Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the optimal formula of Maxing Shigantang in regulating epidermal growth factor receptor（EGFR）expression and alleviating airway injury in asthmatic rats and to reveal the underlying mechanism.MethodSD male rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, dexamethasone group (5×10-4 g·kg-1) and Maxing Shigantang 1∶0.5, 1∶1, 1∶2 groups (group A, B, C, 10 g·kg-1), with 8 rats in each group. The other groups except the normal group received nebulization of 2% acetylcholine chloride and 0.4% histamine phosphate for the modeling of asthma. One hour before modeling， the normal group and the model group were given the same amount of normal saline， and the other groups were given the same amount of corresponding drugs， once a day for 7 days. On the 7th day， the model was established and the incubation period of asthma was recorded. The rats were then immediately anesthetized， and arterial blood and tracheal tissue were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） was employed to detect the levels of interleukin-2 （IL-2）， interleukin-4 （IL-4）， and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） in serum. Pathological sections were prepared for the observation of the pathological changes of tracheal tissues and the ultrastructure of epithelial cells in each group. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling （TUNEL） was adopted to detect epithelial cell apoptosis， and in situ hybridization and Western blot were employed to determine the mRNA and protein levels of epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR）， respectively.ResultCompared with the model group， groups A， B and C prolonged the incubation period of asthma （P<0.05，P<0.01）. Compared with the control group， the model group showed declined IL-2 level （P<0.01）， risen IL-4 and TNF-α levels （P<0.05，P<0.01）， increased airway pathology score， collagen volume fraction， and airway epithelial cell apoptosis index （P<0.01）， and up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of EGFR in trachea tissue （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， group A showed increased IL-2 level （P<0.05） and declined IL-4 （P<0.05，P<0.01） level， and group B showed declined IL-4 level （P<0.05）. The level of TNF-α in groups A， B， and C declined compared with that in the model group （P<0.01）. Maxing Shigantang repaired the tracheal tissue to different degrees （P<0.05）. Among the three groups， group A inhibited tracheal fibrosis （P<0.05） and had the most significant effect of repairing the ultrastructural changes of airway epithelial cells. Groups A， B and C all inhibited the apoptosis of airway epithelial cells （P<0.05）. All the three groups inhibited the up-regulation of EGFR mRNA level （P<0.05，P<0.01）， and groups B and C inhibited the up-regulation of EGFR protein level （P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionMaxing Shigantang can inhibit the abnormal changes of airway epithelial structure， alleviate airway injury， and can down-regulate the expression of EGFR in the tracheal tissue of asthma model rats. In this study， the optimal compatibility of Maxing Shigantang to repair airway epithelial injury in asthmatic rats was group A， with the Ephedrae Herba-Armeniacae Semen Amarum-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Gypsum Fibrosum ratio of 1∶0.5∶4∶1.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Huangqisan pellets （HQS） on the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin （PI3K/Akt/mTOR） signaling pathway and autophagy in the kidney of diabetic nephropathy （DN） rats.MethodDN rat model was established through high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin （35 mg·kg-1）. DN rats were randomly assigned into model group， irbesartan （0.027 g·kg-1） group， low-dose HQS （0.54 g·kg-1） group and high-dose HQS （1.08 g·kg-1） group. The levels of 24 h urinary total protein （UTP）， serum albumin （Alb）， serum creatinine （SCr）， urea nitrogen （BUN）， triglyceride （TG） and total cholesterol （TC） were measured after 12 weeks of continuous administration. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed via hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The expression of podocyte split diaphragm proteins nephrin and podocin in the renal tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein levels and phosphorylation of key proteins in PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway， as well as the expression of yeast Atg6 homolog （Beclin1） and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 （LC3） in the renal tissue were analyzed by Western blot.ResultCompared with the control group， the model group showcased increased 24 h UTP， SCr， BUN， TG， and TC levels and decreased Alb level （P<0.01）. After modeling， the rats showed granulosity of epithelial cells of renal tubules， thickening of capillary basement membrane， proliferation of mesangial cells， and sclerosis of glomerulus. Furthermore， modeling down-regulated the expression of nephrin and podocin in the podocyte hiatus of glomerulus （P<0.01） as well as the protein levels of p-PI3K， p-Akt， and p-mTOR and the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin1 in renal tissue （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， irbesartan and HQS decreased the 24 h UTP， Cr， BUN， TG， and TC levels， increased the Alb level， and alleviated the pathological damage of kidney. Moreover， they up-regulated the expression of Nephrin and Podocin in the podocyte hiatus of glomerulus， as well as the protein levels of p-PI3K， p-Akt， p-mTOR， LC3， and Beclin1 in renal tissue （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionHQS may inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway to enhance podocyte autophagy and protect the glomerulus， thus slowing down the development of DN.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Anmeidan （AMD） on the learning and memory ability of sleep-deprived rats and the mechanism.MethodA total of 50 SD rats were randomized into control group， model group， low-dose AMD group （4.55 g·kg-1·d-1）， high-dose AMD group （18.18 g·kg-1·d-1）， and estazolam group （0.09 mg·kg-1·d-1）. Insomnia was induced in rats with the self-made sleep deprivation box （21 days）. The learning and memory ability of rats was measured by Morris water maze. Immunofluorescence method was employed to detect the number of cells expressing N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 （NDRG2） and glial fibrillary acidic protein （GFAP） in hippocampus of rats， real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） to determine the mRNA expression of hippocampal NDRG2， glial glutamate transporter-1 （GLT-1）， and GluNR2A and GluNR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate （NMDA） receptor subunits， and Western blot to examine the protein expression of NDRG2 and GLT-1 in hippocampus.ResultCompared with control group， the model group showed increase in the latency to reach the platform and total swimming distance， significant decrease in the total distance moved in the target quadrant， time in target quadrant， and times of crossing the platform （P<0.01）， rise in the number of cells expressing NDRG2 and GFAP in the hippocampal CA1 region （P<0.01） and the mRNA level of NDRG2 and GluNR2B， reduction in the mRNA level of GLT-1 and GluNR2A， elevation in NDRG2 protein expression （P<0.01）， and decrease in GLT-1 protein expression （P<0.01）. In contrast to the model group， low-dose and high-dose AMD improved the learning and memory levels of sleep-deprived rats （P<0.01）， reduced the number of cells expressing NDRG2 and GFAP （P<0.01）， significantly decreased the mRNA expression of NDRG2 and GluNR2B， increased the mRNA expression of GLT-1 and GluNR2A， reduced NDRG2 protein level （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and raised GLT-1 protein level （P<0.01）.ConclusionAMD can improve the learning and memory ability of sleep-deprived rats. The mechanism is the likelihood that it regulates astrocyte activity， thereby affecting the neurotransmitter level and synaptic plasticity in the brain.
Keywords：Anmeidan;sleep deprivation;learning and memory;astrocytes;excitatory toxicity
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of Anmeidan （AMD） on neuronal structure and neuronal marker protein expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of sleep-deprived （SD） rats.MethodRats were randomly divided into control group， model group， an AMD group （9.09 g·kg-1·d-1）， and melatonin group （0.27 g·kg-1·d-1）. Rats in the control group and the model group received equal volumes of physiologicol saline. The SD model was induced by the self-made sleep deprivation box for four weeks. Ethovision XT system detected and analyzed the spontaneous behaviors of rats. The histomorphology of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region was observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining and Nissl staining， and the changes in Nissl bodies were observed by Nissl staining. The ultrastructure of hippocampal cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy （TEM）. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein （GFAP）， microtubule-associated protein 2 （MAP2）， nestin， and neuronal nuclei （NeuN） in the CA1 region.ResultCompared with the control group， the model group showed longer distance， increased average activity speed， cumulative duration， average body fill， and higher activity frequency （P<0.01）. Besides， the neurons in the CA1 region were reduced in number with disorganized arrangement， wrinkled nuclei， deeply stained cytoplasm， reduced Nissl bodies， swollen and deformed mitochondria， shortened cristae， and swollen Golgi vesicles. Furthermore， the mean integral absorbance （IA） value of GFAP increased and those of MAP2， nestin， and NeuN decreased （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the AMD group showed shortened distance traveled， lower average activity speed， shorter cumulative duration， decreased average body fill， and reduced activity frequency （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Moreover， the neurons in the CA1 region were relieved from damage with increased cell number， clear nuclei and cytoplasm， increased Nissl bodies， and relieved mitochondrial damage. The IA value of GFAP decreased and those of MAP2， nestin， and NeuN increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionAMD can improve structural damage of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of sleep-deprived rats， which may be achieved by decreasing GFAP expression and increasing MAP2， nestin， and NeuN expression.
Keywords：Anmeidan;sleep deprivation;glial fibrillary acidic protein （GFAP）;microtubule-associated protein 2 （MAP2）;nestin;neuronal nuclei （NeuN）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Anmeidan （AMD） on biological rhythm and related protein expression in sleep-deprived rats.MethodA total of 80 SD rats were randomized into control group （Ctrl， equivalent volume of saline）， model group （SD， equivalent volume of saline）， AMD group （9.09 g·kg-1·d-1）， and melatonin group （MT， 0.27 g·kg-1·d-1）. Insomnia was induced in rats by self-made sleep deprivation box （4 weeks）. Circadian rhythm of spontaneous activity was evaluated by spontaneous activity video analysis system. Morphology of hypothalamus was observed based on hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining， and the histomorphology of hypothalamus neurons and the Nissl's bodies based on Nissl staining. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of hypothalamic proteins in cAMP-response element binding protein （CREB）/clock gene period （Per） pathway， and immunohistochemistry the expression of brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 （Bmal1）， Clock， Per1， and cryptochrome circadian regulator 1 （Cry1）.ResultThe model group demonstrated circadian rhythm disorder， as manifested by the significant increase in activity time in 6 designated time periods compared with the control group， and the rise in the activity speed and frequency （P<0.01）. Moreover， model group showed decrease in number of neurons which were sparsely arranged with shrunken or fragmented nuclei， reduction in number and loss of Nissl's bodies with light color， and drop in the relative expression of p-CREB and Per1， and the positive rate of Bmal1， Clock， Per1， and Cry1 （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， AMD group demonstrated reduction in time， speed， and frequency of activity （P<0.01）. Moreover， the AMD group also showed alleviation of neuronal damage （P<0.01）， and increase in the number of neurons with clear nuclei and cytoplasm in some， and the number of Nissl's bodies. AMD raised the expression of p-CREB and Per1 proteins， and the positive rate of Bmal1， Clock， Per1， and Cry1 （P<0.01）.ConclusionAMD ameliorated spontaneous circadian rhythm of sleep-deprived rats by regulating CREB/Per signaling pathway and further increasing the expression of Bmal1， Clock， Per1， and Cry1.
Abstract：Sleep plays an important role in energy balance. As reported， sleep disorder is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases. Controlling the relationship between energy metabolism and sleep can affect sleep homeostasis and body metabolic rate. Chinese medicine， with remarkable curative effects in the prevention and treatment of insomnia， has the characteristics of green， safety， and few side effects， and attracts extensive attention of scholars in the world. In recent years， remarkable progress has been made in the research on the mechanism of Chinese medicine in interfering with sleep. This paper reviewed the research progress of mind-tranquilizing Chinese medicines， such as compounds （pterostilbene）， Chinese medicinal drugs （Ziziphi Spinosae Semen）， and Chinese medicinal prescriptions （Jiaotaiwan， Suanzaoren tang， Tianwang Buxindan， Anmeidan， Banxia Houpotang， Qihuo decoction， Songyu Anshen prescriptions， and Shuxie Yihao prescriptions） in the treatment of sleep disorders by regulating energy metabolism. The findings revealed that Chinese medicine can intervene in the sleep deprivation model by affecting metabolism-related pathways such as material metabolism， mitochondrial function， oxidative stress and inflammatory response， appetite system， and biological clock system. In terms of frequency of use， the top drugs are Ziziphi Spinosae Semen， Poria， Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus， and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma which affect heart and liver meridians to regulate blood circulation， ensure energy supply， and play the role of nourishing the heart and tranquilizing the mind. The present paper summarized the effects and mechanisms of Chinese medicine in the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders from the perspective of energy metabolism to provide references for further research and exploration of diseases in the future.
Abstract：ObjectiveBased on the protective effect of Dengzhan Shengmai capsules （DZSM） on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion （CCH）， network pharmacology was employed to investigate the molecular mechanism.MethodCCH model was established by right common carotid artery ligation. The mice were divided into sham operation group， model group， ginaton group （48 mg·kg-1）， DZSM low- and high-dose groups （0.040 5， 0.162 g·kg-1）. The efficacy was evaluated by the Morris water maze test and open-field test. The underlying mechanism of DZSM for CCH was analyzed by network pharmacology and verified by molecular biology experiments. PubChem， GeneCards， Metascape and other databases were used for targets collection and enrichment analysis. Besides， the association of ingredients targets of DZSM with disease targets of CCH， core target network and chemical components-core targets-pathways network were constructed by STRING 11.0 and Cytoscape 3.7.1.ResultThe escape latency of CCH mice significantly shortened on the 3rd to 5th day after DZSM low-dose treatment， the crossing times， time spent in the target quadrant， movement distance and distance in the central region of CCH mice significantly increased after DZSM low-dose and high-dose treatment. The results of network pharmacology indicated that DZSM might play a key role by regulating inflammatory response， phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） signaling pathway， cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction， tumor necrosis factor （TNF） signaling pathway， blood circulation， angiogenesis， extracellular matrix and other related biological processes and pathways， and acting as targets such as interleukin-6 （IL-6）， TNF， insulin-like growth factor 1 （IGF1）， vascular endothelial growth factor A （VEGFA）， epidermal growth factor （EGF）. The results of biological experiments showed that DZSM could reduce the expression of IL-6 in brain tissue of CCH mice.ConclusionDZSM provides a protective effect during CCH， and its multi-component， multi-pathway， multi-target mechanism is also revealed， which provides a basis for further study of the mechanism.
Keywords：network pharmacology;Dengzhan Shengmai capsules;chronic cerebral hypoperfusion;ligation of right common carotid artery;pharmacodynamic evaluation;molecular mechanism;interleukin-6 （IL-6）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Guiqi Baizhu prescription （GQBZ） combined with oxaliplatin on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR） and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 （VEGFR2） and angiogenesis in gastric cancer-bearing mice.MethodThe tumor-bearing model of gastric cancer was induced in Kunming mice. The mice were randomly divided into blank group， model group， oxaliplatin group （10 mg·kg-1）， and high- （17.68 g·kg-1）， medium- （8.84 g·kg-1）， and low-dose （4.42 g·kg-1） combination groups （GQBZ combined with oxaliplatin）. After the last administration， the transplanted tumor was collected and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining was used to observe the morphological changes of tumor tissues. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） was used to detect the serum content of epidermal growth factor （EGF）， interleukin-8 （IL-8）， and vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF）. Western blot and immunohistochemistry （IHC） were used to detect the expression of EGFR， phosphorylated EGFR （p-EGFR）， VEGFR2， phosphorylated VEGFR2 （p-VEGFR2）， and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule （CD31）. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） was used to detect the mRNA expression of EGFR and VEGFR2.ResultThe tumor weight in the drug intervention groups was significantly lower than that in the model group （P<0.01）. Compared with the oxaliplatin group， the high- and medium-dose combination groups showed reduced tumor weight （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The tumor cells in the model groups were high in cell density and regular in shape， and no clear tissue necrosis was seen. The tumor cell density in the drug intervention groups was reduced， and clear tissue necrosis and large-scale inflammatory cells were visible. Compared with the blank group， the model group and the drug intervention groups showed increased serum levels of EGF， VEGF， and IL-8 （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the drug intervention groups showed decreased serum levels of EGF， VEGF， and IL-8 （P<0.01）， reduced protein expression of EGFR， p-EGFR， VEGFR2， p-VEGFR2， and CD31， and declining mRNA expression of EGFR and VEGFR （P<0.01）. Compared with the oxaliplatin group， the high- and medium-dose combination groups showed decreased serum levels of EGF， VEGF， and IL-8 （P<0.05， P<0.01）， reduced protein expression of EGFR， p-EGFR， VEGFR2， p-VEGFR2， and CD31， and dwindled mRNA expression of EGFR and VEGFR2 （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The low-dose combination group showed decreased serum levels of EGF， VEGF， and IL-8， reduced protein expression of EGFR， p-EGFR， VEGFR2， p-VEGFR2， and CD31， and dwindled mRNA expression of EGFR and VEGFR2， but the difference was not statistically significant.ConclusionGQBZ combined with oxaliplatin can inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of tumor tissues in gastric cancer-bearing mice by affecting the expression of EGFR and VEGFR2.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 on the release of inflammatory factors of human myeloid leukemia monocytes （THP-1） induced by lipopolysaccharide （LPS） and their protective effects on the inflammatory injury of intestinal epithelial cells （Caco-2） induced by THP-1 cell activation based on the co-culture system of THP-1 and Caco-2.MethodFirstly，the microfluidic chip of co-culture of THP-1 and Caco-2 cells was prepared. In the experiment， a blank group， an LPS group， and drug intervention groups were set up.The cells in the blank group were cultured conventionally. In the LPS group，LPS （1 mg·L-1） was added to the lower THP-1 cells after the upper Caco-2 cells formed a monolayer barrier. On the basis of the LPS group， 33 mg·L-1 ginsenoside Rg1 and 33 mg·L-1 ginsenoside Rb1 were added to THP-1 cells respectively. After the co-culture of THP-1 cells and Caco-2 cells for 24 hours， the fluorescein isothiocyanate （FITC）-Dextran fluorescence value in the lower chip channel was detected by FITC-Dextran tracer method. A blank group， an LPS group，and drug intervention groups were set up in the THP-1 cell experiment. THP-1 cells in the blank group were cultured conventionally. In the LPS group， LPS （1 mg·L-1） was added to THP-1 cells.Ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of the corresponding doses （11，33，100 mg·L-1） were added to the drug intervention groups respectively on the basis of the LSP group. After 24 hours of cell culture， the activity of THP-1 cells was detected by cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8）. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） was used to detect the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 （IL-6）， interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， and tumor necrosis factor （TNF）-α of THP-1 cells. A blank group， an LPS group， and drug intervention groups were set up in the Caco-2 cell experiment. Caco-2 cells in the blank group were cultured conventionally， and in other groups， the corresponding cell supernatant in the second part of the THP-1 cell experiment was employed in Caco-2 cells. After 24 hours of cell culture，the activity of Caco-2 cells was detected by CCK-8. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of IL-6，interleukin-8 （IL-8）， TNF-α， and Occludin of Caco-2 cells. The expression of tight junction protein Occludin in Caco-2 cells was detected by Western blot.ResultBoth ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 could effectively protect LPS-induced intestinal epithelial barrier permeability in the co-culture system of THP-1 and Caco-2 cells （P<0.01）. Ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 antagonized LPS-induced increased expression of IL-6，IL-1β， and TNF-α in THP-1 cells （P<0.05）. When the supernatant of THP-1 cells treated with ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 was co-cultured with Caco-2 cells， the expression of IL-6，IL-8， and TNF-α in Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced （P<0.01）， and the expression of tight junction protein Occludin was up-regulated.ConclusionIn the co-culture system of THP-1 and Caco-2 cells simulating the intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro，ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 play a protective role against LPS-induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury by regulating the release of inflammatory cytokines by THP-1 cells， thereby regulating the inflammatory response and cell barrier integrity of Caco-2 cells.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the possible molecular mechanism of baicalein （BAI）-mediated focal adhesion kinase （FAK） in the regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） signaling pathway to inhibit the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer HGC-27 cells.MethodThe gastric epithelial GES-1 cells and gastric cancer HGC-27 cells were respectively treated with BAI （0， 5， 15， 25， and 50 μmol·L-1） for 48 h， and then methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium （MTT） assay was adopted to detect effect of BAI on cell proliferation. Western blot （WB） was employed to detect the expression of FAK and the proteins related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition （EMT） and PI3K signaling pathway after intervention with different concentrations of BAI. The HGC-27 cells stably overexpressing FAK were constructed with lentivirus-mediated transfection technique， and the transfection of FAK was detected through WB and green fluorescent protein （GFP）. The cells were divided into empty vector （NC） group， BAI group， FAK overexpression group， and BAI-treated FAK overexpression group， and cell proliferation activity was detected by MTT assay. The colony formation and cell migration were observed via colony formation assay and Transwell migration assay， respectively. The expression of proteins involved in EMT and PI3K signaling pathways were detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with the NC group， BAI （15， 25 and 50 μmol·L-1） inhibited the proliferation of HGC-27 cells in a dose-dependent manner （P<0.05， P<0.01） while did not affect that of GES-1 cells. BAI （5， 15 and 25 μmol·L-1） down-regulated the expression level of p-FAK （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with NC group， FAK overexpression group showed up-regulated expression level of FAK in HGC-27 cells. The HGC-27 cells in both NC group and FAK overexpression group had green fluorescence. Compared with NC group， BAI inhibited the growth， colony formation， and migration， while FAK overexpression promoted those of HGC-27 cells. The treatment of FAK overexpression group with BAI inhibited the enhancement of cell proliferation and migration （P<0.05）. WB showed that compared with NC group， BAI （15， 25 μmol·L-1） significantly up-regulated the expression of E-cadherin protein and down-regulated that of Vimentin， Snail， p-PI3K， and p-Akt protein in HGC-27 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with NC group， FAK overexpression group showed down-regulated expression of E-cadherin， up-regulated expression of p-FAK， Vimentin， and Snail， and increased ratios of p-FAK/FAK， p-PI3K/PI3K and p-Akt/Akt （P<0.05）. This phenomenon would be reversed after BAI treatment.ConclusionBAI can affect the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer HGC-27 cells by mediating FAK to regulate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate inhibitory effect of extracts from Veronica peregrina （EVP） on the osteoclastic bone metastasis induced by breast cancer cells.MethodBone metastasis model was established by injection of MDA-MB-231 cells， a human breast cancer cell line， into the left ventricle of BALB/c nude mice. The expression of human cytokeratin-19 （Ck-19） gene in mouse bone marrow was determined by nested polymerase chain reaction（PCR） to assess the bone metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. To assess the effects of EVP on the activation of bone marrow macrophages （BMMs）， we counted the multinuclear cells and measured the secretion of Cathepsin K. Western blot was adopted to assess the effects of EVP on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB （RANK）， Runt-related transcription factor 2 （ Runx2 ）， phosphorylated Runx2 （p-Runx2）， and matrix metalloproteinase-9 （MMP-9） in BMMs. Gelatin zymography was employed to determine the activities of matrix metalloproteinases （MMPs）.ResultCompared with that in the blank group， Ck-19 expression was down-regulated in EVP groups （P<0.05）. The multinucleated cells increased when the BMMs were induced by soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand （sRANKL）， which was inhibited by EVP （P<0.05）. The level of cathepsin K in the supernatant of sRANKL group increased compared with that of the blank group， while EVP groups had lower cathepsin K levels than sRANKL group （P<0.05）. Compared with the blank group， the sRANKL group showed up-regulated RANK expression， Runx2 phosphorylation， and MMP-9 expression （P<0.05）， while the expression levels of RANK， p-Runx2， and MMP-9 were down-regulated when the cells were incubated with EVP （P<0.05）. Furthermore， exposure of BMMs to sRANKL resulted in an increase in gelatin hydrolyzation compared with the blank group （P<0.01）， which， however， was reversed in EVP groups （P<0.05）.ConclusionEVP significantly inhibits bone marrow metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells， which may be associated with the suppression of osteoclast activation by inhibiting Runx2 phosphorylation.
Keywords：Veronica peregrina;osteoclastic bone metastasis;breast cancer;Runt-related transcription factor 2 （ Runx2 ）;receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB （RANK）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the therapeutic effect of Xuebijing injection （XBJ） on sodium taurocholate （Na-Tc）-induced severe acute pancreatitis （SAP） in rats.MethodForty rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups： sham operation group， SAP model group， and low-， medium-， and high-dose （4， 8， 12 mL·kg·d-1， respectively） XBJ groups. SAP model was established by retrograde injection of Na-Tc （1 mL·kg-1） into the biliary and pancreatic ducts. XBJ was injected intraperitoneally 3 days before and 0.5 h after modeling. The ascitic fluid volume and the pancreas weight-to-body weight ratio were measured. The pathological changes of pancreatic tissue were observed via hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The protein levels of formyl peptide receptor 1 （FPR1） and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 （NLRP3） in pancreatic tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was employed to determine the expression levels of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chains 1-6 （MT-ND1， MT-ND2， MT-ND3， MT-ND4， MT-ND5， and MT-ND6） in rat plasma.ResultCompared with sham operation group， the SAP model group showcased increased ascitic fluid volume and pancreas weight-to-body weight ratio （P<0.05）， serious lesions in pancreatic tissue， increased total pathological score （P<0.05）， and up-regulated protein levels of FPR1 and NLRP3 in pancreatic tissue （P<0.05）. The model group had lower MT-ND2 level （P<0.05） and higher MT-ND1， MT-ND3， and MT-ND6 levels in plasma （P<0.05） than the sham operation group， while MT-ND4 and MT-ND5 had no significant differences between the two groups. Compared with SAP model group， the XBJ treatment decreased ascitic fluid volume and pancreas weight-to-body weight ratio （P<0.01）， ameliorated pancreatic lesions， and down-regulated the protein levels of FPR1 and NLRP3 in pancreatic tissue （P<0.01）. The treatments， especially high-dose XBJ （P<0.01）， down-regulated the expression of MT-ND1 （P<0.01）， MT-ND3 （P<0.01）， MT-ND6 （P<0.01）， and MT-ND4 and did not change that of MT-ND5.ConclusionXBJ may antagonize partial mitochondrial N-formyl peptides and excessive inflammatory response mediated by FPR1/NLRP3 to treat SAP in rats.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the long-term safety of triptolide ferulic acid ethosome gel in percutaneous administration.MethodWe mixed triptolide with ferulic acid to make liposomes gel in different doses and then administrated the gel to SD rats of both sexes with intact skin and damaged skin for 12 weeks. The daily dosages calculated based on triptolide for the low-， middle-， and high-dose groups were 63.75， 127.50， 255.00 μg·kg-1， respectively. The body weight of each rat was measured weekly. The rats were sacrificed in the last week for the determination of serum biochemical parameters and organ indexes as well as the observation of histopathology. The toxicity was assessed based on the body weight and all the parameters and indexes.ResultAfter long-term administration， the body weight and serum biochemical parameters did not show significant difference between the gel-treated groups and the blank group with intact skin， which indicated that the percutaneous administration of triptolide and ferulic acid ethosomes gel was relatively safe. However， the rats in the high-dose group showed sparse hair and were easy to die in the case of unhairing with chloral hydrate at the late stage of the study. Comprared with the female rats with intact skin in the blank control group， the female rats with damaged skin in the middle-dose group showed decreased heart index （P<0.05）， which indicated certain cardiotoxicity. Moreover， damage appeared in skin and lung， which may be influeneced by dosage， sex， and skin state.ConclusionFerulic acid in combination with triptolide is relatively safe for percutaneous administration， whereas there are some risks of skin and lung damage in the case of long-term administration. Individualized administration scheme should be developed according to liver and kidney function and skin conditons to ensure the safety of clinical medication.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and mechanism of Mori Folium extract on the glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in the liver of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus （T2DM） through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor α/carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 （PI3K/Akt/PPARα/CPT-1） signaling pathway.MethodThe T2DM model was induced by the high-fat diet combined with the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin （STZ）. The model rats were randomly divided into a model group， a metformin （0.2 g·kg-1） group， and a Mori Folium water extract （4.0 g·kg-1） group according to blood glucose and body weight. In the 8-week administration， fasting blood glucose was measured at the same time every week. The histomorphological and fat changes in the rat liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining and oil red O staining. The levels of total cholesterol （TC）， triglyceride （TG）， low-density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C）， high-density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C）， alanine aminotransferase （ALT）， and aspartate aminotransferase （AST） in the serum were measured by biochemical methods. Western blot （WB） was used to quantitatively detect the protein expression of p-PI3K，PI3K，p-Akt，Akt，PPARα，and CPT-1 in the rat liver.ResultAfter 8-week administration， the blood glucose of rats was higher in the model group than that in the control group （P<0.01）， and lower in the Mori Folium water extract group than that in the model group （P<0.01）. The results of HE staining showed that the liver tissue structure of the control group was complete， and the hepatocytes were arranged radially around the central vein， while the hepatocyte injury in the model group was obvious. Compared with the model group， the Mori Folium water extract group showed improved vacuolar degeneration and no lesions such as small bile duct hyperplasia. Oil red O staining showed that there was no obvious steatosis and necrosis in the hepatocytes of rats in the control group， and no lipid droplets in the hepatocytes were observed， while the model group showed increased lipid droplets. Mori Folium significantly reduced the lipid droplets in the liver. Biochemical analysis showed that the levels of TC， TG， LDL-C， AST， and ALT in the model group were significantly higher than those in control group （P<0.01）. The levels of TC， TG， LDL-C， AST， and ALT in the Mori Folium water extract group were significantly lower than those in the model group （P<0.05，P<0.01）. WB showed that the protein expression of p-PI3K/PI3K， p-Akt/Akt， PPARα， and CPT-1 in the model group were lower than those in the control group （P<0.01）. Mori Folium water extract could increase the protein expression of p-PI3K/PI3K， p-Akt/Akt， PPARα， and CPT-1 （P<0.05 or P<0.01）.ConclusionThe hypoglycemic mechanism of Mori Folium water extract may be related to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/PPARα/CPT-1 signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Jiangzhi Tongluo soft capsule on the protein levels of silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 （SIRT1） and forkhead transcription factor FoxO3 and podocyte apoptosis in the renal tissue of rats with membranous nephropathy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for the treatment of MN.MethodSixty male SD rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups with 10 rats each. The six groups included a normal group， a model group， benazepril hydrochloride group， and Jiangzhi Tongluo soft capsule groups of low， medium and high doses （25， 50， 100 mg·kg-1， respectively）. The model rats were established by injection with cationized bovine serum albumin into the tail vein. After modeling， the rats were administrated with corresponding agents by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of the 4th week， an electron microscope was used to observe the pathological changes in the kidney. Western blot was employed to detect the protein levels of SIRT1 and FoxO3 protein in rat kidney， and immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of B lymphocytoma-2 （Bcl-2）， Bcl-2-associated X protein （Bax）， Bcl-2-associated death promoter （Bad）， and podocyte split diaphragm proteins nephrin and podocin.ResultCompared with normal group， the expression of pro-apoptotic factors Bax， Bad， and FoxO3 in the kidney was up-regulated （P<0.05）， while that of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2， SIRT1， nephrin， and podocin was down-regulated （P<0.05） after modeling. Compared with the model group， the treatments down-regulated the expression of Bax， Bad， and FoxO3 （P<0.05） and up-regulated that of Bcl-2， SIRT1， nephrin， and podocin （P<0.05）.ConclusionJiangzhi Tongluo soft capsule may regulate the SIRT1/FoxO3 pathway to reduce podocyte apoptosis and maintain podocyte structure stability， thereby exerting the renal protection effect.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Jiawei Xiaochaihutang combined with microwave ablation （MWA） in the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma （HCC） and its influence on tumor microenvironment.MethodA total of 128 patients were randomly divided into control group （64 cases： 2 cases of dropout，2 cases of elimination，and 60 cases of completion） and observation group （64 cases： 3 cases of dropout，2 cases of elimination，and 59 cases of completion）. Both groups were given comprehensive treatment after MWA surgery. Patients in control group took Biejiajian Wan orally （3 g/time，3 times/d）， and those in observation group took Jiawei Xiaochaihutang （1 dose/d）. The treatment lasted for 3 consecutive months. The size of solid tumor before and after treatment was evaluated to record the progression-free survival （PFS）. The alpha-fetoprotein-L13 （AFP-L3），des-γ-carboxy prothrombin （DCP），Golgi protein 73 （GP73），tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α），transforming growth factor-β （TGF-β），vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF） and matrix metalloproteinase-2 （MMP-2） levels，as well as performance status （PS），liver function and syndrome of liver depression and Qi stagnation scores were also detected before and after treatment. In addition， the incidence of side effects of grade Ⅲ and above was compared.ResultThe total effective rate of solid tumor in observation group was 91.53% （54/59），higher than that （76.67%， 46/60） in control group（χ2=4.895，P<0.05）. The PFS in observation group was （7.16±0.95） months， longer than that （6.24±0.89 months） in control group （P<0.01）. The effective rate of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndrome in observation and control groups were 88.14% （52/59）and 70.00% （42/60）， respectively （χ2=5.897，P<0.05）. The observation group （57.63%，34/59） had higher marked effective rate of TCM syndrome than control group （31.67%，19/60） （χ2=8.116，P<0.01）. The AFP-13，DCP，GP73，TNF-α，TGF-β，VEGF and MMP-2 levels and the PS，liver function and syndrome of liver depression and Qi stagnation scores in observation group were lower than those in control group （both P<0.01）. The cumulative incidence of side effects of grade Ⅲ and above in observation and control groups was 16.95% and 33.33%， respectively（χ2=4.261，P<0.05）.ConclusionConsolidation treatment of HCC after MWA surgery with Jiawei Xiaochaihutang relieved symptoms and side effects，improved PS and liver function，regulated tumor microenvironment，inhibited tumor markers and prolonged survival time. The clinical effect was better than that of Biejia decoction pill， and thus it was worthy of clinical use.
Keywords：primary hepatocellular carcinoma （HCC）;syndrome of liver depression and Qi stagnation;Jiawei Xiaochaihutang;consolidation treatment;tumor microenvironment
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of Maxingshigantang enema in the treatment of infant viral pneumonia by comparing related indicators， and comprehensively evaluate the effect of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） enema on the intestinal microenvironment.MethodSixty infants with viral pneumonia were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups. The dosage of enema drugs in high- （0.117 g·mL-1） and low-concentration （0.07 g·mL-1） TCM enema groups was same （3.5 g per time）， and the control group received normal saline enema， once a day for 7 days. Finally， the curative effect， total symptom score， salivary secretory immunoglobulin A （sIgA）， human beta defensin 2 （hBD2） and fecal calprotectin （CALP） of each group were statistically analyzed by SPSS 21.0， and the clinical efficacy of TCM enema in treating children with pneumonia and asthma was comprehensively evaluated.ResultThe curative effect of high-concentration TCM enema group （total effective rate 100%， χ2=7.059） was equivalent to that of low-concentration TCM enema group （total effective rate 95%， χ2=4.329）， higher than that of control group （total effective rate 70%） （P<0.017）. After treatment， compared with control group and low-concentration TCM enema group， high-concentration TCM enema group had higher total symptom score of children （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The proportion of coccobacillus was reduced in three groups， with high- and low-concentration TCM enema groups lower than control group （P<0.05）. The salivary sIgA concentration was increased in three groups （P<0.05）， with high-concentration TCM enema group higher than the other groups （P<0.01）. The hBD2 concentration was decreased in three groups， with high- and low-concentration TCM enema groups lower than control group （P<0.05）. The three groups reduced the fecal CALP concentration， and high-concentration TCM enema group had the highest reduction， followed by low-concentration TCM enema group （P<0.01）.ConclusionTCM enema outweighs western medicine in improving clinical symptoms， intestinal flora， and mucosal immune function， and reducing inflammation in children， and the high-concentration TCM enema group has better curative effect. Therefore， with easiness to operate， high compliance， and significant therapeutic effect， TCM enema is worthy of clinical promotion.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the quality variation of Lonicera japonica flower from different harvesting periods by ultraviolet visible（UV-Vis） fingerprint combined with chemometrics.MethodTwenty-five L. japonica flower samples from five harvesting periods， including young bud stage，green bud stage，white bud stage，silver and golden flower stages， were collected， with five samples for each stage. UV-Vis fingerprints of L. japonica flower from different harvesting periods were established in the context of the optimum extraction method based on the single factor experiment. The results showed that the absorption values at 209，216，226，250，280，303，318， and 350 nm were significantly different. Moreover，after data pretreatment and normalization，multivariate statistical analyses， such as principal component analysis （PCA），partial least squares discriminant analysis （PLS-DA），and orthogonal PLS-DA （OPLS-DA）were performed by SIMCA-P+ to establish the quality variation model of L. japonicas flower from harvesting periods.ResultAs revealed by PCA and PLS-DA， L. japonicas flower samples from five harvesting periods were clustered separately and closely in a harvesting time-dependent manner， suggesting that the content of components contained in samples from different harvesting periods was highly distinct and correlated with harvesting periods. The pairwise comparison of OPLS-DA indicated that triterpenoids or volatile oils were the main components causing the changes from the young bud stage to the green bud stage，and the content of them decreased. The main components from the green bud stage to the white bud stage were triterpenoids （or iridoids），volatile oils，phenolic acids， or flavonoids，and the content of them decreased， which was consistent with the HPLC result of chlorogenic acid. From the white bud stage to the silver flower stage， the main components were iridoids （increasing in content） and triterpenoids （or volatile oils） （decreasing in content）. The main altered components from the silver flower stage to the golden flower stage were triterpenoids （or volatile oils） whose content increased.ConclusionThis method is simple and feasible， which can provide references for the quality control of Chinese medicine.
Keywords：ultraviolet visible（UV-Vis） fingerprint;chemometrics;Lonicera japonica;different harvesting periods
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the content difference of gallic acid，protocatechuic acid，catechin，total flavonoids， and total polysaccharides in Cynomorii Herba between different producing areas and the correlation between effective components and environmental factors.MethodNinety-five batches of Cynomorii Herba samples were collected from 12 major producing areas in five provinces （autonomous regions）， including Gansu，Inner Mongolia，Xinjiang，Qinghai， and Ningxia，and the geographical-climatic factors such as altitude，longitude and latitude，climate type，annual average frost-free period，annual rainfall，annual sunshine hours，annual average temperature， and annual average evaporation were recorded. The content of gallic acid，protocatechuic acid， and catechin in Cynomorii Herba was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography （HPLC），and the mathematical model of the correlation between the content of chemical components and environmental factors was optimized and established.ResultPearson correlation analysis showed that protocatechuic acid content in Cynomorii Herba increased with the increase in annual average frost-free period and annual average temperature， and catechin content increased with the increase in the annual average frost-free period，annual sunshine hours， and annual average evaporation，while total polysaccharides content decreased with the increase in altitude. Redundancy analysis （RDA） showed that the annual average frost-free period， annual average evaporation，annual sunshine hours， and altitude had great influences on the content of effective components in Cynomorii Herba. Curve fitting showed that the optimal conditions for the growth of Cynomorii Herba were as follows： altitude of 800-2 000 m，annual average frost-free period of 80-110 d， annual rainfall of 110-300 mm，annual sunshine hours of 2 400-3 000 h， annual average temperature of 2.2-8.8 ℃，and annual average evaporation of 1 700-2 500 mm.ConclusionThe content of effective components in Cynomorii Herba is diverse in terms of producing areas and shows a clear response rule to environmental factors. The areas suitable for growing and artificial cultivation introduction are those with high altitude，short annual average frost-free period，low annual rainfall，large average evaporation，long sunshine hours， and low annual average temperature.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Dendrobium huoshanense in the treatment of gastric ulcer （GU） based on network pharmacology and in vivo experiment.MethodThe active components of D. huoshanense were searched from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP） and literature， and the targets of the components were screened from TCMSP and SwissTargetPrediction. GU-related genes were retrieved from GeneCards， Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM）， and DisGeNET. Thereby， the common targets of the disease and the medicinal were yielded and the protein-protein interaction （PPI） network was constructed， followed by Gene Ontology （GO） term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment. According to the predicted results， hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining， immunohistochemistry， enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）， Western blot， and real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） were used to validate the effects of D. huoshanense on acetic acid-induced GU in rats.ResultA total of 63 active components of D. huoshanense and 37 target genes of D. huoshanense for the treatment of GU were screened out. PPI network analysis yielded several possible core anti-GU targets of D. huoshanense. They influenced the development of GU by acting on signaling pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）， hypoxia inducible factor-1 （HIF-1）， tumor necrosis factor （TNF）， and nuclear factor-κB （NF-κB）， and various biological processes. The in vivo experiment showed that D. huoshanense significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， and TNF-α in the serum of model rats （P<0.05， P<0.01）， increased gastric blood flow （GBF） at the ulcer margin， raised the expression of epidermal growth factor （EGF） and epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR） at the ulcer margin （P<0.01）， significantly down-regulated protein and mRNA expression of PI3K and Akt， and up-regulated protein and mRNA expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten （PTEN） in the gastric tissues of GU rats （P<0.01）.ConclusionThrough regulating EGFR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway， D. huoshanense can inhibit tissue inflammation， increase gastric microcirculatory blood flow at the ulcer margin， and promote cell proliferation and repair of damaged gastric mucosa.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo preliminarily predict the active components， targets， and signaling pathways of modified Shengjiangsan in the treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy （IgAN） based on network pharmacology， and to explore its underlying mechanism through molecular docking and experimental verification on animals.MethodThe active ingredients and related targets of modified Shengjiangsan were obtained from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform（TCMSP）， UniProt， SwissTargetPrediction， and literature review. IgAN-related targets were obtained from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM）. Cytoscape 3.9.0 was used to construct the regulation network of the related targets of Shengjiangsan and IgAN， and the protein-protein interaction （PPI） network was plotted by STRING. The common genes were analyzed for gene ontology （GO） functional annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes（KEGG） pathway enrichment by Metascape. Key targets and main active ingredients were selected for molecular docking by AutoDockTools 1.5.6. The experimental model of IgAN was induced by bovine serum albumin（BSA， ig） combined with lipopolysaccharide （LPS， iv） and the complex of CCl4 and castor oil （sc） in rats. The model rats were treated with modified Shengjiangsan and benazepril hydrochloride for four weeks. The rats were sacrificed after drug administration. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 （TGF-β1） and interleukin-6 （IL-6） in the serum and kidney tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA）， immunohistochemistry， Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）， and Western blot.ResultA total of 105 active ingredients were obtained according to oral bioavailability（OB）， drug-likeness（DL）， and literature screening. There were 124 common genes and 59 core targets. Neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 （NTRK1）， cullin-3 （CUL3）， tumor protein 53 （TP53）， epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR）， exportin 1 （XPO1）， and other targets might be closely related to IgAN. As predicted by KEGG enrichment analysis， the treatment of IgAN with modified Shengjiangsan mainly involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt） signaling pathway， nuclear transcription factor-kappa B （NF-κB） signaling pathway， and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway. As revealed by molecular docking， the main active ingredients in modified Shengjiangsan showed stable binding activities with NTRK1， CUL3， TP53， EGFR， and XPO1 in the core targets， indicating that it presumedly regulated inflammatory responses by affecting NTRK1， CUL3， TP53， EGFR， and XPO1 target proteins. The results of experimental verification on animals showed that the expression levels of cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the serum and kidney tissues of IgAN rats were significantly decreased by modified Shengjiangsan， suggesting that Shengjiangsan might inhibit excessive fibrosis， and inflammatory and immune responses by regulating signaling pathways such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction， PI3K/Akt， and NF-κB.ConclusionModified Shengjiangsan may treat IgAN through multiple targets and pathways. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of excessive fibrosis， and inflammatory and immune responses by affecting the expression of NTRK1， CUL3， TP53， EGFR， and XPO1 and the regulation of the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction， PI3K/Akt， NF-κB， and other signaling pathways.
Keywords：modified Shengjiangsan;immunoglobulin A nephropathy （IgAN）;network pharmacology;molecular docking;animal experiments
Abstract：ObjectiveTo predict the molecular mechanism of resveratrol against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease （NAFLD） based on network pharmacology and molecular docking and verify the results on the liver cell model induced by PM2.5 exposure.MethodThe targets of resveratrol were screened out from Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP）， PubChem， DrugBank， and SwissTargetPrediction， and the potential targets of NAFLD were retrieved from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database （CTD）， DisGeNET， GeneCards， and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM）. Then the common targets were obtained. STRING 11.5 was used to construct the protein-protein interaction （PPI） network of the common targets. Cytoscape 3.8.2 was used to plot the “target-pathway” network， and the core modules and key targets were selected. Metascape was adopted for Gene Ontology （GO） and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes （KEGG） enrichment analyses of common targets. SYBYL-X 2.0 was used for molecular docking of resveratrol to key targets. Finally，cell apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins were detected by flow cytometry and Western blot in the PM2.5-exposed human liver cell line （HepG2）.ResultA total of 115 common targets of resveratrol and NAFLD were obtained. The key targets included tumor necrosis factor （TNF）， B-cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）， and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3（Caspase-3）. As revealed by KEGG enrichment analysis， 174 signaling pathways， represented by the apoptosis and TNF signaling pathways， were obtained. Molecular docking results showed that resveratrol had strong binding activities to Bcl-2 and Caspase-3. Furthermore，the results of flow cytometry and Western blot demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited cell apoptosis of PM2.5-exposed HepG2 cells by regulating the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3.ConclusionResveratrol can treat NAFLD in a multi-pathway and multi-target way. It mainly inhibits liver cell apoptosis by affecting the expression of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3， which provides a theoretical basis for the follow-up research on the anti-NAFLD mechanism of resveratrol.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo predict the therapeutic target genes and related signaling pathways of Qinghuangsan （QHP） in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia （AML） by network pharmacology，molecular docking，and further clarify its mechanisms through in vitro cell experiment.MethodThe active components and targets of QHP were retrieved from traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform （TCMSP），traditional Chinese medicine integrated database （TCMID），TargetNet and SwissTargetPrediction databases，and AML-related target genes were obtained by GeneCards and online mendelian inheritance in man （OMIM） databases. After screening the common targets of QHP and AML，the protein-protein interaction （PPI） network of the common targets was constructed with STRING，followed by gene ontology （GO） term and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment analysis based on RStudio software and clusterProfiler，Bioconductor packages. At the same time，Cytoscape software is used to construct the network of "disease-component-target" and "compound-target-pathway". Select the active ingredients of QHP for molecular docking with the top 8 targets in the "compound-target-pathway" network. In vitro cell experiment and Western blot were used to further verify the anti-AML effect of QHP.ResultThe prediction results show that there are 11 main active components of QHP，and 22 common targets of QHP and AML are collected. KEGG pathway analysis results show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） and mitogen-activated protein kinase （MAPK） signaling pathways may play a key role in the treatment of AML disease by QHP. "Compound-target-pathway" network analysis showed that the top 8 targets include Akt1，phosphatidylinositol-4，5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha （PIK3CA），mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 （MAP2K1），TP53，serine/threonine kinase （RAF1），B cell lymphoma（Bcl）-2，cysteine aspartic acid specific protease（Caspase）-9 and JUN. Molecular docking results showed that 3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside was optimally docked with MAP2K1，isovitexin docked with PIK3CA，and indirubin docked with Bcl-2. Cell experiments show that 3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside，isovitexin and indirubin can effectively inhibit the proliferation of AML cells，regulate the MAPK/PI3K signaling pathway，and inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 protein.ConclusionQHP can treat AML through "multi-component，multi-target，multi-pathway" synergistic treatment，and its mechanism of pharmacology may be related to the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the common syndromes of patients with cerebral infarction in rural areas of eastern Henan based on latent structure model and factor analysis，and provide reference for clinical differentiation of cerebral infarction.MethodThe data samples of patients with cerebral infarction in rural areas in eastern Henan were preprocessed. With Lantern 5.0 of latent structure method and LTM-EAST algorithm of two-step latent tree analysis， the manifest variable latent structure model of related symptoms was built to interpret different latent nodes， and common syndromes of cerebral infarction were obtained via comprehensive cluster analysis. SPSS 20.0 was used for factor analysis and cluster analysis of related symptoms to infer the distribution of syndrome types.ResultThe data of 888 patients with cerebral infarction were included， involving symptoms， tongue and pulse （88 in total）. The 65 symptoms with a frequency of ≥5% were constructed into a latent structure model， and 31 latent variables were obtained. The Bayesian information criterion （BIC） score was -15 367.17. Based on professional knowledge， s6 common syndrome types were found， namely， syndrome of upward disturbance of wind-fire， Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome， syndrome of phlegm and blood stasis blocking collaterals， syndrome of phlegm-heat and fu-organ excess， syndrome of wind phlegm obstructing collaterals， and syndrome of stirring wind due to yin deficiency. In factor analysis， the symptoms with a frequency of >10% were selected， and 13 common factors were obtained and used for systematic cluster analysis. And 5 syndrome types were inferred： syndrome of wind phlegm obstructing collaterals， syndrome of phlegm-heat and fu-organ excess， Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome， syndrome of combined phlegm and blood stasis， and syndrome of yin deficiency and internal heat. According to the determination criteria of syndrome types in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， 6 common syndrome types of cerebral infarction were finally determined.ConclusionAccording to the severity of the disease， the common syndromes of patients with cerebral infarction in rural areas of Eastern Henan were divided into the following categories： apoplexy involving channel and collateral： syndrome of upward disturbance of wind fire， syndrome of wind phlegm obstructing collaterals， and syndrome of stirring wind due to yin deficiency. Apoplexy involving zang and fu-viscera： syndrome of phlegm-heat and fu-organ excess， and syndrome of phlegm and blood stasis blocking collaterals. Recovery period： Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome. This study was basically consistent with the syndrome law in TCM theory， and provided reference for further establishing syndrome diagnostic criteria of cerebral infarction.
Abstract：Exosomes are lipid bilayer membranous vesicles actively secreted by various cells in the organism， which are like nanoparticles and have messenger targeting. Combining with the theory of supramolecular "Qi chromatography" of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）， research ideas and strategies of modernization of TCM can be constructed. Exosomes are secreted by cells， and the membrane contains nucleic acids， proteins， lipids and small molecular metabolites and others， which can accurately coordinate the functions of each cell， concentrate and transmit the functional information of the parent cell， and is the concise form of reflecting cell functions. At the same time， it is loaded with the "imprinted templates" of the supramolecular "Qi chromatography" theory of TCM. If the "imprinted templates" carrying rules among the gene-protein-lipid-small molecules wrapped in it is studied， the modern experimental research ideas and strategies of TCM theory can be established for revealing the functions of the body's meridians and viscera. Firstly， the present situation of exosomes， including discovery， secretion， characteristics， functions， attribution， uptake， research methods and application status， were reviewed in this paper. And the natural properties of its precise messenger targeted delivery vehicle were elaborated， reflecting the operation law of microscopic substances in meridians and viscera. Secondly， to explore it as an important carrier of the concentrated "imprinted templates" of the supramolecular "Qi chromatography" theory of TCM， and integrating the research methods of exosomes and supramolecular chemistry of TCM， this paper proposes experimental research ideas and strategies on the microscopic material basis of meridians and viscera， compatibility of TCM compound， and targeting of TCM targeted preparations.
Keywords：exosomes;theory of traditional Chinese medicine;imprinting templates;supramolecular "Qi chromatography" theory;targeting;targeted preparations;formula compatibility
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical application characteristics of prescription preparations for external use in the Chinese pharmacopoeia 2020 edition （hereafter abbreviated as the Pharmacopoeia）.MethodThe topical functions， usage， dosage， dosage form， application method， and prescription of the preparations for external use in the Pharmacopoeia were analyzed.ResultThe Chinese pharmacopoeia 2020 edition includes a total of 138 prescription preparations for external use， the specific clinical usage， dosage， administration method， and efficacy evaluation of which remain unclear. These preparations can be used to treat a wide range of diseases. Specifically， the use in orthopedics and traumatology （36 preparations， accounting for 26.09%） is dominant， followed by that in internal medicine， surgery， and throat. The major application method is directly applying to the diseased area （35 preparations， 25.36%）. The main dosage forms are ointment （40 preparations， 28.99%） and powder （24 preparations， 17.39%） and others include liniments， suppositories， tinctures， and sprays. The clinical usage and dosage of these preparations are mostly unclear. Only 48 preparations （34.78%） are recorded with clear dosage and frequency of use， and 45 preparations （32.61%） have neither clear dosage nor frequency of use. The 138 prescription preparations for external use include 211 single medicines， of which 44 single medicines can be used alone. The single medicines are mostly used for heat clearing （48 preparations， 22.75%）.ConclusionThe Chinese pharmacopoeia 2020 edition （Volume I） records a large number of prescription preparations for external use， and the number shows an increasing trend. However， the usage， dosage， and efficacy evaluation criteria of these preparations remain to be improved and need in-depth research.
Keywords：prescription preparations for external use;clinical application;dosage form;administration method;usage and dosage;prescription analysis;application characteristics
Abstract：Cimicifugae Rhizoma originated from Shennong′s Classic of Materia Medica（《神农本草经》）. Before the Jin-Yuan period （1115-1368 AD）， the efficacy of Cimicifugae Rhizoma was clearing heat and removing toxin whether it was recorded in herbal works or medical formularies. Since ZHANG Yuan-su in the Jin-Yuan period， its efficacy has changed， and that of raising Yang Qi has begun to appear. LI Dong-yuan and WANG Hao-gu followed ZHANG Yuan-su's point of view， and did not realize the efficacy of clearing heat and removing toxin and regarded Cimicifugae Rhizoma as a representative medicine for raising Yang Qi. During the Ming and Qing dynasties， the efficacy of Cimicifugae Rhizoma was mainly divided into two categories： both clearing heat and removing toxin and raising Yang Qi， and raising Yang Qi only. In modern times， the efficacy realized by previous generations is criticized， and two views emerge. One is inheriting the two-way theory of both clearing heat and removing toxin and raising Yang Qi. The other is that Cimicifugae Rhizoma is purely the medicine for clearing heat and removing toxin and its efficacy of raising Yang Qi is firmly refuted， which conforms to that of Cimicifugae Rhizoma before the Jin-Yuan period， and is also supported by Japanese scholars. Chinese Pharmacopoeia （1985） concludes that Cimicifugae Rhizoma has three major functions： releasing exterior and promoting eruption， clearing heat and removing toxin， and raising Yang Qi， which represents the current mainstream understanding of Cimicifugae Rhizoma in the academic world. Some contemporary scholars， including clinical physicians， medical historians， and pharmacists， still object to the raising Yang Qi of Cimicifugae Rhizoma. This article systematically sorted out the origin and changes of the efficacy of Cimicifugae Rhizoma， and analyzed the reasons for the changes. Combining philosophical thinking and modern pharmacology research， the authors also believe that Cimicifugae Rhizoma can not raise Yang Qi .
Keywords：Cimicifugae Rhizoma，origin of efficacy;changes of efficacy;clearing heat and removing toxin;raising Yang Qi
Abstract：Diabetic nephropathy （DN） is one of the serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus （DM），and is the main cause of end-stage renal disease（ESRD） worldwide. Although lowering blood glucose and，lowering blood pressure and blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system（RAAS） can reduce blood glucose，blood pressure and urinary protein to a certain extent，it is still difficult to prevent the progression of DN sometimes. The curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine on DN has been confirmed，but its mechanism is has not been fully clarified. Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway in mammals that removes protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain cell homeostasis. Podocyte，also known as glomerular epithelial cells，is an important component in maintaining the homeostasis of glomerular filtration barrier，and podocyte injury is considered to be a central link in the occurrence and development of DN. As a highly differentiated cell，podocyte maintains a high level of autophagy to maintain its homeostasis under physiological conditions. In DN state，mammalian target of rapamycin （mTOR），AMP-activated protein kinase （AMPK），silent information regulator 1（SIRT1） and other nutritional signaling pathways as well as intracellular stress response signaling pathways such as oxidative stress，endoplasmic reticulum stress ，and hypoxia stress，etc.，affect podocyte autophagy of podocytes， and ultimately leading to podocyte injury and the progression of DN. In recent years，regulation of podocyte autophagy has become one of the hot spots in DN research，and has also received extensive attention in the field of Chinese medicine. A review and summary of the domestic and international literature in this field reveals that Chinese medicine can affect podocyte autophagy in multiple pathways and targets. Nevertheless， those studiesbut mainly focuses on two nutrient-sensing signaling pathways，mTOR and AMPK，and there lacks more comprehensive and in-depth mechanism studies. In addition，the current research mainly concentrates focuses on the field of Chinese medicine monomers and Chinese medicine compounds，and rarely studies multi-component Chinese medicinelacking research on Chinese medicine component drugs and single drugs，and the research still lacks there is a lack of hierarchy. The regulatory mechanism of Chinese medicine on podocyte autophagy of podocytes in DN state in Chinese medicine still needs to be further studied in depth and systematically.
Keywords：diabetic nephropathy;podocyte;autophagy;traditional Chinese medicine;review
Abstract：The decline of body function and senile diseases caused by aging seriously affect human health and life span， which is an important topic in the field of life science. Bazi Bushen capsules is a representative Chinese patent medicine for tonifying essence， invigorating Qi and anti-aging， guided by Qiluo doctrine， and essence， Qi and spirit theory. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have confirmed that this preparation has the comprehensive advantages of anti-aging， and prevention and treatment of aging-related diseases. Among them， pharmacological studies showed that Bazi Bushen capsules had the effect of improving the appearance status of mice， improving the level of sex hormones， inhibiting the formation of atherosclerosis， improving cardiac function， improving learning and memory cognitive ability， improving neurological function， improving osteoporosis and muscle function， improving sperm count and quality. The mechanism was related to the up-regulation of the recombinant sirtuin （SIRT6） level， down-regulation of the levels of aging-related proteins p53 and p16， up-regulation of telomerase reverse transcriptase level， and alleviation of inflammation and oxidative response. Clinical studies have proved that it can improve the symptoms of patients with kidney essence deficiency， improve exercise ability， and improve the sexual function of impotence patients. Anti-aging research of Bazi Bushen capsules based on Qiluo doctrine fully embodies the new mode of academic innovation and transformation of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） with the combination of "theory-new drug-experiment-clinic"， which has made a demonstration for the anti-aging research of TCM.
Abstract：Pathogenic bacterial infection is one of the main clinical symptoms. Antibiotics are widely used in clinical practice to inhibit or kill the bacteria， fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms. However， with the massive use of antibiotics， drug-resistant strains continue to appear that make the antibacterial situation is becoming increasingly severe. Due to the advantages of multiple targets， multiple pathways and multiple components， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） have gradually attracted more attention and were used in antibacterial treatment. However， some antimicrobial TCM have problems such as low solubility， poor stability， and low bioavailability. Improving and enhancing the antibacterial activity of TCM through preparation technology is one of the effective solutions. Based on this， two aspects of unilateral antibacterial TCM preparation technology and combination antibacterial preparation technology are introduced， including inclusion technology， nanotechnology， electrospinning， 3D printing and others. Distinctive features and specific application effects of these preparation technologies are explained firstly， and then their advantages and disadvantages are compared and analyzed. The review can be a useful reference for improving the antibacterial activity of TCM.
Abstract：Since ancient times， delaying aging， health， and longevity have been the universal wish of people. Nowadays， China gives top strategic priority to the development of people's health. How to maintain a healthy life and slow down the aging of the human body is a problem worthy of our attention. Human aging can be shown as cell senescence from the microscopic level. Cell senescence is a process in which cell proliferation and differentiation and physiological function gradually decline. It is a normal physiological function responsible for the removal of damaged cells and is the regeneration and recovery of tissues after injury or acute stress. Aging is an irresistible natural law. Although it is inevitable， it is possible to delay aging. Energy metabolism is an important basis of cell function， in which cells use nutrients such as sugar and fat to produce adenosine triphosphate （ATP）. Mitochondria serve as the cell's power stations， where sugars， fats， and amino acids are eventually oxidized to release energy. Mitochondrial function decreases with age. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics， reactive oxygen species content， autophagy， and metabolites can cause dysfunction of electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation， and induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the internal causes of many aging-related diseases， such as neurodegenerative diseases， Alzheimer′s disease， and atherosclerosis. Chinese medicine with few side effects and rich ingredients and health care moxibustion with safety and efficacy have been widely applied to the field of anti-aging. This study reviewed the effect of mitochondrial function on cell senescence， and retrieved， analyzed， and summarized research papers on the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） and moxibustion in delaying aging by affecting mitochondrial function， which is expected to provide new insights for further research in this field.
Abstract：Intestinal flora is the largest microbial community in human body， which consists of more than 1 000 species. Its structure and metabolites change dynamically with the age， diet and intestinal environment of the host. Study shows that the intestinal microbes play a pivotal role in regulating human physiological and pathological processes， and intestinal flora imbalance may be the key factors affecting the occurrence and development of bone and joint diseases， including osteoporosis， osteoarthritis， rheumatoid arthritis and gouty arthritis. At present， calcitonin， estrogen， nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs， immunosuppressants， xanthine oxidase inhibitors and other western drugs are mostly used to treat the above diseases. However， long-term use of western drugs leads to poor compliance and obvious gastrointestinal adverse reactions among patients. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） predominates in the treatment of bone and joint diseases due to its low price， high efficacy and slight side effects， with the advantages of multi-targets， multi-mechanism and multi-levels. In recent years， many scholars have carried out experiments and clinical studies on the treatment of bone and joint diseases by TCMs on the basis of the liver and kidney theory such as "tonifying liver and kidney and strengthening muscles and bones". Gratifying results have been achieved. However， the mechanism of action has not been fully clarified. Intestinal flora becomes a hot spot in medical research， and a close relationship between intestinal flora and bone and joint diseases has been unveiled. Relevant literature in China and abroad showed that TCM has a significant effect on the treatment of bone and joint diseases by regulating intestinal flora. In this paper， the relationship between intestinal flora and bone and joint diseases was summarized and the intervention of TCM active ingredients and compounds on intestinal flora was reviewed to facilitate the prevention and treatment of bone and joint diseases by TCM.
Keywords：intestinal flora;traditional Chinese medicine;osteoporosis;osteoarthritis;rheumatoid;gout
Abstract：Post-stroke depression， a common mental complication after stroke， seriously affects the quality of life and even endangers the life safety of patients. It is difficult to be cured due to the complex and diverse pathogenesis. At present， the widely accepted pathogenesis mechanisms include inflammatory mechanism， neurotransmitter mechanism， and endocrine mechanism. According to the theory of Chinese medicine， Qi stagnation， blood stasis， and phlegm turbidity lead to the occurrence of mental diseases after stroke. Curcumae Radix， as a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine， can activate blood circulation for relieving pain， regulate Qi， and relieve depression. The summary of the medication rules of DENG Tie-tao， ZHANG Xue-wen and other Chinese medical physicians showcases that Curcumae Radix is frequently used in the clinical treatment of depression， stroke， and post-stroke depression. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Curcumae Radix contains β-sitosterol， curdione， curcumin and other medicinal ingredients. This study reviewed the pharmacological effects of effective components in Curcumae Radix and the pharmacological mechanism in the treatment of post-stroke depression and summarized the processing methods of Curcumae Radix， aiming to clarify the important role and determine the optimal processing method of Curcumae Radix in the treatment of post-stroke depression. The results indicate that Curcumae Radix has the effects of regulating neurotransmitters， inhibiting neuroinflammation， protecting neurons， regulating neuroendocrine and antithrombosis， which can prevent and treat post-stroke depression through multiple components， targets， and pathways. The wine-processed Curcuma longa has the best effect.
Keywords：Curcumae Radix;post-stroke depression;curcumin;pharmacological mechanism;nervous system