Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the inhibitory effect of Banxia Houputang （BHT） on lipopolysaccharide （LPS）-induced inflammation of microglia （BV2） cells and the neuroprotective effect on human neuroblastoma （SH-SY5Y） cells.MethodAfter the neuroinflammatory model was constructed by LPS inducing BV2 cells， model group （LPS 100 µg·L-1）， administration groups （LPS+1 g·L-1 BHT， LPS+2 g·L-1 BHT， LPS+5 g·L-1 BHT， LPS+10 g·L-1 BHT）， and blank group were given DEME medium at the same volume. In addition， neuronal apoptosis model was established by co-culture of LPS-induced BV2 cell inflammation medium and SH-SY5Y cells （LPS-DMEM） and was administrated according to the above grouping. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 （CCK-8） assay. The content of nitric oxide （NO） and that of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， and interleukin-6 （IL-6） were determined by Griess aasay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）， respectively. The mRNA levels of TNF-α， IL-1β， interleukin-4 （IL-4）， nitric oxide synthase （iNOS）， and interleukin-10 （IL-10） were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-rime PCR）. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 （STAT3）， Janus kinase 2 （JAK2） and nuclear factor kappa-B （NF-κB p65）， protein kinase B （Akt）， inhibitor of nuclear factor κB α （IκBα）， B-cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）， and Bcl-2 associated X protein （Bax）.ResultCompared with blank group， LPS increased the NO release， levels of TNF-α， IL-1β， IL-6， and iNOS and protein expression of Akt， NF-κB p65， IκBα， JAK2 and STAT3， decreased the content of IL-4 and IL-10 in BV2 cells， and induced apoptosis of co-cultured SH-SY5Y cells （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， BHT reduced the content of NO， TNF-α， IL-1β， and iNOS （P<0.01） and protein expression of Akt， NF-κB p65， IκBα， JAK2 and STAT3 （P<0.01）， elevated the content of IL-4 and IL-10 （P<0.01）， and inhibited the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells induced by LPS-DMEM （P<0.01）.ConclusionThis experiment reveals that BHT inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in BV2 cells by regulating Akt/NF-κB/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and showed neuroprotective effects on SH-SY5Y cells.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo reveal the mechanism of action of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by pharmacological research based on its clinical application.MethodThe collagen-induced arthritis （CIA） rat model was established by injecting bovine type Ⅱ collagen and Freund's adjuvant at the tail， and was treated with different concentrations of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang. The rats were randomly divided into blank group， model group， methotrexate （0.9 mg·kg-1） group， and Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang low- and high-dose （5.13， 20.52 g·kg-1·d-1） groups， with continuous intragastric administration for 4 weeks. The degree of joint swelling， weight， degree of foot swelling and arthritis index score were determined and the pathological changes of ankle joints were detected by hematoxylin and eosin （HE） staining to observe the therapeutic effect of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang on rheumatoid arthritis. In addition， enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） and Western blot were used to measure the expression of interleukin 1β （IL-1β）， interleukin 6 （IL-6）， interleukin 10 （IL-10） and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） in serum and the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B （NF-κB） pathway related proteins in synovial tissue， respectively to clarify the molecular mechanism of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.ResultCompared with the conditions in blank group， the body weight and IL-10 level were decreased （P<0.01）， and the degree of foot swelling and arthritis index score， the levels of IL-1β， IL-6 and TNF-α， and the expression of NF-κB pathway related proteins were increased （P<0.01，） in the model group， with impaired morphology and function of the ankle joint. Additionally， compared with the model group， Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang low- and high-dose groups had increased body weight of rats and IL-10 level （P<0.01）， and reduced degree of foot swelling and arthritis index score （P<0.05， P<0.01）， levels of IL-1β， IL-6 and TNF-α （P<0.01） and expression of NF-κB pathway related proteins （P<0.05， P<0.01）， with improved function and morphology of the ankle joint.ConclusionHuangqi Guizhi Wuwutang can significantly alleviate joint inflammatory injury by down-regulating NF-κB pathway and reducing the inflammatory response in CIA rats.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the effect and mechanism of Wuwei Xiaoduyin in treating rat renal mesangial cells （HBZY-1） induced by lipopolysaccharide （LPS） through the nuclear factor-κB （NF-κB） signaling pathway.MethodRat HBZY-1 cells were randomly assigned into the normal group， model group， benazepril （50 μmol·L-1） group， and high- and low-dose （2.75 and 0.69 g·kg-1） Wuwei Xiaoduyin groups. The normal group， model group， and benazepril group were treated with 10% normal rat serum， and the Wuwei Xiaoduyin groups with 10% medicated serum. Except the normal group， the other four groups were treated with LPS （100 ng·mL-1） for modeling in vitro. The changes of cell morphology were observed under optical microscope. The expression of NF-κB p65 was detected by immunofluorescence （IF） method. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium （MTT） colorimetry was employed to detect cytotoxicity and cell proliferation. The levels of interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， intercellular adhesion molecule-1 （ICAM-1）， laminin （LN）， and fibronectin （FN） in cell supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The mRNA levels of IL-1β， FN， and NF-κB p65 were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein levels of phosphorylated inhibitor of NF-κB kinase β （p-IKKβ）， phosphorylated NF-κB inhibitor （p-IκBα）， and NF-κB p65 were determined by Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group， the modeling increased cell proliferation （P<0.01）， elevated the levels of IL-1β， ICAM-1， LN， and FN in cell supernatant （P<0.01）， and up-regulated the mRNA levels of IL-1β， FN， and NF-κB p65 （P<0.01） and the protein levels of p-IKKβ， p-IκBα， and NF-κB p65 （P<0.01）. Such changes were recovered by benazepril and Wuwei Xiaoduyin （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionWuwei Xiaoduyin can mitigate the inflammatory injury of renal mesangial cells induced by LPS by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the radiosensitization and underlying mechanism of Xuefu Zhuyutang on subcutaneous transplanted esophageal carcinoma.MethodThe subcutaneous xenograft model of human esophageal carcinoma ECA-109 in nude mice was induced and the model mice were divided into a model group， an irradiation group， a Xuefu Zhuyutang group， and a combination group， with six nude mice in each group. After the intervention， the transplanted tumors were removed and weighed， and the tumor inhibition rate of each group was calculated according to the formula. The protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α （HIF-1α） and vascular endothelial growth factor A （VEGFA） was detected by immunohistochemistry （IHC）. The protein expression of mammalian target of rapamycin （mTOR）， HIF-1α， VEGFA， and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 （VEGFR2） in transplanted tumors was detected by Western blot. The mRNA expression of mTOR， HIF-1α， and VEGFA in transplanted tumors was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）.ResultCompared with the conditions in the model group， the tumor weight decreased in the irradiation group and the Xuefu Zhuyutang group （P<0.05）， as well as the combination group （P<0.01）. Compared with the irradiation group， the combination group showed decreased tumor weight （P<0.05）， with tumor inhibition rate of 57.37%. Compared with the model group， the irradiation group， the Xuefu Zhuyutang group， and the combination group showed decreased protein expression of VEGFR2， p-mTOR， HIF-1α， and VEGFA （P<0.05， P<0.01） and reduced mRNA expression of mTOR， HIF-1α， and VEGFA （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the irradiation group， the combination group showed down-regulated protein expression of VEGFR2， p-mTOR， HIF-1α， and VEGFA （P<0.05， P<0.01） and reduced mRNA expression of mTOR， HIF-1α， and VEGFA （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionXuefu Zhuyutang can inhibit the growth of transplanted esophageal carcinoma ECA-109 in nude mice and shows an obvious radiosensitization effect in combination with radiotherapy. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGFA signaling pathway to improve the hypoxic state of tumors.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Jingangwan on the expression of osteoclast， c-Jun N-terminal kinase（JNK）， p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase（p38 MAPK）， and interleukin-1（IL-1） in the osteoporosis model rats， explore the mechanism of Jingangwan in the treatment of osteoporosis， and determine the optimal dosing concentration of Jingangwan.MethodFifty-six rats of SPF grade were randomized into a blank group，a sham operation group，a model group， model group，high-， medium-， and low-dose Jingangwan groups （0.72， 0.36， 0.18 g·kg-1·d-1， ig），and an estradiol valerate group （0.009 g·kg-1·d-1， ig）， with eight rats in each group. The rats in the model group， the blank group， and the sham operation group received 3 mL of normal saline， respectively. Samples were collected 12 weeks after drug administration. The number of osteoclasts was observed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase （TRAP） staining. Serum levels of JNK， p38 MAPK， and IL-1 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The mRNA expression levels of p38 MAPK and JNK were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）.ResultThe TRAP staining results showed that compared with the model group， the estradiol valerate group and the Jingangwan groups could inhibit the formation of osteoclasts to different degrees. As revealed by ELISA results， compared with the model group and the sham operation group， the model group showed increased serum levels of p38 MAPK， JNK， and IL-1 （P<0.01）， while compared with the model group， all the groups with drug intervention showed decreased levels of p38 MAPK， JNK， and IL-1 （P<0.01）. The serum levels of JNK and IL-1 in the high-dose Jingangwan group were lower than those in the estradiol valerate group （P<0.05）. Real-time PCR results showed that compared with the blank group， the model group showed increased relative mRNA expression of p38 MAPK and JNK in the thighbone （P<0.01）， while compared with the model group， all the groups with drug intervention showed decreased relative mRNA expression of p38 MAPK and JNK in the thighbone （P<0.01）.ConclusionJingangwan can inhibit the formation of osteoblasts，reduce the diameter of the bone marrow cavity，improve bone quality，suppress the production of inflammatory factors，affect the metabolism of the MAPK signaling pathway，and blunt p38 MAPK and JNK activities to inhibit the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts and regulate bone metabolism， thereby preventing osteoporosis. Therefore，Jingangwan may be of application value in maintaining bone health and treating osteoporosis.
Keywords：osteoporosis;osteoclast;Jingangwan;p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase（p38 MAPK）;c-Jun N-terminal kinase（JNK）;interleukin-1（IL-1）;postmenopausal osteoporosis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effect and mechanism of Xiaojindan extract （XJD） on macrophage polarization.MethodLipopolysaccharide （LPS） and interleukin-4 （IL-4） were used to induce M1 and M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells. The influence of 10-80 mg·L-1 XJD on cell proliferation was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 （CCK-8） assay. Nitric oxide （NO） and interleukin-6 （IL-6） release was explored by Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）， respectively. The mRNA expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）， and the CD206+ expression was determined by flow cytometry. The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） pathway was analyzed by western blot.Result10-80 mg·L-1 XJD showed no marked cytotoxicity in LPS （0.5 mg·L-1）- or IL-4 （20 μg·L-1）-induced RAW264.7 cells. Compared with the control group， LPS significantly promoted the expression of M1 macrophage markers （P<0.01）， including increased NO and IL-6 release （P<0.01） and upregulated mRNA expression of interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， inducible nitric oxide synthase （iNOS）， cyclooxygenase-2 （COX-2） and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） （P<0.01）. Compared with LPS-induced group， 20-80 mg·L-1 XJD decreased the release of NO and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner （P<0.01）， and similarly 10-80 mg·L-1 XJD suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-1β， iNOS， COX-2 and TNF-α （P<0.01）. Compared with the control group， IL-4 obviously increased the expression of M2 macrophage markers （P<0.01）， including increased CD206+ cell population and upregulated mRNA expression of arginine-1 （Arg-1）， interleukin-10 （IL-10）， interleukin-13 （IL-13） and transforming growth factor-β1 （TGF-β1）. Compared with IL-4-induced group， 10-80 mg·L-1 XJD dose-dependently decreased CD206+ cell population （P<0.01） and inhibited the mRNA expression of Arg-1， IL-10， IL-13 and TGF-β1 （P<0.01）. Western blot showed that XJD significantly downregulated the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway as compared to LPS- and IL-4-induced groups （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionXJD significantly inhibited the macrophage polarization in the LPS- and IL-4-induced RAW264.7 cells by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway.
Keywords：Xiaojindan;RAW264.7;macrophage polarization;phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the possible mechanism of total flavonoids of peony flower （TFPF） in protecting rats from gouty nephropathy and provide data support for the pharmaceutical research on the treatment of gouty nephropathy.MethodGouty nephropathy rat model was established by adenine combined with ethambutol. Rats were randomly assigned into blank control group， model group， allopurinol （42 mg·kg-1） group， Tongfengshu tablets （600 mg·kg-1， positive control） group， and TFPF （260， 130， and 65 mg·kg-1） groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） was employed to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 （MCP-1）， interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， and interleukin-18 （IL-18） in rat serum and those of transforming growth factor-β1 （TGF-β1） and IL-1β in renal homogenate. Hematoxylin-eosin（HE） staining was carried out for observation of the morphological changes of renal cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling （TUNEL） was conducted for observation of the DNA damage in renal cells. The expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 （NLRP3）， cysteine aspartic acid protease（Caspase）-1 and IL-1β were observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of NLRP3， Caspase-1 and nuclear transcription factor -κB （NF-κB） in renal tissues were detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with blank group， the contents of TNF-α， MCP-1， IL-1β， IL-18， and TGF-β1 in serum of model group were significantly increased （P<0.01）， and the expressions of NLRP3， Caspase-1， NF-κB and IL-1β in kidney of model group were significantly increased （P<0.01）. The renal tissue cells showed cytoplasmic swelling， cell membrane rupture， and the number of nuclear pyknotic fracture increased. The positive rate of TUNEL staining was significantly increased in model group （P<0.01）， and the contents of IL-1β and TGF-β1 in renal tissue homogenate were significantly increased （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， the contents of inflammatory factors TNF-α， IL-1β and IL-18 in serum of rats in TFPF high- and medium-dose groups could be decreased to different degrees （P<0.05， P<0.01）， while the content of MCP-1 in TFPF high-dose group was significantly decreased （P<0.01）. The content of TGF-β1 in renal tissue homogenate in TFPF high- and medium-dose groups was significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the content of IL-1β in renal tissue homogenate in TFPF medium-dose group was significantly decreased （P<0.01）. HE staining showed that each dose group of TFPF could improve the status of renal tubular epithelial cells， reduce cytoplasmic swelling and the number of nuclear pyknosis to varying degrees. The positive rate of TUNEL staining was decreased （P<0.01） and DNA damage was decreased. The expression of NLRP3， Caspase-1， IL-1β and NF-κB protein in renal tissue cells was inhibited （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionTFPF protects rats from gouty nephropathy by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Specifically， it may inhibit the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathways to reduce the expression， maturation， and release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 and further inhibit pyroptosis， thereby reversing the inflammatory injury of kidney in gouty nephropathy.
Keywords：gouty nephropathy;total flavonoids of peony flower;NOD-like receptor protein 3 （ NLRP3） inflammasome;cysteine aspartic acid protease（Caspase）-1;pyroptosis
Abstract：ObjectiveThis study was designed to observe the effect of Didang Xianxiong decoction on the cardiac myocardial microvascular endothelial cells （CMECs） injury， and to explore its related mechanism based on the CMECs model induced by high glucose.MethodRat primary myocardial cells were cultured in vitro and 33 mmol·L-1 glucose was added for modeling. After modeling， the rats were randomly divided into model group （final glucose concentration： 33 mmol·L-1）， normal group， Didang Xianxiong decoction low dose group （glucose + 5% Didang Xianxiong decoction containing serum）， Didang Xianxiong decoction medium dose group （glucose+10% Didang Xianxiong decoction containing serum）， Didang Xianxiong decoction high dose group （glucose+20% Didang Xianxiong decoction containing serum） and alagebrium chloride （ALT-711） group （glucose+10% ALT-711 containing serum）. The influence of drug-containing serum on the proliferation of CMECs was detected by MTT tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay. The relative mRNA expression of c-Jun was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）. The protein expression of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 （p-JAK1）， phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 （p-STAT1） and transforming growth factor-β1 （TGF-β1） was determined by Western blot.ResultCompared with the conditions in normal group， the mRNA expression of c-Jun and protein expression of p-JAK1， p-STAT1 and TGF-β1 were up-regulated in model group （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， all treatment groups had decreased mRNA expression of c-Jun （P<0.01）. Didang Xianxiong decoction medium and high dose groups and ALT-711 group showed reduced protein expression of p-JAK1 and p-STAT1 （P<0.05， P<0.01）， while there was no significant change in Didang Xianxiong decoction low dose group. TGF-β1 protein expression was lowered in all treatment groups （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the decrease was more significant in Didang Xianxiong decoction medium and high dose groups than Didang Xianxiong decoction low dose group.ConclusionDidang Xianxiong decoction can protect CMECs with high glucose-induced injury， and the mechanism may be related to reducing the activity of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in cells.
Keywords：Didang Xianxiong decoction;diabetic cardiomyopathy;cardiac myocardial microvascular endothelial cells （CMECs）;Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription （JAK/STAT） signaling pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of modified Renshen Wumeitang（MRWT） on the related regulatory factors of the γ-aminobutyric acid （GABA） signaling pathway in colon tissues of rats with diarrhea， and reveal the mechanism of MRWT in invigorating Qi， generating fluid， and checking diarrhea.MethodForty-eight SD immature rats were randomly divided into a blank group （n=12） and an experimental group （n=36）. The diarrhea model was induced in the experimental group by Sennae Folium combined with overstrain and improper diet for 14 days. Subsequently， the model rats were randomly divided into a model group （normal saline， 20 mL·kg-1）， a western medicine group （Medilac-Vita， 0.7 g·kg-1）， and a Chinese medicine group （MRWT， 35 g·kg-1）， with 12 rats in each group. The rats in the blank group received normal saline at 20 mL·kg-1， and those in the other groups were treated correspondingly， once a day for 7 days. The general condition， loose stool rate， and diarrhea index of the rats were observed daily. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the optical density expression of GABA protein in the colon of rats. The content of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase （PI3K）， protein kinase B2 （Akt2）， phosphorylated Akt （p-Akt）， and interleukin-1β （IL-1β） was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K， Akt2， and GABA type A receptor subunit β2 （GABRB2） in the colon of rats were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） and Western blot， respectively.ResultCompared with the blank group， the model group showed worsened general condition， The difference was not statistically significant of loose stool rate and diarrhea index， increased expression of GABA protein （P<0.05）， elevated expression of PI3K， Akt2， p-Akt， and IL-1β （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and up-regulated PI3K， Akt2， and GABRB2 mRNA and protein expression （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the western medicine group and the Chinese medicine group showed the improved general condition， decreased loose stool rate and diarrhea index （P<0.01）， and decreased content of PI3K， Akt2， p-Akt， and IL-1β （P<0.05）. The Chinese medicine group displayed decreased mRNA expression of PI3K， Akt2， and GABRB2 （P<0.05， P<0.01） and down-regulated protein expression of GABA， PI3K， and GABRB2 （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The western medicine group exhibited down-regulated mRNA expression of PI3K，Akt2，and protein of PI3K （P<0.05）.ConclusionMRWT can regulate the GABA signaling pathway， reduce Cl- flow in intestinal epithelial cells to the intestinal lumen， and improve the imbalance of colonic fluid metabolism in the colon of diarrhea rats， thereby exerting its effects of invigorating qi， generating fluid， and checking diarrhea.
Keywords：modified Renshen Wumeitang;diarrhea;γ-aminobutyric acid （GABA）;γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit β2（GABRB2）;phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase （PI3K）;protein kinase B2 （Akt2）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effects of the main component of Realgar arsenic disulfide （As2S2） on DNA methylation of SKM-1 cells with myelodysplastic syndrome.MethodCell Counting Kit-8 （CCK-8） was used to detect the inhibitory effect of As2S2（0， 1， 2， 4， 8， 16 μmol·L-1）on SKM-1 cells. Propidium iodide （PI） staining was applied to detect the effect of As2S2（0， 1， 2， 4 μmol·L-1）on the SKM-1 cell cycle. The effect of As2S2 （0， 4 μmol·L-1） on the methylation of SKM-1 cells on a genome-wide scale was observed by using Human Methylation 850K BeadChip， followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） and gene ontology （GO） analyses. According to the microarray data， the antioncogene TUSC3 was selected， and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） and Western blot were adopted to investigate the effect of As2S2 （0， 1， 2， 4 μmol·L-1） on the mRNA and protein expression of TUSC3， respectively.ResultCompared with the conditions in the blank group， As2S2 inhibited SKM-1 cells， increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase， and decreased the proportion of cells in the S phase（P<0.05）. The 850K microarray showed that 4 μmol·L-1 As2S2 could significantly induce DNA methylation in SKM-1 cells， with 12 710 differentially methylated genes involved （50% hypermethylated and 50% hypomethylated genes）. KEGG and GO analyses showed that differentially methylated genes were involved in many important biological functions and signaling pathways， including purine metabolism， natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity， endocytosis， chemokine signaling pathway， and nuclear ubiquitin ligase complex. In terms of downstream gene expression， Real-time PCR and Western blot showed that As2S2 increased the expression of TUSC3， as compared with the conditions in the blank group （P<0.05）.ConclusionAs2S2， the main component of Realgar， has a significant regulatory effect on the methylation of SKM-1 cells， which is presumedly achieved by increasing the expression of TUSC3.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the effect of Longshengzhi capsules on the cognitive function of vascular dementia （VD） rats and reveal the underlying mechanism.MethodA VD rat model was established by permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries. The model rats were randomly assigned into the model group （normal saline for gavage）， Hydergine （0.54 mg·kg-1） group， and high-， medium-， and low-dose （2.16， 1.08， and 0.54 g·kg-1， respectively） Longshengzhi capsules groups， with 15 rats each group. Additionally， a sham group （normal saline for gavage） was designed in this study. Morris water maze test was conducted in the last week. Hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining was employed for observation of the pathological changes in the hippocampal area of rat brain. Serum oxidative stress indicators including superoxide dismutase （SOD）， malondialdehyde （MDA）， and glutathione peroxidase （GSH-Px） were examined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， and interleukin-1β （IL-1β） were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The expression levels of B cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）， Bcl-2-associated X protein （Bax）， protein kinase B （Akt）， p-Akt， nuclear factor-κB （NF-κB）， intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 （ICAM-1）， and matrix metallopeptidase-9 （MMP-9） were determined by Western blot.ResultMorris water maze results showed that compared with sham operation group， the escape latency of rats in model group was significantly prolonged， and the number of crossing platform was significantly reduced. Compared with model group， the time of escape latency in Longshengzhi capsules high- and medium-dose groups was significantly shortened， and the number of crossing platform was significantly increased. Compared with sham operation group， SOD and GSH-Px levels in model group were significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， MDA levels were significantly increased （P<0.05）， TNF-α， IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly increased （P<0.01）. Compared with model group， the level of SOD in serum of Longshengzhi capsules high-dose group was significantly increased （P<0.05）， the level of GSH-Px in serum of Longshengzhi capsules high-， medium- and low-dose groups was significantly increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the level of MDA was significantly decreased （P<0.05）. TNF-α， IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. HE staining showed that Longshengzhi capsules could improve pathological damage in hippocampus of VD rats. Western blot results showed that compared with sham operation group， the protein expressions of Bax， NF-κB， MMP-9 and ICAM-1 in model group were significantly increased （P<0.01）， and the protein expressions of Bcl-2， Akt and p-Akt were significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The protein expression of Bax， NF-κB， MMP-9 and ICAM-1 in Longshengzhi capsules high-， medium- and low-dose groups was significantly decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was significantly increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The protein expression of Akt in Longshengzhi capsules high- and medium-dose groups was significantly increased （P<0.05）. The expression of p-Akt protein in Longshengzhi capsules high-dose group was significantly increased （P<0.01）.ConclusionLongshengzhi capsules can improve the cognitive function of VD rats， and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of oxidative stress， inflammatory response and apoptosis.ConclusionLongshengzhi capsules can improve the cognitive function of VD rats by inhibiting oxidative stress， inflammatory reaction， and neuronal apoptosis.
Keywords：Longshengzhi capsules;vascular dementia;Morris water maze experiment;oxidative stress;inflammation;apoptosis
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell mechanism of Jaranol.MethodThe methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium （MTT） assay was employed to examine the inhibition of Jaranol （0， 5， 10， 25， 50， 100， 150， 300 μmol·L-1） on HepG2 cell proliferation at different time （24 ， 48 ， 72 h）， annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyante/propidium iodide （Annexin V-FITC/PI） kit to detect the effect of Jaranol （0， 3， 15， 75 μmol·L-1） on HepG2 cell apoptosis， and Western blot to determine the influence of Jaranol on the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 （Bcl-2） and Bcl-2-associated X protein （Bax） in HepG2 cells. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to analyze the differential expression of genes and changes of related signaling pathways after the treatment of HepG2 cells with Jaranol （15 μmol·L-1）. Real-time PCR was carried out to verify the relative mRNA content of differential genes ［TEK， platelet-derived growth factor receptor α （PDGFRA）， spleen tyrosine kinase （SYK）， phosphatidylinositol-4，5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma （PIK3CG）， Janus kinase 3 （JAK3）， membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 （MAGI2）］.ResultCompared with the blank group， Jaranol decreased HepG2 proliferation （P<0.05， P<0.01）， increased apoptosis rate of HepG2 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）， raised Bax expression （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and reduced Bcl-2 expression （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Transcriptome sequencing yielded 59 000 regulated genes， 125 of which showed significantly different expression， with 47 up-regulated and 74 down-regulated. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） analysis showed that the differential genes related to apoptosis in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） signaling pathway changed significantly after drug addition. The mRNA expression of TEK， PDGFRA， SYK， PIK3CG， JAK3， and MAGI2 decreased in Jaranol （15 μmol·L-1） group compared with that in the control group （P<0.05）.ConclusionIn vitro cytological experiment verified that Jaranol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and promoted the apoptosis， possibly by influencing the expression of some differential genes in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The result lays an experimental basis for the follow-up study of the anti-tumor effect of Jaranol， and the further development and utilization of flavonoids.
Keywords：Jaranol;HepG2;apoptosis;transcriptome;phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） signaling pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of Fufang Shelong capsules （FFSL） in rats with membranous nephropathy （MN）， and the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase （MAPK） signaling pathway.MethodMale SD rats of SPF grade were divided into a normal group and an experimental group. The MN model was induced by tail vein injection of cationized bovine serum albumin in the experimental group. After screening， the eligible model rats were included and divided into a positive control group （tripterygium glycosides tablets） and low-， medium-， and high-dose FFSL groups （0.375， 0.75， 1.5g·kg-1）. The rats were treated correspondingly for eight weeks， and urine protein was detected during drug intervention. Renal function and inflammation-related indicators were detected after drug intervention. The changes in 24-hour urine total protein （24 h UP）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， interleukin-8 （IL-8）， tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， creatinine （Cr）， blood urea nitrogen （BUN）， total protein （TP）， albumin （Alb）， and total cholesterol （TC） were detected. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD4+/CD8+ changes. Kidney tissues were collected to observe pathological changes under a light microscope and an electron microscope. The protein expression of p38 MAPK and phosphorylated p38 MAPK （p-p38 MAPK） in kidney tissues was detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with the normal group， the model group showed increased 24 h UP （P<0.01）， elevated serum Cr， BUN， TC， IL-6， IL-8， and TNF-α （P<0.05，P<0.01）， decreased serum Alb and TP levels （P<0.05，P<0.01）， increased CD4+/CD8+ in the peripheral blood （P<0.01）， and up-regulated protein expression of p38 MAPK and p-p38 MAPK in kidney tissues （P<0.05）. Additionally， in the model group， immune complex deposition and foot process fusion， accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells， were observed on the epithelial side of the basement membrane in the pathological kidney tissues. Compared with the model group， the groups with drug intervention showed declining 24 h UP levels at six weeks （P<0.05，P<0.01）， decreased serum Cr， BUN， TC， IL-6， IL-8， and TNF-α （P<0.05，P<0.01）， increased serum Alb and TP levels （P<0.05，P<0.01）， reduced CD4+/CD8+ in the peripheral blood （P<0.01）， improved renal pathological damage， and down-regulated p38 MAPK and p-p38 MAPK in kidney tissues （P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionFFSL can decrease the expression of inflammatory factors， reduce proteinuria， delay kidney damage， and protect kidney function by inhibiting the expression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the clinical efficacy and mechanism of Tongxie Yaofang in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome（IBS-D） patients with liver depression and spleen deficiency.MethodA total of 168 IBS-D patients with liver depression and spleen deficiency who were treated from August 2017 to June 2021 were divided into observation group and control group by random number table，84 in each group. The observation group was administrated with Tongxie Yaofang decoction-free granules orally，and the control group received oral treatment of pinaverium bromide，both for 4 weeks. The main symptoms of IBS were compared before and after treatment，such as the degree of abdominal pain，stool changes，traditional Chinese medicine pattern curative effect scoring system（TCM-PES），IBS quality of life questionnaire （IBS-QOL），IBS symptom severity scale（IBS-SSS），self-rating anxiety scale （SAS），and self-rating depression scale（SDS）. Nimodipine was used to evaluate the efficacy based on TCM syndrome score of liver depression and Qi stagnation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA） was conducted to detect the plasma interleukin-10（IL-10）and IL-12 before and after treatment.ResultAfter 4 weeks of treatment， the response rate of abdominal pain in observation group was 92.86% （78/84）， higher than that in control group （82.14%， 69/84）（χ2=6.254，P<0.05）. The response rates of diarrhea in observation group and control group were 91.67% （77/84）and 77.38% （65/84）， respectively（χ2=8.214，P<0.01）. TCM-PES and IBS-QOL scores of observation group after treatment were higher and IBS-SSS score was lower than those of control group （P<0.05）. The efficacy rate of TCM syndromes in observation group was higher than that of control group （P<0.05）. Additionally， after treatment， the observation group had lower SAS and SDS scores （P<0.05）and IL-12 level（P<0.05）and higher plasma IL-10 level than the control group （P<0.05）.ConclusionTongxie Yaofang can relieve abdominal pain and diarrhea in IBS-D patients with liver depression and spleen deficiency，reduce negative emotion，and improve the quality of life of patients，which may be related to alleviating the visceral hypersensitivity.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical effect of Jianpi Yangyin Guse decoction on patients with diabetic nephropathy （DN），and to explore its protection against podocyte injury.MethodThe enrolled 120 DN patients at stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ and diagnosed with Qi and Yin deficiency from January 2017 to January 2020 were randomly divided into observation group and control group. During the same period，20 healthy volunteers were recruited as the normal group. In addition to the basic treatment in control group，patients in the observation group were given Jianpi Yangyin Guse decoction，and the course of treatment lasted for 3 months. The traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）syndrome score，24 h urine protein （24 h UP），urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio（UACR），liver and renal functions，D-dimer， hemoglobin A1c （HbA1c）， urine podocin and nephrin and α-smooth muscle actin （α-SMA） excretion of the two groups were observed before and after treatment，and the changes were statistically analyzed and compared with those in the normal group.ResultAfter treatment，the reduction of TCM syndrome score in the observation group was more significant than that in the control group（P<0.01）. The 24 h UP level，UACR and renal function in the observation group in the 2nd and 3rd months after treatment were lower than the conditions before treatment（P<0.05）， and those in the 3rd month after treatment were decreased compared with the conditions in the control group during the same period. The levels of podocin and nephrin in each month and the α-SMA excretion in the 3rd month after treatment in the observation group were down-regulated compared with the conditions before treatment and in the control group （P<0.05）， and the observation group had reduced α-SMA excretion in the 2nd month after treatment compared with before treatment. There were no marked changes in D-dimer and liver function of the two groups before and after treatment. The level of HbA1c in the observation group was higher than that in the control group after treatment（P<0.05）.ConclusionJianpi Yangyin Guse decoction has desirable clinical efficacy in DN patients，and its mechanism may be related to reducing podocin and nephrin and α-SMA excretion levels.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the mechanism of interleukin-35（IL-35）/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3（STAT3）inhibition of eosinophil activation against allergic rhinitis（AR） by Bifukang.MethodOne hundred patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group，50 cases in each group. The control group was given mometasone furoate nasal spray，and the treatment group was given Bifukang by nasal packing. The course of treatment was 28 days. The clinical efficacy，nasal classification and visual analogue scale（VAS） score of the two groups were observed before and after treatment. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA） was used to detect the expression levels of inflammatory factors ［interleukin（IL）-4，IL-10，IL-17，IL-35］ and Eotaxin and CC chemokine receptor-3（CCR3）in serum and nasal secretion of the two groups. The expression levels of STAT1，STAT3 and STAT4 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction（Real-time PCR）.The content of immunoglobulin G（IgG） and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry.ResultAfter treatment， compared with before treatment， the levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in serum and nasal secretion in 2 groups were decreased， while the levels of IL-10 and IL-35 were increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The expression of STAT1， STAT2 and STAT3 in nasal secretions were significantly decreased （P<0.05）. IgG and CD4+/CD8+ were decreased， and the differences were statistically significant （P<0.05， P<0.01）.After treatment，compared with the control group，the levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in serum and nasal secretions of the treatment group were decreased，while the levels of IL-10 and IL-35 were increased （P<0.05）. The expression of STAT1，STAT3 and STAT4 in the treatment group was significantly inhibited compared with the control group after treatment （P<0.05）. In addition， the post-treatment serum CD4+/CD8+ and immunoglobulin G （IgG） levels were reduced in the treatment group compared with those of the control group （P<0.05， P<0.01）. During the treatment，there were no abnormal changes in heart，liver，kidney function and routine blood and urine tests in the two groups.ConclusionBifukang has a good effect on allergic rhinitis，and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of IL-35/STAT3 pathway，the inhibition of eosinophil activation and the improvement of related immune function.
Keywords：Bifukang;eosinophil activation;interleukin-35（IL-35）;immune function;mechanism of action
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the pathological process and changes of metabolites in myocardial tissue of heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction （TAC） in rats.MethodRats were treated with TAC operation and divided into TAC-30 d group and TAC-60 d group， and sham operation group at the same period was set up as control. Echocardiography and pathological staining of myocardial tissue were performed on rats in each group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the expression of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide （NT-proBNP） and adenosine triphosphate （ATP） in serum. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to observe the changes of metabolites and related pathways in myocardial tissue， the mobile phase consisted of 25 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate and 25 mmol·L-1 ammonia hydroxide in water （A） and acetonitrile （B） for gradient elution （0-0.5 min， 95%B； 0.5-7 min， 95%-65%B； 7-8 min， 65%-40%B； 8-9 min， 40%B； 9-9.1 min， 40%-95%B； 9.1-12 min， 95%B）， electrospray ionization was used under positive and negative ion detection modes， acquisition range was m/z 70-1 050.ResultCompared with the sham-30 d group， the left ventricular internal diameter at end-systole （LVIDs） in TAC-30 d group was significantly decreased （P<0.01）， and left ventricular ejection fraction （LVEF）， fraction shortening （FS）， left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness （LVPWd）， left vebtricular end-systolic posterior wall thickness （LVPWs） were significantly increased （P<0.01）， there were cardiomyocyte arrangement disorder， edema， collagen fibre hyperplasia， the content of NT-probNP was significantly increased， while the content of ATP was significantly decreased （P<0.01）， and 15 metabolites with abnormal expression were involved in pyrimidine metabolic pathway， pantothenic acid and coenzyme A biosynthesis pathway. Compared with the sham-60 d group， LVEF and FS in the TAC-60 d group were significantly decreased （P<0.01）， and left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole （LVIDd）， LVIDs and LVPWd were increased （P<0.05， P<0.01）， the edema of myocardial cells increased obviously， myocardium fibers degenerated， coagulation necrosis appeared， and a large amount of collagen fibers were deposited， the expression of NT-proBNP increased and the expression of ATP decreased （P<0.01）， there were 21 metabolites with abnormal expression， involving pyrimidine metabolic pathway， and starch and sucrose metabolic pathway.ConclusionAt 30 d after TAC， there are myocardial hypertrophy， lipid metabolism disorder， pyrimidine metabolism disorder and energy imbalance. At 60 d after TAC， there are heart failure， aggravation of lipid metabolism disorder， excessive activation of glucose metabolism， and continuous disorder of pyrimidine metabolism.
Abstract：ObjectiveMetabolic syndrome is the inherent phenotype of many diseases， which seriously endangers the cardio-cerebrovascular system. Prunellae Spica can regulate lipid metabolism disorder in high-fat mice and inhibit the metabolic disorder of liver injury. This study analyzed the effect of Prunellae Spica on metabolic syndrome and its mechanism， and it is of great significance to find potential safe drugs from natural products.MethodIn this study， the metabolic syndrome model was induced by fructose. The metabolomics method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry （GC-MS） was used to explore the effect and mechanism of Prunellae Spica on rats with metabolic syndrome.ResultPharmacological results showed that Prunellae Spica significantly reduced the body weight， blood lipid level and lipid peroxidation level and inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） in rats with metabolic syndrome. Thus， Prunellae Spica protected the liver and maintained its normal functions. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that metabolites in the serum of rats with metabolic syndrome changed significantly， which was improved after Prunellae Spica treatment. Compared with the metabolites in normal group， 11 differential metabolic markers were found in rats with metabolic syndrome. Compared with model group， Prunellae Spica group had 8 significantly different metabolic markers， among which phosphate， pyruvic acid and succinic acid were common markers. Pathway analysis indicated that the regulatory effect of Prunellae Spica was mainly related to citrate cycle， glycolysis and gluconeogenesis， serine/threonine and glycine metabolic pathways.ConclusionPrunellae Spica can be used as a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. It can regulate the metabolic disorder in metabolic syndrome via energy and amino acid metabolism.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo compare the four preparation methods of Rehmanniae Radix juice described in ancient literature and find the method that is most suitable for the preparation of Rehmanniae Radix juice used in Baihe Dihuangtang.MethodThe ancient medical books record four methods for preparing Rehmanniae Radix juice： crushing fresh Rehmanniae Radix for juice， steaming fresh Rehmanniae Radix for juice， boiling fresh Rehmanniae Radix for juice， and boiling dry Rehmanniae Radix for juice. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS） was employed to detect the compounds in the four juice samples， followed by principal component analysis （PCA）.Result① Totally 27 compounds were identified in the juice samples， including 10 iridoid glycosides， 14 phenylethanoid glycosides， 2 phenolic acids， and 1 irisone. Among them， 15 common compounds were shared by the four juice samples， including 7 iridoid glycosides， 7 phenylethanoid glycosides， and 1 phenolic acid. ② Five common compounds in the four juice samples can be matched with the reference standards， which were catalpol， aucubin， rehmannioside D， ajugol， and purpureaside C. ③ Verbascoside and isoacteoside were not detected in the juice prepared by crushing fresh Rehmanniae Radix， while it was detected in the other three juice samples， which indicated that the two components were produced after heating rather than being the original components in fresh Rehmanniae Radix. ④ The comparison of the ion fragments demonstrated that verbascoside was produced from purpureaside C after the cleavage of the glycosidic bond and removal of a molecule of mannose. ⑤ Isoacteoside could be isomerized from verbascoside， and its relative content increased with the extension of heating time. However， the relative content of verbascoside and purpureaside C did not decrease significantly. Therefore， it was hypothesized that purpureaside C was produced from its upstream component.ConclusionThe juice prepared by crushing fresh Rehmanniae Radix has the chemical composition significantly different from the juice samples prepared with the other 3 methods， while the latter 3 juice samples had similar chemical composition. Although all the four methods can be used， it is more suitable to prepare Rehmanniae Radix juice by steaming fresh Rehmanniae Radix， boiling fresh Rehmanniae Radix， and boiling dry Rehmanniae Radix.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the chemical composition of the reference sample of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang （lyophilized powder）， and to provide quality markers for the formulation of quality standards of this formula.MethodUltra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS） was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ HSS T3 column （2.1 mm×100 mm， 1.8 μm）， the mobile phase was methanol （A） -0.1% formic acid aqueous solution （B） for gradient elution （0-8 min， 1%-20%A； 8-10 min， 20%-30%A； 10-12 min， 30%-35%A； 12-14 min， 35%-40%A， 14-23 min， 40%-55%A， 23-27 min， 55%-99%A； 27-28 min， 99%A； 28-28.5 min， 99%-1%A； 28.5-30 min， 1%A）， the column temperature was 40 ℃， the injection volume was 2 μL， and the flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1. The mass spectrometry data of the reference sample of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang （lyophilized powder） were collected under positive and negative ion modes. The conditions of mass spectrometry were electrospray ionization （ESI）， scanning range of m/z 50-1 200， and impact energy of 10-30 eV. UNIFI 1.8 and Progenesis QI 2.0 software were used to analyze and characterize the chemical constituents in reference sample of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang （lyophilized powder） combined with reference comparison and literature review.ResultA total of 123 chemical constituents were identified， including 33 flavonoids， 26 glycosides， 18 organic acids， 11 terpenoids， 7 phenylpropanoids， 4 gingerol， 3 alkaloids， 3 amino acids， 2 amides and 16 other compounds.ConclusionThe established method can quickly and accurately characterize the chemical components in the reference sample of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang （lyophilized powder）， which can provide a basis for the selection of quality evaluation indicators of this formula， and provide a reference for its preparation research.
Keywords：ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS）;classical famous formulas;Huangqi Guizhi Wuwutang;reference sample;lyophilized powder;chemical composition;flavonoids
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Xiaochuanning granules in the treatment of bronchial asthma based on the network pharmacology and experimental verification through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） signaling pathway on ovalbumin （OVA） sensitization-induced bronchial asthma model in rats.MethodThe main active ingredients and targets of Xiaochuanning Granules were screened out from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP） and Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine （BATMAN-TCM）. The targets related to bronchial asthma were obtained from five disease databases such as GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM）. The common targets were screened out through the Venn diagram. STRING was used to construct the protein-protein interaction （PPI） network of "compound-disease"， and Cytoscape 3.8.0 was used to establish a network of key active ingredients of Xiaochuanning granules and core target genes （"ingredient-gene" network）. Gene Ontology （GO） and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment analyses were performed through DAVID. The bronchial asthma model was induced by OVA stimulation in rats. Bronchial and lung tissue inflammation was observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining， and the enrichment analysis results of the network pharmacology were verified by Western blot.ResultIn this experiment， 232 active ingredients and 4 687 related targets of Xiaochuanning granules were screened out， and 233 common targets of Xiaochuanning granules and bronchial asthma were collected， including eosinophil-derived neurotoxin 1 （EDN1）， cyclic AMP response element-binding protein 1 （CREB1）， cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A （CDKN1A）， epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR）， mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 （MAPK14）， and Akt1. KEGG pathway analysis revealed 186 related signaling pathways， indicating that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway presumedly played a key role in the treatment of bronchial asthma by Xiaochuanning granules. The animal experiment showed that Xiaochuanning granules relieved the airway inflammation and smooth muscle hyperplasia in rats and down-regulated the gene expression of PI3K and Akt as compared with the conditions in the model group （P<0.05）.ConclusionXiaochuanning granules have the characteristics of multi-component， multi-target， and multi-pathway synergistic effect in the treatment of asthma. Xiaochuanning granules may exert anti-inflammatory effects by regulating the expression of genes related to the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The present study is expected to provide a theoretical basis for follow-up in-depth research on the complex mechanism of Xiaochuanning granules in the treatment of bronchial asthma.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and mechanism of Guilu Erxiangao on Alzheimer's disease （AD） model rats induced by hydrocortisone and amyloid β-protein（Aβ） based on the theory of kidney-brain correlation.MethodIntraperitoneal injection of hydrocortisone and intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ were performed to induce AD in rats， and different concentrations of Guilu Erxiangao were used for intervention. The indexes of hippocampus， kidney and adrenal gland were measured， and the spatial learning and memory ability of AD rats was observed by Morris water maze experiment. The levels of testosterone （T） and corticosterone （CORT） in serum samples were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry （LC-MS） was used to collect and analyze the serum metabolic data of model rats. The active components and corresponding targets of Guilu Erxiangao were collected using Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform（TCMSP）， a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine （BATMAN-TCM） and Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database（TCMID）. GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM） were retrieved to obtain AD-related targets， and protein-protein interaction （PPI） network was constructed to perform gene ontology （GO）and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） enrichment analysis. The expression level of interleukin-6 （IL-6） in the hippocampus of rats was detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with the model group， the low-， medium- and high-dose groups of Guilu Erxiangao exhibited significantly increased hippocampus index， kidney index and adrenal gland index， reduced CORT levels in serum and down-regulated IL-6 levels in hippocampal tissues. According to the results of water maze experiment， as compared with the model group， the platform crossing times of rats was significantly increased in the low- and high-dose groups of Guilu Erxiangao， with evidently prolonged distance traveled in quadrant Ⅲ （%） and time in quadrant Ⅲ （%）. A total of 24 serum differential metabolites associated with AD were identified by LC-MS， and 50 high-frequency common compounds and 187 high-frequency common targets for AD treatment were screened by network pharmacology method. Results demonstrated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases（PI3K）/protein kinase B（Akt） signaling pathway plays an important role in the complex AD pathological mechanism.ConclusionGuilu Erxiangao can significantly improve the cognitive dysfunction of AD model rats induced by hydrocortisone and Aβ， reduce serum CORT levels and IL-6 levels in hippocampal tissues， and regulate the metabolic level， which provides a reference for its clinical application.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo predict the mechanism of Sinitang in treating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury （MI/RI） based on network pharmacology and verify the prediction results by cellular experiments.MethodThe traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology database and analysis platform （TCMSP） was employed for retrieval of the main components and potential targets of Sinitang. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM） and GeneCards were employed to obtain the targets of Sinitang in treating MI/RI. STRING was employed to construct the protein-protein interaction （PPI） network， and DAVID to perform gene ontology （GO） annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment. Finally， cellular experiments were carried out to verify the predicted anti-MI/RI mechanism of Sinitang.ResultA total of 105 active ingredients and 234 targets of Sinitang were screened out， among which 116 targets were predicted to be involved in the treatment of MI/RI. The GO annotation gave 587 entries， including 417 biological process entries， 101 cell component entries， and 69 molecular function entries. The KEGG analysis enriched 125 signaling pathways， involving vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF）， phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt）， forkhead box transcription factor O （FoxO）， hypoxia-inducible factor-1 （HIF-1） apoptosis and other signaling pathways. The results of cell viability assay showed that Sinitang increased the survival rate of H9C2 cells damaged by hypoxia/reoxygenation （H/R）. Sinitang decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， and creatine kinase-MB （CK-MB） in H9C2 cells damaged by H/R. The results of flow cytometry demonstrated that Sinitang decreased the apoptosis rate of H9C2 cells damaged by H/R. Western blot showed that Sinitang down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 related X protein （Bax） and up-regulated that of B-cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2） in H/R-injured H9C2 cells.ConclusionSinitang treats MI/RI in a multi-target and multi-pathway manner， which involves the signaling pathways associated with apoptosis.
Keywords：network pharmacology;Sinitang;myocardial ischemia -reperfusion injury（H/R）;B-cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）;Bcl-2 related X protein （Bax）
Abstract：Anxiety and depression are common comorbidities of coronary heart disease and are considered as independent risk factors in addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Anxiety，depression and other mental abnormalities belong to the category of "depressive syndrome" of traditional Chinese medicine，which can lead to stasis of blood due to the lack of Qi flow. "Blood stasis" involves abnormal blood rheology， vascular endothelial dysfunction， chronic inflammatory response， abnormal lipid metabolism and other comprehensive pathological changes， and is the core pathogenesis of coronary heart disease in traditional Chinese medicine. "Depressive syndrome"can aggravate the development of coronary heart disease by promoting blood stasis in multiple ways. Prescriptions and herbs of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis can have a clinical effect by promoting blood circulation （improving physiological functions） and removing blood stasis （eliminating pathological changes）. In clinical practice， strengthening the screening of the mental and psychological status of patients with coronary heart disease and providing early and effective psychological interventions and combined Chinese and Western medicine drug treatment can significantly improve the clinical symptoms and prognosis of patients. This article was the first to put forward the academic view of "stasis caused by depression" for the first time，and discuss the modern biological research progress of "depression" in Chinese medicine that promotes blood stasis and aggravates coronary heart disease，in order to provide a basis for the subsequent development of Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease. The aim is to provide a theoretical basis for the subsequent systematic research on the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease with emotional abnormalities in Chinese medicine.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the etiology and pathogenesis of Guizhitang syndrome， clarify the related suspicious cases debated by doctors in the past dynasties， and provide references for the clinical application of Guizhitang.MethodUnder the guidance of the "transformation in accord with constitution" theory， the etiology and pathogenesis of Guizhitang syndrome were analyzed by comparing the relevant articles in the classics such as Treatise on Cold Damage （Shanghanlun） and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber （Jingui Yaolue）.ResultGuizhitang syndrome not only refers to the greater yang wind-invasion syndrome. Instead， it can be divided into two categories， i.e.， exogenous Guizhitang syndrome and miscellaneous Guizhitang syndrome. The basic etiology of exogenous Guizhitang syndrome is internal blood deficiency or yin deficiency after severe diarrhea， which is the physical basis， namely the internal cause， while the wind is the external cause that results in cold. The basic etiology of miscellaneous Guizhitang syndrome is the deficiency of blood and body fluid without the external cause. The pathogenesis of Guizhitang syndrome is neither weak nutrient Qi and defensive qi nor strong nutrient Qi but weak defensive Qi. It attributes to weak nutrient qi and strong defensive qi or disorder of defensive Qi. The essence of the pathogenesis of Guizhitang syndrome is not ″exterior deficiency″ but ″deficiency of nutrient Qi″. ″Floating Yang and weak Yin″ does not refer to the pathogenesis， but the pulse. Yang refers to the Cun pulse and Yin refers to the Chi pulse.ConclusionThe etiology and pathogenesis of Guizhitang syndrome are controversial among ancient and modern doctors and textbooks. Many physicians annotate this problem but few pay attention to the constitution basis. According to the ″transformation in accord with constitution″ theory， the constitution is the internal basis for the formation of diseases and syndromes. The formation of Guizhitang syndrome is underpinned by the inherent constitution. ″Transformation in accord with constitution″ theory is helpful to understand the formation mechanism of Guizhitang syndrome. A new understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of Guizhitang syndrome based on the ″transformation in accord with constitution″ theory is helpful to reveal the use principle of Guizhitang by ZHANG Zhong-jing. The exploration of the formation mechanism of various syndromes of six-meridian diseases and miscellaneous diseases， as well as the original idea of ZHANG Zhong-jing's prescriptions from the ″transformation in accord with constitution″ theory can provide a new idea for the understanding of ZHANG Zhong-jing's theory.
Keywords：Guizhitang syndrome;etiology and pathogenesis;transformation in accord with constitution;nutrient Qi;defensive Qi
Abstract：Jichuanjian， from the Jing Yue’s Collected Works by Zhang Jingyue， a famous doctor of Ming Dynasty， is composed of Angelica， Achyranthes bidentata， Cistanche deserticola， Alismatis Rhizoma， Shengma and Fructus Aurantii. It is one of the first 100 classic prescriptions published by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The original book states that where the disease is related to deficiency， with impacted stool， medicines such as Xiaohuang prescription cannot be used. If the treatment is needed， Jichuanjian should be applied. Through the textual research of ancient and modern literature， it is found that the efficacy of Jichuanjian has changed from ancient to modern times. In the medical books of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the modern ones， the treatment is mostly carried out based on the constipation due to deficiency recorded in the original book， while in contemporary times， the treatment of Jichuanjian focuses on kidney （yang）-deficiency constipation and yin-deficiency constipation. Especially since modern times， Jichuanjian is frequently used to treat kidney-deficiency constipation according to the description in the planning textbooks of traditional Chinese medicine colleges and universities， which causes doubts among the authors. To actively respond to the call of General Secretary Xi Jinping that we should strengthen the sorting and excavation of the essence of classical medical books， this paper analyzed and demonstrated the original text and the drug composition， traceability and application by future generations of Jichuanjian based on the Jing Yue’s Collected Works. It was concluded that Jichuanjian was prepared for the treatment of constipation due to weak constitution， fluid deficiency， and emergent purgation， aiming for constipation due to weak constitution and fluid consumption rather than kidney-deficiency constipation described in modern textbooks. As Jichuanjian was developed for similar syndromes， it was reasonable that it was understood by later generations of doctors from the perspective of liver and kidney as well as earth dampness and wood stagnation， which however remains to be further explored and verified in clinic. By combing and discussing the efficacy of Jichuanjian， this paper could provide theoretical basis for the clinical application and modern development of Jichuanjian.
Keywords：Jichuanjian;efficacy;kidney-deficiency constipation;constipation due to weak constitution;constipation due to fluid deficiency;earth dampness and wood depression
Abstract：In the clinical practice of rheumatic immune diseases in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM），it`s still unclear about the dominant diseases and breakthrough points. It`s urgent missions to formulate TCM diagnosis and treatment guidelines widely recognized and integrated by traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. In order to clarify the dominant diseases and breakthrough points in rheumatism，China association of Chinese medicine initiated a research group covering experts in the field of rheumatism of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Based on questionnaire survey and on-site discussion，experts had reached the following consensus. Evidence-based medicine research using modern medical methods and scientific methods should be carried out to provide objective clinical evidences. "Four mutuality" were put forward as the basis for the work of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine，that is the mutual communication using the exchangeable context，the mutual explanation using common theories，the mutual certification using common standards，and the mutual integration using common means. Key works should focus on solving refractory rheumatism in the future. In terms of dominant diseases and breakthrough points，this paper introduces 21 breakthrough points in 6 dominant diseases，including rheumatoid arthritis，ankylosing spondylitis，Sjogren's syndrome，hyperuricemia and gout，systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia syndrome. Advice on this discussion can provide valuable references for developing the treatment scheme of rheumatism with TCM and integrated Chinese and Western medicine and clinical practice and scientific research.
Keywords：rheumatology and immunology department;dominant disease;integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine;expert advice
Abstract：Cardiovascular diseases， with high incidence and high mortality， belong to the category of "chest impediment and heart pain" in traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）. Chinese medicines have unique effect on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases with little side effects. Huoxin pills， one of the National Essential Drugs， is formulated based on the basic pathogenesis of weak pulse at Yang and wiry pulse at Yin and the pathological basis of myocardial ischemia and hypoxia and used for treating angina pectoris of coronary heart disease （Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome）. This medicine is derived from the classic famous prescription and is composed of ten precious Chinese medicinal herbs. It can replenish Qi， activate blood， and warm collaterals to diffuse impediment by enhancing myocardial contractility and cardiac output to improve micro-circulation and increase coronary blood flow， regulating immune functions， alleviating inflammation， detoxifying， and tranquilizing mind. Clinically， it is suitable for patients with angina pectoris caused by the lack of heart Yang， chest tightness， shortness of breath， palpitation， fear of cold for limbs and so on， especially for the elderly with Yang deficiency or the patients with a history of myocardial infarction. On the basis of the available research reports， this paper explains the formula meaning of Huoxin pills from the perspective of the basic pathogenesis of coronary heart disease and predicts its action targets， location and links. Furthermore， we expound the mechanism of action of Huoxin pills based on basic research and clinical evidence-based research， aiming to provide data support and evidence for the clinical application of this medicine.
Abstract：The occurrence and development of malignant tumors seriously affect the survival time and quality of life of people all over the world， and finding proper treatment methods has been a focus for doctors. Especially in recent years， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has developed and attracted the attention of doctors and patients. From the perspective of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment， deficiency and stasis are the most fundamental causes of malignant tumors， and supplementing deficiency and removing stasis can be regarded as the basic criteria of TCM treatment of malignant tumors. TCM prescriptions can treat diseases by means of multiple components and multiple targets， with the characteristics of slight side effect and high efficacy， safety and cost performance， as well as easiness to be accepted and taken. As a classic recipe for invigorating Qi and generating blood， Danggui Buxuetang consists of Astragali Radix -Angelicae Sinensis Radix 5∶1. It has excellent effects in anti-tumor， bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy， immune function decline， anemia， heart and cerebral vessels protection， blood deficiency-led fever， diabetes， anti-atherosclerosis， anti-fatigue， anti-radiation， myocardial ischemia alleviation， inhibition of platelet aggregation， liver damage， etc. In addition， with many active anti-tumor ingredients， Danggui Buxuetang can exert anti-tumor effects via acting on multiple targets in different binding sites. However， there has been a lack of reviews on the role of Danggui Buxuetang in malignant tumors so far. Therefore， in this paper， the functions of Danggui Buxuetang in malignant tumors were reviewed. Besides， molecular docking technology was used to analyze the main active anti-tumor ingredients and action targets of Danggui Buxuetang.
Abstract：Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease （COPD） is a common and frequently-occurring disease of the respiratory system， characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow restriction， which is prone to attack repeatedly and affect patients' quality of life seriously. At present， the combination of bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids is commonly used in clinic. Although these drugs can alleviate the symptoms of COPD patients， there are certain limitations of the difficulty in controlling the course of the disease effectively and reversing the decline of patients' lung function. Therefore， searching for safer and more effective therapeutic drugs has become a hot research topic nowadays. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has remarkable curative effects and advantages in the prevention and therapy of COPD recently. Based on the increasing research and application of the active components of TCM in the therapy of COPD， studies on their pharmacodynamic mechanism are also more in depth. More and more studies have found that the active components of TCM can treat COPD patients effectively， and the mechanism involved mainly includes the anti-inflammatory， the antioxidant， and the inhibition of apoptosis. By searching and screening the domestic and foreign literatures on the treatment of COPD with the active components of TCM in recent years， the active components of TCM including flavonoids， terpenoids， phenols and saponins have been studied as the research objects， and their effects in improving the pulmonary function and oxidative stress， relieving inflammation and inhibiting apoptosis are expounded. Besides， the mechanism of action， signaling pathways and index molecules have been emphatically summarized， in order to provide the ideas for the clinical therapy and the basic research of COPD.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;active component;chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;therapy;mechanism of action
Abstract：Due to the infinite proliferation， strong migration and loss of contact inhibition of tumor cells， tumor has become the most intractable diseases to be cured in the world. At present， the main treatments of tumor diseases are surgical resection， radiotherapy， chemotherapy， targeted-therapy and immunotherapy. Although these measures can inhibit or kill the tumor to a certain extent， they still cannot avoid adverse reactions and drug resistance. After thousands of years of clinical practice， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has the characteristics of good curative effect， few adverse reactions and significantly improving the quality of life in patients， which provides new ideas for the prevention and treatment of tumors. As an endemic and rare plant in China， Tetrastigma hemsleyanum has been listed in the 2015 edition of Zhejiang Provincial Processing Specification of TCM with the effects of heat-clearing and detoxification， detumescence and analgesia， dissipating phlegm and resolving masses. It has been reported that the chemical constituents of T. hemsleyanum are mainly flavonoids， polysaccharides， phenolic acids， terpenoids， steroids， volatile oils， alkaloids and so on. It can exert a broad spectrum of anti-tumor effects through various ways such as inhibiting proliferation， migration and invasion of tumor cells， inducing apoptosis of tumor cells， inhibiting angiogenesis of tumor cells， reversing multidrug resistance of tumor cells and regulating body autoimmunity. On the basis of reviewing relevant literature at home and abroad， this paper intends to systematically sort out the chemical and anti-tumor research of T. hemsleyanum， and in order to provide a new idea for its synergistic anti-tumor effect of multi-component， multi-pathway and multi-target， and finally provide theoretical basis for the research and development and clinical application of new anti-tumor drugs of T. hemsleyanum.
Keywords：Tetrastigma hemsleyanum;chemical composition;anti-tumor;traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）;mechanism of action;new drug research and development;pharmacological effects
Abstract：China has a high incidence of esophageal cancer，more than 90% of which are esophageal squamous cell carcinoma （ESCC）. Abnormal proliferation，migration and new microvessels of intraepithelial neoplasia cells are the important pathogenic links in the transformation from esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia （EIN） to ESCC. Studies on the progression of esophageal precancerous lesions into esophageal cancer mostly focus on environment and genetic susceptibility，such as inflammatory factors，abnormal vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF） signaling pathway transduction，p53 gene mutation，and DNA methylation. Some pharmacology studies have confirmed that traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） can inhibit inflammatory factors，regulate abnormal signaling pathways and improve the microenvironment. A large number of patients with esophageal cancer have been found to be in advanced stage，and the 5-year survival rate is low even after active treatment. The quality of life of patients in advanced stage is worrying due to esophageal obstruction and lung infection，and therefore， early prevention is important. Early intervention in patients with esophageal precancerous lesions is in line with clinical needs and embodies the TCM theory of “treating disease before its onset.” The mechanism of action and clinical efficacy of TCM has been gradually confirmed and promoted， with certain clinical significance. To explore simple，economical and effective TCM intervention measures conforms to the clinical diagnosis and treatment standards and the modernization of TCM.
Keywords：esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia;esophageal cancer;early prevention;traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） therapy
Abstract：Sichuan province is extremely rich in Chinese herbal medicine resources，and the Chinese herbal medicine industry is an integral part of the "10+3" industrial system of modern agriculture. However，it has been long constrained by factors such as hilly terrain and scattered planting patterns，which hinders the mechanization development of the Chinese herbal medicine planting industry. Committed to promoting the application and development of the whole-process mechanization of Chinese herbal medicine production， the research group investigated the current situation and mechanization application of the Chinese herbal medicine planting industry in Sichuan province，and clarified the core advantages of the industry in Sichuan province and the urgent need for mechanization production. The current situation of mechanization of key links in producing rhizome-type Chinese herbal medicines such as planting，fertilization，pest and weed controlling，harvesting，and primary processing in production areas were analyzed. The key factors and existing problems in the whole-process mechanization development as well as the key future research directions were discussed，and the mechanization development trend of Ophiopogonis Radix，Chuanxiong Rhizoma and other herbal medicines in the Chinese herbal medicine planting areas of Chengdu Plain were forecasted. This paper focused on the bottleneck of the mechanization application in producing Chinese herbal medicines in Sichuan province，and introduced key technologies and equipment for the whole-process mechanization of rhizome-type Chinese herbal medicine production，which is conducive to transforming and upgrading the Chinese herbal medicine production industry，accelerating the application of high-tech information technology，and promoting the mechanization and intelligentization of the planting industry.
Abstract：Tenuifolin， a main component in Polygalae Radix， is frequently used as an important indicator for quality control of Polygalae Radix and its processed products. Dementia is a serious and persistent cognitive disorder， and the number of dementia patients is increasing worldwide， which brings great economic burden and mental pressure to families and society. At present， cholinesterase inhibitor and other drugs can only alleviate the symptoms of dementia， and there are some toxic and side effects. It has been found that tenuifolin can significantly improve cognitive disorder， learning and memory and is expected to be a potential drug for treating dementia. Tenuifolin exerts protective effects on amyloid-β （Aβ） deposition， acetylcholine reduction， neuroinflammation， cellular oxidative damage and nerve cell apoptosis caused by neurodegenerative diseases via multiple mechanisms， and can be applied to various types of dementia. In addition， it can be quickly absorbed into the blood， mainly distributed in liver and kidney， and can enter into the brain through the blood-brain barrier. However， because of its large molecular mass and poor fat solubility， tenuifolin can be rapidly eliminated， generating some problems such as low oral absoBrbability and permeability of blood-brain barrier. Therefore， the information of chemistry， pharmacology， pharmacokinetics and toxicology of tenuifolin was summarized in this paper to provide reference and ideas for further research and application.
Abstract：Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） effervescent tablets have the characteristics of rapid disintegration， good taste， and convenient taking， but there are some technical difficulties in the preparation and storage process， which are mainly reflected in the sticking， easy moisture absorption， poor compressibility， and poor stability. The basic physical properties of TCM powder （extract powder， raw powder） are the main cause of these technical problems， and also the key to control the quality of TCM effervescent tablets. Powder modification technology has shown good effects in solving the above problems. The author intended to review the research in the above aspects in recent years， and proposed the following strategies for applying powder modification technology to solve the problems in the production process of TCM effervescent tablets from the three aspects of raw materials， excipients and preparation intermediates：①The application of co-processing technology to the treatment of raw materials and auxiliary materials can solve the problems of sticking， poor compressibility， delayed disintegration， and poor stability. ②Using surface coating technology to treat raw materials and preparation intermediates can improve poor fluidity， poor compressibility and delayed disintegration. ③The hygroscopicity of the preparation can be reduced by using microencapsulation technology to treat the raw material. ④The inclusion technology can improve the clarity and stability of the preparation.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine effervescent tablets;powder modification technology;hygroscopicity;sticking;flowability;microencapsulation technology;inclusion technology
Abstract：The incidence and mortality of cancer are increasing year by year， seriously threatening human health. At present， the chemotherapy-based treatment of cancer can prolong the survival time of patients， but its severe side effects and adverse reactions often lead to poor prognosis. Therefore， searching for anti-cancer drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity has become the focus of clinical attention from all over the world. The effective components of Chinese medicine have the advantages of mild side effect and multi-target regulation， and their anti-tumor activities are highly favored by many researchers. Shikonin， a naphthoquinone compound， is the main effective component of Arnebiae Radix， with anti-tumor， anti-inflammatory， antioxidant， and other pharmacological effect. Studies have shown that shikonin possesses significant anti-tumor activities against a variety of tumor cells， and it can inhibit the development of many cancers， such as breast cancer， lung cancer， liver cancer， cervical cancer， ovarian cancer， colon cancer， and prostate cancer. The anti-tumor mechanism of shikonin is mainly related to multi-pathway and multi-target inhibition of tumor cell proliferation， the promotion of reactive oxygen species （ROS） production， induction of tumor cell apoptosis， cell cycle arrest， and tumor cell autophagy， and the inhibition of tumor cell migration and invasion. In addition， shikonin can increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to anti-tumor drugs and reverse the drug resistance of tumor cells. The signaling pathways involved in the anti-tumor effect of shikonin include phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt）， PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin （mTOR）， mitogen-activated protein kinase （MAPK）， pyruvate kinase M2/signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 （PKM2/STAT3）， and Kelch-like epichlorohydrin-related protein 1/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 （Keap1/Nrf2）. The anti-tumor effects are mainly achieved through the regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Based on the relevant literature on the anti-tumor effect and mechanism of shikonin in China and abroad， the present study reviewed the research progress in the past three years to provide useful references for the further study of the anti-tumor effect of shikonin and the research and development of new antineoplastic drugs.