Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) on hepatic lipid metabolism and steatohepatitis in ovariectomized (OVX) female SD rats and its mechanism.Method:Forty female SD rats were randomly divided into sham surgery group, OVX group, low-dose XYS group (3 g·kg-1), and high-dose XYS group (9 g·kg-1). Bilateral ovaries of rats were excised to replicate the obesity model of ovariectomized rat. After 6 weeks of intragastric administration, the change rate of body mass in each group, the levels of blood lipids and liver function of rats were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red staining were used to observe the hepatocyte histomorphology and the intrahepatic fatty deposits. The expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with sham surgery group, the change rate of body mass of OVX group was significantly increased (2-6 weeks) with the changes in the course of drug administration and the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.05), aspartate amino transferase (AST) (P<0.01), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P<0.05) were markedly increased too (P<0.05, P<0.01). By histological method, in OVX group, the structure of hepatic cord became disordered, and there were new lipid droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm, transcription levels of hepatic interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in OVX group were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with OVX group, the growth rate of body weight in low-dose and high-dose XYS group showed significant decreases with the increase of the cycle of drug administration (3-6 weeks). XYS significantly reduced levels of serum TC, ALT, AST, and LDL levels of OVX rats (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner, while serum triglyceride (TG), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in the four groups showed no statistical significance, XYS can improve hepatocyte structure and steatosis of OVX rats, XYS could reduce the transcription hepatic levels of IL-6 and IL-1β of OVX rats in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05, P<0.01), but there was no significant difference in the transcription level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) among groups, both low and high-dose XYS can increase the transcription hepatic level of ERβ in OVX group (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:XYS can improve the growth rate of body mass, the hepatic lipid metabolism abnormalities and steatohepatitis of OVX rats. The mechanism may be related to the elevated expression of hepatic ERβ by XYS, so as to inhibit the hepatic pro-inflammatory factors expressions.
Abstract：Xiebaisan, which is one of the famous classical formulas in the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) published by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in 2018, is derived from the Xiao' er Yaozheng Zhijue with definite clinical effect. By means of bibliometrics, 118 relevant ancient book data were collected, including 75 ancient books of TCM. It was found that the main symptoms of Xiebaisan had been expanded in the past dynasties. For example, the adaptive population of Xiebaisan had been extended from children to women and adults, and the scope of symptoms and signs had also been extended from pediatrics to internal medicine and gynecology. Meanwhile, the names, pathogenesis and syndromes of diseases are also described extensively, although the dosage ratio is different, the compatibility ratio of Mori Cortex, Lycii Cortex and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is relatively constant, and the decoction method is mostly followed by decocted power. At the same time, doctors in Ming and Qing dynasties have made a lot of general comments on explanation of this formula, but there is little controversy.
Keywords：famous classical formulas;Xiebaisan;Mori Cortex;Lycii Cortex;japonica rice;evolution of formula meaning;textual research
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of modified Banxia Xiexintang on depression during perimenopause, in order to study itseffecton 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and proinflammatory factors.Method:One hundred and thirty-nine patients were randomly divided into control group (69 cases) and observation group (70 cases) by random number table.Patients in control group got tibolone tablets, 2.5 mg/time, 1 time/day, and paroxetine hydrochloride tablets, 20 mg/time, 1 time/day.In addition to the therapy in control group, patients in observation group were added with modified Banxia Xiexintang, 1 dose/day.The course of treatment was 8 weeks.And before and after treatment, Hamilton depression scale for-17 items (HAMD-17), Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS), hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), improvement Kupperman(KI), liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome, menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were scored, and levels of 5-HT, rain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected.Result:After treatment, scores of HAMD-17 and SDS in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And the effect on trea depression in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.074, P<0.05). The degree of depression in observation group was ligher than that in control group (Z=2.157, P<0.05). And scores of HAMA, KI and liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The severity of perimenopausal syndrome was ligher than that in control group (Z=2.046, P<0.05). And scores of vasomotor symptoms and psychological symptoms of MENQOL scale and the total scores were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). Levels of 5-HT and BDNF were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and TESS were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to theroutine western medicine, modified Banxia Xiexintang can alleviate the severity of depression, release the symptoms of depression, anxiety and perimenopausal syudrome(PMS), improve the quality of life, inhibit pro-inflammatory factors, and enhance the expressions of 5-HT and BDNF, with no adverse event.
Keywords：perimenopausal depression;liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome;Banxia Xiexintang;quality of life;5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT);pro-inflammatory factor
Abstract：Coptidis Rhizoma-Evodia Fructus is a classic herb pair in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, the famous prescription is called Zuojinwan, which comes from Danxi Xinfa, is composed of Coptidis Rhizoma-Evodia Fructus (6∶1). In this formula, Coptidis Rhizoma has the effect of clearing heat and drying diuresis, purging fire to remove toxin and clearing heart. Evodia Fructus has the effects of expelling cold and alleviating pain, checking upward adverse flow of Qi tostop vomiting, and assisting yang to stop diarrhea. Coptidis Rhizoma has the properties of bitter and cold, and Evodia Fructus has the properties of pungent and calidus. Pungent drugs have divergent effects, and bitter drugs have sedimentation effect, when used in combination, they can clear the liver and purge fire, calm the adverse-rising energy and stop vomiting. On the basis of Zuojinwan, Coptidis Rhizoma-Evodia Fructus medicine has derived different compatibility ratios. Different ratios are different in terms of efficacy, usage, clinical application. Although with the application of modern analytical instruments and the development of molecular pharmacology theory, the chemical constituents and Pharmacological effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and Evodia Fructus have been fully studied, as to the principle of compatibility, and the study of pharmacological effects and chemical constituents after the compatibility of the two drugs in different proportions, there is still no comprehensive system summary. This article makes a systematic and comprehensive explanation of Coptidis Rhizoma-Evodia Fructus from the aspects of famous literature, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and clinical applicationthrough querying literature and ancient books. In order to make this herb pair more standardized, and provide reference materials for further research and development for this herb pair.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of modified Sanzi Yangqintang combined with colon hydrotherapy in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with phlegm-dampness.Method:Totally 100 patients with NAFLD were selected and randomly divided into treatment group (50 cases) and control group (50 cases). Both groups were orally given silybin and glycyrrhizic acid diamine capsules.The treatment group was also added with modified Sanzi Yangqintang and colon hydrotherapy.The treatment lasted for 7 days.The control group was also added with saline colon hydrotherapy.Main traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores and liver function indexes before and after treatment [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamate transpeptidase (GGT)], blood lipid routine [cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG)], inflammatory factors [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], FibroScan measurement [liver stiffness measurement (LSM), controlled attenuation parameters (CAP)], uric acid and body weight changes were observed.Adverse reactions were observed, and the patient's medication safety was evaluated.Result:TCM syndrome score, liver enzyme index, blood lipid index, inflammatory factor index, FibroScan CAP, uric acid and body weight of the two groups were significantly reduced than those before treatment(P<0.05, P<0.01) .There was no significant difference in liver enzymes, TCH, IL-6 and LSM between treatment group and control group.And TCM syndrome scores, UA, TNF-α, FibroScan CAP decreased were significantly different from control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Sanzi Yangqintang combined with colon hydrotherapy can not only alleviate NAFLD with phlegm-dampness symptoms, but also significantly reduce triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor and FibroScan CAP and body mass, with certain clinical efficacy in a short term.
Keywords：modified Sanzi Yangqintang;Chinese medicine colon hydrotherapy;non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;phlegm-dampness
Abstract：Objective:To define the clinical efficacy of modified Taohe Chengqitang combined with colon hydrotherapy in patients with severe nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) accompanied by phlegm-heat stagnation syndrome and its mechanism.Method:Totally 100 patients with severe NAFLD by phlegm-heat stagnation syndrome were enrolled in the study.They were all given Shanzha Xiaozhi capsule.According to the random number table, the patients were randomly divided into the observation group (50 patients, colon hydrotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine) and the control group (50 patients, Shanzha Xiaozhi capsule alone). The observation period was 4 weeks.The therapeutic effect of colon hydrotherapy was verified through determinations of the liver function, blood lipid, insulin resistance index (IRI), controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) before and after treatment.The mechanism of colon hydrotherapy combined with modified Taohe Chengqitang was preliminarily analyzed based on changes of IR, TNF-α and IL-6.Result:Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptadase (γ-GT), total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulins (FINS), IRI, CAP, TNF-αand IL-6 of NAFLD patients in both of two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.01). ALT, AST, γ-GT, TCH, TG, FPG, IRI, CAP, TNF-α and IL-6 in observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group after treatment (P<0.01). FINS in observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Colon hydrotherapy combined with modified Taohe Chengqitang is an effective method for treating NAFLD accompanied by phlegm-heat stagnation syndrome.Its mechanism may be mainly correlated with the reduction of IRI, serum TNF-α and IL-6.The course of colon hydrotherapy, the therapeutic mechanism and the long-term efficacy need to be further studied in the future.
Abstract：Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a kind of metabolic stress liver injury, which has become one of most common chronic liver diseases in China and even world. Therefore, the occurrence and development of NAFLD and its prevention and treatment have been attracted more and more attention. The disturbance of intestinal microecology, especially intestinal flora, is one of important factors leading to NAFLD. The syndrome traceability, etiology and pathogenesis of nafld in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are related to imbalance of spleen-stomach's ascending and descending. The effect of NAFLD treatment depends on spleen-stomach's ascending and descending. The intestinal tract is main part for realizing spleen-stomach function according to principle of TCM. Intestinal flora is a regulation factor affecting host metabolism, which is consistent with biological connotation of TCM principle of spleen-stomach's ascending and descending. Because spleen-stomach's ascending and descending disorder is consistent with symptoms of intestinal flora imbalance, intestinal flora is closely related to spleen-stomach's ascending and descending in TCM. Based on modern intestinal micro-ecosystem, this paper expounds theoretical basis for treatment of NAFLD based on relationship between spleen-stomach's ascending and descending in TCM, and on that basis, ideas of prescription and medication for NAFLD were put forward, mainly including: invigorating spleen and replenishing Qi and ascending clearity, regulating Qi-flowing and regulating stomach and descending turbidity, resolving phlegm, activating blood circulation and dissipating accumulation, and dominant role in coordinating spleen-stomach's ascending and descending and intestinal microecology is highlighted in treatment of NAFLD. Soothing liver and regulating Qi, dispersing and descending lung-Qi, ascending clearity and descending turbidity, and warming and activating kidney-Yang, synergistic factors for onset of NAFLD were taken into account to promote spleen-stomach's ascending and descending functions, and therapeutic effect shall be considered from perspective of intestinal microecology. After retention enema with Chinese herbs, transporting function of large intestine might be activated to help stomach-Qi descending and coordinate spleen-stomach's ascending and descending, and intestinal microecological mechanism of drug delivery channel intervening NAFLD may be studied based on 16s rDNA gene pathway. With deepening of research on intestinal flora, relationship between it and spleen-stomach's ascending and descending and NAFLD will be further revealed, which not only inherits China's long history of applying spleen-stomach's ascending and descending to treat liver diseases, but also expand perspective of regulating intestinal microecolog(intestinal flora) in treatment of NAFLD.
Keywords：intestinal microecology;spleen-stomach's ascending and descending;non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD);prescription
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the evolution of cardiac function and blood pressure in ovariectomized rats and the effect and mechanism of Erxiantang.Method:Healthy 10-week-old female SPF SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, estrogen group(estradiol valerate, 0.18 mg·kg-1) and Erxiantang group(7.5 g·kg-1). The rats were intragastrically administered 2 weeks after ovariectomy, once a day for 12 weeks.Sham operation groups and model groups were given equal volumes of purified water.At the 4th week, 8th week, and 12th week after administration, the cardiac function, blood pressure, and levels of estrogen (E2) in rat serum were measured by non-invasive ultrasound cardiogram (UCG), tail artery detection techniques and radioimmunoassay.The levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin 2(Ang Ⅱ) in rat serum were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The cardiac morphology and apoptosis were detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, electron microscopy and Terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL).Result:Compared with sham operation group, the ejection fraction (EF) decreased and the left ventricular end systolic volume (LVVols) increased in the model group at 4th week after administration(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in cardiac function between the groups at 8th week.The left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVIDs), LVVols, left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVIDd), and left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVVold) were significantly increased in the model group at 12th week (P<0.01). At the 4th weeks, 8th week and 12th week, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the model group increased (P<0.05) and showed an increasing trend, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not change significantly.At the 12th week, the levels of E2 in serum decreased (P<0.05), ET-1 and Ang Ⅱ increased of the model group (P<0.01). The cardiac myofibrils were irregular, some myofilament was broken, and mitochondrial palsy was disordered, broken or disappeared, and cardiac apoptosis increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, myocardial contraction and diastolic function were significantly improved in Erxian decoction group, and blood pressure was decreased.The levels of E2 in serum was increased (P<0.05). The levels of ET-1 was decreased (P<0.05), and AngⅡ in serum was significantly decreased (P<0.01). The mitochondrial morphological structure was improved and the cardiac apoptotic rate was significantly decreased (P<0.01).Conclusion:After the ovariectomy, the rats showed a series of pathological changes such as decreased heart function and increased blood pressure.Compared with the decrease of heart function, the changes of blood pressure appeared earlier.Erxiantang exerts its intervention on cardiac function and blood pressure in ovariectomized rats by regulating E2, blood active substances and cardiac apoptosis.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the expressions of tight junction proteins (claduin-1, claudin-7 occludin)of psoriasis-like lesions in mice, and clarify the effect of Yangxue Jiedu decoction on the epidermal barrier of psoriasis, so as to provide scientific basis for the treatment of psoriasis with Yangxue Jiedu decoction.Method:C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, methotrexate group and Yangxue Jiedu decoction.Methotrexate solution and water decoction of Yangxue Jiedu decoction were prepared, and the mice were given imiquimot to induce psoriasis-skin lesions after the hair was shaved.Daily photos were taken to record the forms of skin lesions and psoriasis area and severity index(PASI) scores.Water and oil test pens were used to detect skin moisture content. The pathological changes were observed by htoxylin eosin (HE) staining, and the epidermal thickness was measured.Ki67 was detected by immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of loricrin, CD3+ T lymphocyte infiltration and claduin-1, claudin-7, occludin.In addition, the expressions of claudin-7 and occludin in skin lesions were detected by Western blot.Meanwhile, interleukin-17(IL-17) (1 mg·L-1) was used to simulate the microenvironment of psoriasis skin lesions, and the intervention was conducted by making Yangxue component, Jiedu component and Yangxue Jiedu dry powder.The toxicity of the drug on Hacat cells was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8)method.The effect of the drugs on the expressions of claudin-1, claudin-7, occludin in Hacat was detected by immunofluorescence assay.Result:Yangxue Jiedu decoction could significantly reduce the psoriasis skin lesions in mice, and reduce the PASI score and skin thickness (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the skin moisture content in the lesion was increased (P<0.01). Abnormal expressions of ki67 and loricrin in epidermis and infiltration of CD3+ T cells were reduced (P<0.01). In addition, the expressions of claudin-1, claudin-7, occludin proteins (P<0.05), and the integrity of the tight junction structure were increased.In vitro studies, compared with the model group, the expressions of claudin-1, claudin-7, and occludin in the Yangxue Jiedu group and Yangxue group were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, there was no statistically significant difference in protein expression in the Jiedu group.Conclusion:By regulating the expressions of tight junction proteins between keratinocytes, Yangxue Jiedu decoction can inhibit the abnormal proliferation and differentiation, and further restore the broken epidermal barrier.Yangxue Jiedu decoction plays a role in regulating tight junction mainly through Yangxue component.
Abstract：Objective:To analysis the effect of Huayu Qutan recipe on myocardial fibrosis in atherosclerotic rabbits based on mitochondrial fusion-lysis.Method:The 36 SPF healthy male rabbits were selected, and 6 rabbits were selected randomly as the normal group, and given normal pellet feed, another 30 rats were fed with high fat diet to establish atherosclerosis model.After successful replication of animal models, they were randomly divided into model group, Huayu Qutan recipe low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose group (4.0, 8.0, 16.0 g·kg-1) and simvastatin group (1.4 mg·kg-1), 6 rats each.Each group was given corresponding drugs according to the dosage, continuous administration for 4 weeks.The serum lipid levels in rabbits of each group were detectived by automatic biochemical analyzer, the degree of myocardial fibrosis was measured by Masson staining, and expression levels of mitochondrial fusion protein 1 (Mitofusin 1), mitochondrial fusion protein 2 (Mitofusin 2), optic atrophy protein 1 (Opa1), promoter protein 1 (Drp1), mitogen 1 (Fis1) in myocardial tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry.Result:Compared with normal group, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in model group were significantly increased, levels of density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly decreased, the expression levels of Mitofusin 1, Mitofusin 2 and Opa1 in myocardial tissue were significantly decreased, the expression levels of Drp1 and Fis1 were significantly increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), compared with model group, the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C in simvastatin group and Huayu Qutan recipe low-dose, medium and high-dose group were significantly decreased, levels of HDL-C were significantly increased, the expression levels of Mitofusin 1, Mitofusin 2 and Opa1 in myocardial tissue were significantly increased, the expression levels of Drp1 and Fis1 were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), compared with the Huayu Qutan recipe high-dose group, the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C in simvastatin group and Huayu Qutan recipe low, medium-dose group were significantly increased, the expression levels of Mitofusin 1, Mitofusin 2 and Opa1 in myocardial tissue were significantly decreased, the expression levels of Drp1 and Fis1 were significantly increased(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Huayu Qutan recipe can effectively regulate blood lipid and inhibit myocardial fibrosis in atherosclerotic rabbits, and the higher the dose of Huayu Qutan recipe, the more obvious the effect is, it is speculated that its effect may be related to the regulation of the expression of mitochondrial fusion-lysis related proteins such as Mitofusin1, Mitofusin2 and Opa1, Drp1 and Fis1 in myocardial cells.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of modified Longdan Xiegantang in treatment of anal sinusitis patients with syndrome of interior dampness-heat and on immune response, oxidative stress.Method:A total of 80 cases of anal sinusitis patients with syndrome of interior dampness-heat treated in our hospital from May 2017 to May 2018 were randomly divided into two groups, with 40 cases in each group. The control group was treated by enema with Metronidazole injection combined with gentamicin sulfate injection. In addition to the therapy of the control group, the treatment group was also given modified Longdan Xiegantang. The symptoms and signs score, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), procalcitonin (PCT), CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, immunoglobulin A(IgA), IgG, IgM, IgE, SOD, propylene glycol (MDA) levels of two groups were observed before and after treatment, and the curative effect, reactions and relapse were observed.Result:The clinical efficacy of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group, and the rank-sum test showed statistically significant differences (Z=1.981, P<0.05). After treatment, the scores of symptoms, such as anal distension and pain, and signs, such as anal sinus tenderness, hyperemia and edema in the treatment group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The levels of TNF-α, PCT, IL-2, IL-6 and MDA in treatment group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The levels of IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and SOD in treatment group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). The recurrence rate was 5.13%in treatment group, and 21.05%in control group, indicating a significant difference (χ2=4.319, P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Longdan Xiegantang is effective in treating syndrome of interior dampness-heat anal sinusitis. It can effectively relieve symptoms, regulate pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance and Th1/Th2 balance, improve cellular immune function and humoral immune function, inhibit oxidative stress response, and reduce recurrence rate, with a high safety.
Keywords：anus sinusitis;modified Longdan Xiegantang;inflammation;oxidative stress;immune function
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Wenshen Zhuyang Tiaozhou method on sex hormones, insulin and ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome based on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway.Method:Totally 60 PCOS patients with kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from February 2017 to July 2018 were selected and divided into observation group and control group according to the random number table method, with 30 cases in each group. The control group was orally treated with ethinylestradiol and cycloproterone acetate tablets, in addition to this therapy, the observation group also received Wenshen Zhuyang Tiaozhou method. Both groups were followed up after three months of treatment. Sex hormone levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) levels were measured in all patients. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance(HOMA-IR) was calculated by homeostasis model assessment method, and the expression levels of Akt and p-Akt proteins in endometrium were detected by Western blot.Result:After treatment, the levels of FSH and LH in both groups decreased, and the level of E2 sex hormone increased (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of FSH and LH in observation group were lower than those in control group, whereas the level of E2 sex hormone was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of FPG and FINS in two groups were significantly lower (P<0.05), while the levels of FPG and FINS in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the ovarian volume and the number of sinusoidal oocytes in two groups decreased significantly, while the endometrial thickness increased (P<0.05). After treatment, the ovarian volume and the number of sinusoidal oocytes in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group, and the endometrial thickness was significantly lower than that in observation group (P<0.05). After treatment, the ovarian volume and the number of sinusoidal oocytes in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group, and the endometrial thickness was larger than that of control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the Akt and p-Akt proteins in the endometrium of observation group and control group were significantly decreased, while the Akt and p-Akt proteins in the endometrium of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Wenshen Zhuyang Tiaozhou method can effectively ameliorate the sex hormone level, regulate insulin and promote the recovery of ovarian function in PCOS patients with kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome. This may be related to the blocking of the phosphorylation of Akt and the inhibition of the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the clinical efficacy of Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Danzi Xiaoyaosan on H-type hypertension with syndrome of Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity and its effect on vascular endothelial function and inflammatory factors.Method:One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into control group (75 cases) and observation group (75 cases) by random number table.Patients in control group got enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets, 1 tablet/time, 1 time/day, and patients with uncontrollable blood pressure were also given nifedipine sustained-release tablets, 20-30 mg/time, 2 times/days.In addition of the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given modified Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Danzi Xiaoyaosan, 1 dose/day.The course of treatment was 12 weeks.Before and after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and up-to-standard blood pressure were detected.And ambulatory blood pressure, standard deviation of 24-hours systolic blood pressure (24 h SSD), standard deviation of 24-hour diastolic blood pressure 24 h DSD), 24 h mean systolic blood pressure (24 h SBP), 24 h mean diastolic blood pressure (24 h DBP) were recorded.And ankle brachial index (ABI) and brachial artery blood flow mediated diamete (FMD) were discussed, syndrome of Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity was scored, and levels of iterleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) were detected.Result:The levels of SBP, DBP, 24 h SSD, 24 h DSD, 24 h SBP and 24 h DBP were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The achievement rate of accidental blood pressure in observation group was 81.19%, which was higher than 66.98% in control group (χ2=29.81, P<0.01). And levels of ABI, FMD and IL-10 were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while the score of syndrome of Yin Deficiency and Yang Hyperactivity and the levels of Hcy, leptin, IL-6 and hs-CRP were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to the therapy of antihypertensive and folic acid, Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Danzi Xiaoyaosan can be given to control the level of blood pressure and Hcy, relieve the variability of blood pressure, alleviate clinical symptoms, raise the rate of achievement rate of blood pressure, improve the function of vascular endothelium, and regulate inflammatory factors.
Keywords：H-type hypertension;Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity;Liuwei Dihuangwan;Danzi Xiaoyaosan;homocysteine(Hcy);vascular endothelial function;inflammatory factors
Abstract：Objective:To investigate excretion of GK-A, a antitussive compound separated from Ginkgo Semen, in the urine and bile of rats.Method:UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine the concentration of GK-A in rat urine and bile samples. The separation was performed on a C18 column, the mobile phase consisted of 0.1%formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-1 min, 95%A; 1-3 min, 95%-85%A; 3-7.5 min, 85%-40%A; 7.5-8 min, 40%A). The detection was carried out by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive ion mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed. After intragastric administration of GK-A, the urine and bile samples were collected at different time points, and the contents of GK-A in the samples were determined, and the cumulative excretion and cumulative excretion rate were calculated.Result:After 72 h of administration, the cumulative excretion of GK-A in urine was (12.35±2.69) μg, and the cumulative excretion rate was (0.58±0.13)%. Meanwhile, after 24 h of administration, the cumulative excretion of GK-A in bile was (55.16±29.22) μg, and the cumulative excretion rate was (1.57±0.83)%. Only a small amount of GK-A was excreted from urine and bile of rats with a slow speed.Conclusion:After intragastric administration, the excretion of GK-A in rat urine and bile is not the main elimination pathway.
Keywords：Ginkgo Semen;GK-A;urine;bile;excretion behavior;antitussive effect;development of new drug
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Ganoderma polysaccharides (GP) on endogenous substance metabolism in radiation-injured mice by metabolomics, so as to find potential biomarkers and analyze their metabolic pathways, and to explore its mechanism of action.Method:Thirty mice were randomly divided into normal group (normal saline), model group (normal saline) and GP group (dose of 96 mg·kg-1) for 14 days of continuous intragastric administration, 10 mice in each group, 2 h after the intragastric administration on the 7th day, mice in the model group and GP group were subjected to whole body irradiation by X-rays, except the normal group. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to detect endogenous small molecule metabolites in thymus tissue of mice. Principal component analysis (PCA)and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to compare the changes of endogenous small molecule metabolites in thees three groups, these differential metabolites among the three groups were analyzed by Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathway method.Result:A total of 34 potential biomarkers were identified, compared with the model group, it was found that the GP group had a significant reversal trend on L-glutamic acid, taurine, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC), etc. They were involved in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism.Conclusion:GP can play a role in radiation protection by improving the expression of related potential biomarkers and related metabolic pathways in thymus of radiation-injured mice.
Abstract：Objective:To optimize the matrix prescription of Fufang Huangqi cream and evaluate its rheological properties.Method:With appearance, spreadability and stability as evaluation indexes, the weighting coefficient of each evaluation index was determined by analytic hierarchy process (AHP), criteria importance through intercriteria correlation method (CRITIC) and AHP-CRITIC mixed weighting method. The formulation of Fufang Huangqi cream was optimized by D-optimal mixture design and its rheological properties were evaluated.Result:The weight coefficients of appearance, spreadability and stability according to AHP-CRITIC mixed weighting method were 0.185, 0.282 and 0.532, respectively. According to D-optimal mixture design based on AHP-CRITIC analysis, the optimized formulation of Fufang Huangqi cream was liquid paraffin of 3.70 g, vaseline of 2.00 g, stearic acid of 2.00 g, sodium dodecyl sulfate of 5.90 g, glycerin of 6.00 g and extract of 20.40 g. The rheological parameters of Fufang Huangqi cream was non-newtonian index<1, storage modulus>loss modulus.Conclusion:The preferred matrix formulation is stable and feasible. Fufang Huangqi cream has good appearance and is a shear thinning non-newtonian fluid. Its viscosity and ductility meet the needs of industrial production and clinical application.
Abstract：Objective:On the basis of previous research, to detect the changes of six main alkaloids in Gelsemium elegans rhizomes before and after being processed, so as to reveal its internal mechanism of processing.Method:The contents of gelsemine, humantenidine, koumine, gelsenicine, gelsevirine and humantenine in G. elegans rhizomes was determined simultaneously by HPLC, the content changes of these components before and after processing and its reasons were analyzed by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The mobile phase was methanol (A)-0.1%formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-10 min, 22%A; 10-20 min, 22%-30%A; 20-30 min, 30%-40%A). The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm, the injection volume was 10 μL, and the column temperature was 30 ℃.Result:Before processing, contents of the above six components in raw products were 1.444, 1.129, 3.590, 1.603, 2.376, 1.631 mg·g-1, after processing, the contents of these six components were 2.258, 0.343, 1.176, 0.115, 0.459, 0.281 mg·g-1, respectively. Gelsenicine, the most toxic ingredient of G. elegans rhizomes, decreased most significantly with a decreasing rate of 92.83%, while the less toxic ingredient, gelsemine, increased by 56.37%after processing. The contents of other four components in G. elegans rhizomes decreased to varying degrees after processing. The results of cluster analysis indicated that G. elegans rhizomes were clearly divided into two categories before and after processing. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component before and after processing was changed from koumine to gelsemine.Conclusion:The degradation of toxic components and content changes of other components may be one of the intrinsic mechanism of toxicity attenuation and efficacy reservation of G. elegans rhizomes being processed.
Abstract：Objective:Based on LC-MS and molecular docking strategy, to study the pharmacodynamic material basis of Jinqi Jiangtang tablets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM).Method:UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the chemical constituents of Jinqi Jiangtang tablets. On this basis, the disease targets were screened based on the online disease target database and protein-protein interaction(PPI). The molecular docking technology was used to verify the relationship between the chemical constituents and disease targets in Jinqi Jiangtang tablets, so as to find out the potential pharmacodynamic basis of Jinqi Jiangtang tablets in the treatment of T2DM.Result:Based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, 51 chemical constituents were identified in Jinqi Jiangtang tablets, including 31 astragalus, 16 coptis and 4 honeysuckle. The key targets of catalase from micrococcus lysodeiktic(CAT) receptor, peroxisome proliferative actived receptor(PPARG) receptor and insulin(INS) receptor were identified by CTD database, topological analysis and related literature. Based on LC-MS and molecular docking technology, we found that magnoflorine, coptisine, epiberberine, astragaloside Ⅳ, caffeic acid, palmatine, berberine, jateorhizine, berberubine, berberastine, groenlandne, lycoranine B, demethyleneberberine, isomucrontolula-7-O-glucoside and calycosin-7-O-glucoside were used to treat type 2 diabetes potential pharmacodynamic material basis of urinary diseases.Conclusion:Protein interaction and network topology analysis are helpful for the rapid localization of core targets. In addition, molecular docking technology can realize large-scale virtual screening of potential candidate compounds. The integration of LC-MS and molecular docking technology can facilitate and quickly find the potential pharmacodynamic substance basis in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, and provide a reference for subsequent drug activity screening experiments.
Keywords：type 2 diabetes mellitus;molecular docking technology;Jinqi Jiangtang tablets;pharmacodynamic material basis
Abstract：Objective:To study the quality of Curcumae Radix from different areas, in order to screen out excellent provenances to improve the overall quality and stability of Curcumae Radix.Method:The volatile oil, alcohol extract, germacrone, germacr-1(10)-ene-5, 8-dione and curcumin were selected as comprehensive evaluation indicators to determine the content of five main components in 50 samples of Curcumae Radix from different areas. Cluster analysis was made for Curcumae Radix from different areas of Guangxi, and the fusion models of GRA(grey correlation degree) and TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) of Curcumae Radix were established.Result:The results of cluster analysis indicated that 50 samples from different areas could be divided into four categories. The fusion models of GRA and TOPSIS were based on relative closeness γi as the index to comprehensively evaluated the quality of Curcumae Radix. Samples No. YL-2, YL-5, YL-1, YL-4 were screened out as excellent samples. The average relative closeness γi was ranked as follows: Yulin>Pingnan>Hengxian>Xingye>Zhaoqing>Qingtang>Zhongshan>Qinzhou>Guigang>Lingshan.Conclusion:The multiple attribute decision making analysis gray correlation degree and TOPSIS fusion models are used to optimize the quality evaluation of Curcumae Radix. The method is simple, objective and comprehensive, which can be promoted and provide a reference for the screening of high-quality provenance.
Keywords：Curcumae Radix;cluster analysis;quality evaluation;the fusion model of grey correlation degree and TOPSIS
Abstract：Objective:To establish HPLC fingerprint spectra of the pieces, standard decoction, intermediates, dispensing granules of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, and assess the quality correlation among them, then to evaluate the scientificity and rationality of preparation process based on the yields of dry extract and the transfer rate of acteoside.Method:Fingerprints of several batches of the pieces, standard decoction, intermediates and dispensing granules of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata were detected by HPLC, and the content of acteoside was determined according to the method of ChP 2015.The fingerprint chromatographic separation was carried out on Phenomenex Luna 100A C18(2) chromatographic column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid for gradient elution, with a flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, and the detection wavelength was 330 nm. At the same time, the correlation analysis of quality transmission during the preparation of dispensing granules was carried out based on the yields of dry extract and the transfer rates of acteoside.Result:The contents of acteoside pieces, standard decoction and intermediates were basically consistent. The yield of dry extracts of intermediates and dispensing granules, and the transmission rate of acteoside were all within the range of standard decoction, and basically consistent with standard decoction. There were 7 common peaks in all fingerprint spectra of 17 batches of pieces, 17 batches of standard decoction, 10 intermediates and 10 dispensing granules of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, with a good correlation. The 13 main chromatographic peaks in the dispensing granules were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis, and 4 of the 7 fingerprint common peaks were identified as 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, acteoside, isoacteoside and martynoside.Conclusion:The main chemical constituents of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata pieces, standard decoction, intermediates and dispensing granules are basically identical. The established HPLC fingerprint method can be used for the quality control of preparation process of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata dispensing granules.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the mechanism of Xiao Banxiatang in preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by using network pharmacology.Method:The targets of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting were collected by therapeutic target database (TTD), Drugbank database and DisGeNET database. The target genes were normalized by Uniprot database. The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was selected according to oral bioavailabilityc (OB) ≥ 30%, drug-likeness (DL) ≥ 0.14 and the literature research. The active constituents of pinellia ternata and ginger were collected through the PubChem database, the ALOGPS2.1 database and the Swiss Target Prediction database, and the target of ginger was collected and standardized through the Uniprot database, the molecular inverse docking of the important component 6-gingerol was carried out through the DRAR-CPI database, gene ontology (GO) analysis and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed through DAVID 6.8 database, and relationship diagrams were drawn by Cytoscape 3.2.1 software and network topology parameters were analyzed, GO and KEGG bubble maps were drawn by ImageGP tool.Result:A total of 148 targets for chemotherapeutic nausea and vomiting, and 27 active ingredients of Xiao Banxiatang were collected, including 22 associated with chemotherapeutic nausea and vomiting, 38 control targets, 67 biological processes based on GO analysis, 11 cell components, 18 molecular functions, 21 KEGG pathways, involving cyclic Adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway.Conclusion:Based on network pharmacology, chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting and Xiao Banxiatang were analyzed to provide ideas for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Keywords：Xiao Banxiatang;chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting;network pharmacology;pathway enrichment;target interaction
Abstract：Objective:To explore the possible mechanisms of Erzhiwan in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the network pharmacology.Method:The candidate active components and targets of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and Ecliptae Herba were obtained through retrieval of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) systems pharmacology database (TCMSP) and literatures. Through Uniprot database and the human genome database (GeneCards), the overlapping genes of Erzhiwan and hepatocellular carcinoma were collected. The " candidate active components-targets" network of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and Ecliptae Herba was built with Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. Drug target proteins and disease targets were mapped, and Venn map was drawn by Omicshare database. Major targets interaction network was formed by using String database and " Generate style from statistics" tool in Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. Molecular docking with active components was carried out by Systems Dock Web Site. The Gene Ontology (GO) classification enrichment analysis and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis for the targets were carried out in DAVID database.Result:Totally 21 active components, including beta-sitosterol, quercetin, luteolin, demethylwedelolactone, kaempferol, and 151 targets, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), N-terminal kinase (JUN), proto-oncogene (c-MYC), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) of Erzhiwan were collected. Erzhiwan exerts its effects on HCC mainly by acting on signal pathways, including Hepatitis B, TNF, Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), tumor suppressor gene p53 and Toll-like receptor.Conclusion:Based on the methodology of network pharmacology, this study preliminarily predicted the major targets and pathways of Erzhiwan in the treatment of HCC, providing a direction for further studies.
Abstract：Objective:In this study, a network pharmacology-based method was applied to analyze the mechanism of modified Erzhiwan combined with epimedium in treatment of atherosclerosis.Method:The compounds and targets of modified Erzhiwan combined with epimedium were screened in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) and bioinformatics analysis tool for molecular mechanism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM). Mang related databases were applied to find the target-related to atherosclerosis.The common targets of modified Erzhiwan combined with epimedium and atherosclerosis were got by venn diagrams.Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to construct ingredients-disease-targets networks.Then protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of ingredients-disease-targets was builed in STRING database, and was visualized by Cytoscape 3.6.1, then important modules were analyzed with Moleculaar complex detection(MCODE). Biological information annotation databases (DAVID) was used to carry on gene ontology (GO) analysis and enrichment analysis of gene encyclopedia kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway.Result:A total of 38 active ingredients and 266 potential targets of modified Erzhiwan combined with epimedium were obtained from TCMSP and BATMAN-TCM, 254 atherosclerosis-related targets were retrieved from disease database.Then 52 common targets were obtained and 14 core genes were screened.Biological processes were related to inflammatory response, regulation of insulin secretion, positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process, etc.The biological pathways mainly included tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B(NF-κB)signaling pathway, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors signaling pathway and so on.Conclusion:Modified Erzhiwan combined with epimedium may play the anti-atherosclerosis role by estrogen-like effect through attach estrogen receptor, inhibiting inflammation and improving insulin resistance, which may provide guidance for further experimental research.
Abstract：Objective:Through data mining analysis of Chinese patent medicine prescription containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (CPMCA) in a hospital, the characteristic rules of clinical medication of this kind of Chinese patent medicine were analyzed from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation and treatment, and the application prospect of data mining in TCM prescription analysis was explored.Method:CPMCA in the hospital outpatient clinics from November 2017 to October 2018 was conducted. The clinical application of this kind of Chinese patent medicine was retrospectively analyzed from the aspects of basic situation of patients, TCM diseases, TCM syndromes and so on. The clinical application of CPMCA was reviewed and analyzed. Three kinds of data mining algorithms in Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 were used to analyze the characteristics of prescription medication.Result:A total of 8 kinds of Chinese patent medicines containing Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata were used in a hospital, and most of them were used by patients under 14 years old, among them, the dosage of Xiaoer Feike granules was the largest. The TCM diseases were mostly cough, cold and asthma, while the TCM syndromes were mostly cold-heat complicated syndrome, wind-phlegm syndrome and external contraction of wind evil. The CPMCA for nourishing and warming kidney-Yang included Jingui Shenqiwan, Longlu capsules, Wangbi capsules and Guifu Dihuang pills. The TCM diseases were mostly arthralgia syndrome, vertigo, and consumptive disease, meanwhile, the syndromes were mainly deficiency of liver and kidney, kidney deficiency and blood stasis, and deficiency of spleen and kidney. Decision tree analysis showed that the CPMCA had the characteristics of age distribution, among which TCM diseases and syndromes were the main decision points. According to the age, sex, diagnosis of Chinese and western medicine, and TCM syndromes of this type of prescription, the CPMCA were divided into 10 categories by cluster analysis. Correlation analysis showed that the combination of Xiaoer Feike granules was the most common, but the correlation was not high. And Jingui Shenqiwan, Qili Qiangxin capsules, Longlu capsules and Wangbi capsules had their own strong associated medication.Conclusion:The application of data mining algorithm in multi-factor analysis of clinical prescription is close to the clinical dialectical treatment thinking of TCM. Combined with the basic statistics, it can be seen that the CPMCA in a hospital is consistent with the characteristics of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment.
Keywords：data mining;algorithm;Chinese patent medicine;Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata;syndrome differentiation and treatment;rational use of drugs;Xiaoer Feike granules
Abstract：" Basaga" is one of the commonly used medicinal materials in Mongolian medicine. It has a long history and effects in cooling blood, stopping stabbing pain and detoxifying. The " Basaga" in Mongolian medicine compound preparations have been widely used in various Mongolian hospitals because of its remarkable clinical efficacy. However, due to the differences in inheritance, medicinal parts and plants in Inner Mongolia, the phenomena of homonym and synonym in the application of " Basaga" have been very obvious, which leads to confusion in clinical use, and challenges the safety and effectiveness of this kind of Mongolian medicine. To understand the application of " Basaga" in Mongolian medicine compound preparation, and collect and summarize the types of " Basaga" preparations and the variety of " Basaga" used in preparations and formulations, functional indications and clinical applications were analyzed and collected based on standards and specifications of Mongolian medicine, the application of Mongolian medicine hospitals and Mongolian medicine hospital' s preparation room in Inner Mongolian, and relevant documents in recent years were reviewed. The data can provide references for optimizing and improving " Basaga" , Mongolian medicine standards and the overall standard level. What' s more, the basic data for strengthening the comprehensive development and research of " Basaga" in Mongolian medicine compound preparations in future, so as to ensure and improve the accuracy and clinical effectiveness of " Basaga" in prescriptions of Mongolian patent medicine, and lay a foundation for rational use and modern research of " Basaga" Mongolian medicine.
Keywords：Basaga;Mongolian medicine;compound preparation;formulae;situation of application
Abstract：Chaihu Shugansan is a representative prescription for soothing the liver and relieving depression in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Chaihu Shugansan is from Jingyue Quanshu.Chaihu Shugansan has been widely used in clinic since Ming dynasty because of its exact curative effect.Chaihu Shugansan has the effect in soothing the liver and relieving depression through multiple components, multiple ways and multiple targets.At present, the mechanism of Chaihu Shugansan has been interpreted based on its multiple effect on neurotransmitters, cytokines, neuronal injury signal pathways, neuroendocrine, oxidative stress and so on.This paper summarizes the progress of clinical studies on source, pharmacology of single herbs and effective components of Chaihu Shugansan, in aspects of cardiovascular system, neuropsychiatric system, digestive system, reproduction-related systems, analyses and summarizes relevant literatures of Chaihu Shugansan published in recent years, and discusses about current development and shortcomings of Chaihu Shugansan, so as to provide ideas for the studies in the future.Beneficial explorations will be conducted in large-sample-size, standardized, clinical and experimental mutual verification.In proteomics research technology, network pharmacology, supramolecular theory of TCM and other fields, Chaihu Shugansan and liver depression syndrome will be organically connected from the microscopic perspective.And comprehensive studies will be conduct to TCM, metabonomics, proteomics, genomics and other disciplines, in order to clarify Chaihu Shugansan prescriptions, syndromes, therapeutics and its mechanism.
Keywords：Chaihu Shugansan;syndrome of liver stagnation;current development and shortcomings
Abstract：Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as a common respiratory disease characterized by progressive development, not only has the incidence increased year by year, but also has a high disability and mortality rate, which brings serious economic burden to patients. Immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Studies have shown that COPD is closely related to the disorder of autoimmune function, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interferes with the disease process of COPD by mediating immune response. This paper mainly contains four kinds of research contents of TCM intervention on COPD immune response, namely T lymphocyte subsets count, immunoglobulin count, Th17/Treg dynamic balance, Th1/Th2 dynamic balance and related signaling pathways. In order to provide new reference and ideas for experimental research, a brief review is made at the end of this paper.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;immune response
Abstract：Patchouli Alcohol (PA) is the main bioactive constituent of Pogostemon cablin Pharmacological researches have reported various benefits of PA, including anti-infammatory, anti-gastric ulcer, anticancer, protecting against alung and brain injury, antibacterial, prevention of mastitis, colitis and arteriosclerosis, anti-photoaging, treatment of diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome, antioxidant stress, vasodilation and anti-injury.The preliminary study on the mechanism showed that anti-inflammatory effect was related to the down-regulation of mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the reduction of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation.The anti-gastric ulcer, protection of lung injury and brain injury and anti-photoaging were related to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.The mechanism of anti-human leukemic cell line MV4-11 migh be associated with the changes of NF-κB, phosphorylated M2 pyruvate kinase (p-PKM2) and cysteine aspartate protease-3 (Caspase-3) protein expressions.The proposed mechanisms of anti-human colorectal cancer cells included the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-2 expression and HDAC enzyme activity, and subsequent downregulation of c-myc and activation of NF-κB pathway.Apoptosis of A549 cells was induced by blocking the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Anti-prostate cancer was related to the activation of mitochondrial cytochrome C apoptosis pathway, and its antiviral effect may be related to the regulation of RIG-1-like helicases (RLH) signal pathway or the direct binding of virus protein or nucleic acid and the binding site of virus to cells to block the adsorption of virus to cells.The mechanism of its antibacterial, prevention of mastitis, colitis and arteriosclerosis was closely related to anti-inflammation.The pharmacological effects of PA need to be further studied.In order to accelerate the exploration and discovery other molecular mechanism of PA, and expand its application prospects.This review comprehensively summarizes the metabolism, biological activities, and possible mechanism of PA, in order to provide references for the development and application of PA.
Abstract：Momordicae Semen a traditional toxic Chinese medicine, which was first recorded in Kaibao Bencao of the Northern Song Dynasty. It has the effects in reducing swelling, dispersing knot, and attacking sores. It is mainly distributed in South China, such as Guangxi and Guangdong. It is also distributed in Southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand and Vietnam. The present study showed abundant chemical components extracted from Momordicae Semen, including steroids, sterols, volatile oils and fatty acids. Among them, 30 terpenoids, 102 compounds in volatile oil, 6 sterols and 19 fatty acids have been identified. Aqueous extracts and alcohol extracts of Momordicae Semen have the toxicity, and the toxicity decreases with the increase of oil content. The main toxic components reported in the literatures are cochinchinin and saponins. Pharmacological studies have shown that in addition to its traditional anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and other pharmacological effects, Momordicae Semen also exhibited many pharmacological effects, such as anti-ulcer, anti-oxidation and immune regulation. In recent years, there have been increasingly more research reports on Momordicae Semen. By studying relevant domestic and foreign literatures from 1964 to 2019 in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, PubMed and Web of Science, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and toxicological research of Momordicae Semen were summarized, which will provide reference for further research and application of Momordicae Semen in the future.
Abstract：As an effective additive manufacturing technology, 3D printing technology has been widely used in aerospace, construction, machinery manufacturing and other fields, but it is rarely used in the pharmaceutical field, especially in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In 2015, Spritam instant tablets produced by 3D printing technology greatly promoted the development and research of 3D printing technology in the pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, we reviewed three types of 3D printers (binder jet, material extrusion and inkjet printing) with high compatibility in the pharmaceutical industry, including the working principles, printing materials, product characteristics and others. In addition, the application prospects and existing problems of 3D printing technology in the production of innovative preparations of TCM, the development of innovative medical devices and the development of innovative functional foods were analyzed. The paper aimed to provide a reference for the development and preparation of innovative TCM by 3D printing technology.
Keywords：3D printing;innovative Chinese medicines;pharmaceutical industry;personalized treatment;modernization of traditional Chinese medicine;sustained and controlled release preparation;functional food
Abstract：Macleaya cordata, a perennial plant in the genus Macleaya, it mainly distributed in most provinces and regions south of the Yangtze river and north of Nanling mountains of China and has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine. It is bitter, cold, warm, poisonous. M. cordata has the functions of dispelling wind, analgesia, detoxification and detumescence. It mainly treats poisonous abscess, cachexia, ulcer, scabies, trichomonal vaginitis, etc. It also has insecticidal and anti-itching activities. The main chemical constituents of M. cordata are isoquinoline alkaloids, sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protoopioid and allocrine alkaloids are the higher ones. In addition, it also contains phenylpropanoids, steroids, organic acids, phenols and volatile oils. The pharmacological effects of M. cordata are mainly anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and improving liver function. In agriculture, it can be used as botanical insecticides and bacteriostasis, and also as feed additives for animal husbandry. By reviewing and analyzing domestic and foreign researches that isoquinolines were the main active constituents and characteristic components of M. cordata. This paper provides theoretical basis for the development and utilization of M. cordata extract and its' monomer compounds.