting rate，dwarfing plants，inhibiting reproductive growth，regulating gender differentiation，stimulating fruit falling，enhancing resistance and so on. The problems existing in the practical use of PGR are pointed out，non-differentiation of specific species，unreasonable combination，not paying attention to the operation method，arbitrarily increasing the dose，lack of residue limit standard and reducing the content of some effective components，for example.Meanwhile，some feasible suggestions are put forward.Not only the suitable types of PGR should be selected in a reasonable and standardized manner，but also the appropriate concentration，dosage and period of application should be chosen carefully； the dual effects of PGR on plant growth and active ingredients in medicinal organs should be concerned，so as to improve the yield and avoid the loss of effective components on the basis of ensuring the quality of Chinese medicinal materials； it is necessary to strengthen the registration of PGR in the production of Chinese medicinal materials and establish residue limit standards to provide a monitoring basis for ensuring the safety of Chinese medicine in the future.The scientific use of PGR can promote the increase of agricultural yield and farmers' income，and make the healthy development of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry.
Keywords：plant growth regulator;Chinese medicinal herbs;plant hormone;growth and development
Abstract：Diabetic wound healing disorder，one of the common chronic complications of diabetes，seriously influences the quality of life of patients and even causes disability and death，bringing a heavy burden to the society. Chinese medicine，a unique and precious resource in China，is safe with definite effect. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic wound and the disturbance of antioxidant defense mechanism is among the causes of the lingering diabetic wound. As a vital transcription factor for intracellular redox homeostasis，nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 （Nrf2） regulates oxidative/heterogenous stress and reduces inflammatory responses. Although it is unnecessary for common wound healing，it is of great importance for diabetic wound healing. Many Chinese medicinals and the active ingredients have been found to enhance diabetic wound healing by mechanisms related to activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Targeted activation of Nrf2 by Chinese medicine can alleviate oxidative stress，inflammatory response，and apoptosis in diabetic wound，thereby delaying further exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore，Nrf2 is regarded as a potential target for drugs to boost diabetic wound healing. This study summarizes the relationship between the Nrf2 signaling pathway and diabetic wound and analyzes the mode of action and possible mechanisms of Chinese medicine and its active ingredients in promoting diabetic wound healing through modulating the Nrf2 pathway，which is expected to serve as a reference for developing drugs for diabetic wound based on this pathway.
Abstract：Malignant tumors are currently seriously endangering human health and life， which has become one of the main causes of death in China. In modern Western medicine， they are mainly tackled by surgery， chemotherapy， and radiotherapy， but the death toll continues to rise year by year. At present， most of the anti-tumor chemotherapeutics used in clinical practice have toxic and side effects， affecting the anti-tumor efficacy and the conditions after treatment. Long-term medication will also induce drug resistance， making the good anti-tumor effect difficult to be achieved. With the vigorous development of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， it has played a crucial role in the fight against tumors. It is believed in TCM that "heat toxin" is one of the important causes of tumors. Therefore， the methods of clearing away heat and removing toxin are often emphasized in the treatment of tumors， and the resulting outcomes are satisfactory. There are many Chinese herbs and Chinese herbal compounds classified into the heat-clearing and toxin-removing type. Xihuangwan， a classic heat-clearing prescription， is composed of Calculus Bovis， Moschus， Olibanum， and Myrrh and has the effects of clearing away heat， removing toxin， eliminating edema， and dissipating mass， which is mainly used to treat carbuncle， pustule， scrofula， multiple abscess， and cancer caused by heat-toxin obstruction. In modern clinical practice， it has been employed in patients with lung cancer， breast cancer， gastric cancer， liver cancer， colorectal cancer， and other malignant tumors， especially during the advanced stage， as a routine or adjuvant treatment for alleviating their clinical symptoms and improving their quality of life. The main active components of Xihuangwan are pentacyclic triterpenoids （such as masticinic acids）， volatile oils， steroids （like porcine deoxycholic acid）， and bilirubin， which have been proved effective in anti-tumor. This paper reviewed the prescription source， pharmaceutical research， clinical anti-tumor research， and pharmacological mechanisms of Xihuangwan， which has provided reference for further expanding the anti-tumor applications of Xihuangwan and enhancing its secondary development.
Abstract：As intelligent production of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has been inevitable， informatization and automation of the production process have become the precondition for realizing intelligent manufacturing of TCM， of which the accumulation of critical material attribute and the critical quality attribute are the basis. The study of material properties is of great significance to achieve the quality control of the final product in the process， but there is a lack of systematic induction and summary of the research on the attribute of TCM pills. Therefore， the authors analyzed and summarized the attributes of raw materials， excipients and intermediates in the pill unit process according to the classification of powder properties， rheological properties and texture properties. What’s more， the impact of material attributes on the quality of the final product was summarized. Besides， this review summarized the attribute characterization techniques involved in the pill process and provided some suggestions for the characterization of product quality attributes. Finally， based on the concept of quality by design （QbD）， the authors proposed that the study of material attribute should be combined with process analytical technology （PAT）， and the focus of drug quality control should be moved forward to guide equipment upgrading， so as to realize intelligent continuous manufacturing of TCM pills.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;pills;material attributes;quality by design （QbD）;quality control;intelligent
Abstract：Herb pair， a common form of compounding in Chinese medicinal prescriptions， reflects the experience of pharmacists in clinical medication in the past. It is characterized by simple composition while has the basic characteristics of Chinese medicine compounding. The combination of two medicinal herbs can enhance effect or reduce toxicity. Coptidis Rhizoma （CR） has the effects of clearing heat， drying dampness， purging fire， and removing toxin. Euodiae Fructus （EF） is acrid， bitter， and hot-natured， which can not only warm the Yang Qi in spleen and stomach to dissipate cold and relieve pain， but also descend stomach Qi and prevent vomiting. Furthermore， it can warm the liver and kidney. CR and EF form a typical cold-heat herb pair， which oppose and yet also complement each other. Specifically， their cold and heat natures interact with each other to clear liver fire， harmonize stomach for descending adverse Qi， relieve depression， and dissipate mass. CR clears the intestine and stops dysentery， while EF warms the middle and promotes the circulation of Qi. The combination of them can thus clear heat， dry dampness， and relieve pain. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that CR-EF has not only significant efficacy against digestive system diseases but also good anti-cancer， anti-inflammatory， anti-ulcer， and lipid-lowering activities. Therefore， the article summarized the effect enhancement and toxicity reduction of the herb pair at the levels of cellular molecule， isolated organ， and whole animal， and clarified the mechanism of its pharmacological action. It will provide a theoretical basis for further development and clinical use of the herb pair.
Keywords：Coptidis Rhizoma;Euodiae Fructus;compatibility;mechanism of action;effect enhancing and toxicity reducing
Abstract：Chronic kidney disease （CKD） has become a public health problem worldwide with renal interstitial fibrosis （RIF） serving as the important pathological feature and pathological outcome of various CKD. Therefore， anti-fibrosis therapy has important practical significance for delaying the progression of CKD and improving the prognosis of CKD patients. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a conserved signaling pathway through evolution， which plays a vital role in organ formation， tissue homeostasis， and disease progression during embryonic development. A growing body of research has confirmed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the key signaling pathways in a variety of kidney diseases and its activation is closely related to RIF. RIF is aggravated by the specific regulation of the expression of downstream target genes， such as fibroblasts， zinc finger transcription factor 1 （Snail1）， M2 macrophages， matrix metalloproteinase-7 （MMP-7）， plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 （PAI-1）， and renin-angiotensin system（RAS）， and relieved by targeting the signaling pathways， such as Klotho， Dickkopf-related protein 1 （DKK1）， secreted frizzled-related protein 1 （Sfrp1）， and indocyanine green-001. In addition，the pathological view of RIF in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） coincides with that in western medicine. Based on the etiology and pathogenesis of TCM in the combination of deficiency and excess， TCM regulates fibrosis-promoting mediators by tonifying deficiency， eliminating turbidity， removing the toxin， resolving stasis， and treating both symptoms and root causes in a multi-target， multi-layer， and multi-pathway manner to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and play an important role in renal protection. Therefore， this study reviewed the regulatory mechanism of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in RIF and the protective effect of targeting this signaling pathway on renal function and discussed the potential role of TCM in delaying the progression of RIF， which is expected to provide new targets and strategies for the prevention and treatment of RIF.
Keywords：renal interstitial fibrosis;traditional Chinese medicine;Wnt/β-catenin;signaling pathway;regulation