Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect and mechanisms of Buyang Huanwu Tang (BYHWT) on atherosclerotic plaque based on regulatory T cells (Treg) and inflammation.Method:Totally 50 ApoE knockout(ApoE-/-)mice aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into model group, low, medium, high-dose BYHWT groups, positive control group, and C57/BL mice were taken as control group. The model group and the BYHWT group were given high-fat diet for 12 weeks, while the control group was given normal diet. After successful modeling, BYHWT groups were given drugs (5, 10, 20 g·kg-1) through intragastric administration, the positive control group was given rapamycin (4 mg·kg-1), while the control group and the model group were given equal doses normal saline through intragastric administration for 4 weeks. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed. Manufactured paraffin sections were prepared for the aortic sinus of the heart. The plaque area was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and the number of Treg cells in immunohistochemical staining plaque was detected. Blood was collected from eye canthus of mice, the expression of inflammatory factors in peripheral blood was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) gene expression in peripheral blood was detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Result:Compared with the control group, the area of atherosclerotic plaques in the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01), the contents of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly increased (P<0.05), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the peripheral blood Fxop3 mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the plaque areas in middle-dose and high-dose BYHWT groups were significantly reduced(P<0.05), the peripheral blood TNF-α and IL-6 contents were decreased (P<0.01), the TGF-β and IL-10 expressions were increased in the high-dose group (P<0.05, P<0.01), the number of Treg cells in the plaque was increased in the high-dose group (P<0.01), and the peripheral blood Fxop3 mRNA expression was increased in each BYHWT group (P<0.01).Conclusion:BYHWT has an anti-atherosclerosis effect, which may be related to the increase of the number of Treg cells and thereby inhibiting the inflammatory response in vivo.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of serum containing Yanghetang (YHT) on the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells in breast cancer based on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38)/signal transduction and transcriptional activator 3 (STAT3) signal pathway.Method:YHT liquid with crude drug 1 g·mL-1 was prepared. Female SD rats were randomly divided into control group (distilled water), and high, medium and low-dose YHT groups (24, 12, 6 g·kg-1). YHT-medicated serum was prepared, and 10%medicated serum was used to intervene MCF-7 cells. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay (CCK-8) was used to detect the effect of serum containing YHT on MCF-7 cell proliferation, apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was detected by flow cytometry protein expressions of p38 and STAT3 were detected by Western blot, Quantitative Real-time PCR (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expressions of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-xl(Bcl-xl) and Survivin mRNA.Result:CCK-8 assay showed that YHT serum inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner compared with the blank group. The inhibitory effect was most obvious in the high-dose group, with the inhibition rates of 38%, 45%and 54%at different time points (P<0.01). Flow cytometry showed that, compared with the blank group, the apoptosis rate in the medium and high-dose groups increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, with the apoptosis rates at 11.6%and 16.5%respectively (P<0.05, P<0.01). Western blot analysis showed that, compared with the blank group, the expressions of p38 and STAT3 protein was decreased in high, medium-dose YHT groups (P<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the blank group, the expressions of Bcl-xl and Survivin mRNA were decreased in high, medium-dose YHT groups (P<0.05, P<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:YHT serum can promote the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells in breast cancer, which may be related to the p38/ STAT3 signaling pathway.
Keywords：Yanghetang;drug containing serum;MCF-7 cells in breast cancer;mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38)/signal transduction and transcriptional activator 3 (STAT3)
Abstract：Objective:To study the effects of Ermiaosan on migration, adhesion and invasion of human fibroblast-liked synovial cells(FLS) and explore its mechanism.Method:Using the human FLS as the research object, the nontoxic concentration of FLS.FLS was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay for the follow-up experiment. The transwell migration, adhesion and transwell invasion test were used to detect the migration and adhesion of the different concentration of Ermiaosan on FLS, respectively. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta of FLS supernatant was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein in FLS was extracted and protein expression levels of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (p-JAK1), p-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1) and p-STAT6 were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with control group, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α (20 μg·L-1) increased the proliferation, migration, adhesion, invasion and the secretion of IL-1β of FLS (P<0.01). Ermiaosan(0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg·L-1) had no significant effect on the proliferation of FLS induced by TNF-α for 24 h. Within 24 h, the migration, adhesion, invasion, invasion, and secretion of IL-1β of FLS cells induced by TNF-α were also decreased significantly(P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, TNF-α could induce abnormal elevation of p-JAK1, p-STAT1 and p-STAT6 in FLS (P<0.01), while Ermiaosan of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g·L-1 could significantly reduce the expression levels of p-JAK1, p-STAT1 and p-STAT6 (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Ermiaosan can inhibit the migration, adhesion and invasion of FLS, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the secretion of IL-1β, the mechanism may be related to JAK/STAT pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To compare the anti-hepatic fibrosis effect of ethanol extract of honey Xiayuxue Tang (H-Xiayuxue Tang)and prepared slices of crude drug-Xiayuxue Tang (C-Xiayuxue Tang).Method:Totally 40 wistar rats were randomlydivided into normal group, model group, H-Xiayuxue Tang group, C-Xiayuxue Tang group, and Fuzheng Huayu group. Liver fibrosis model was induced by hypodermic injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride for 9 weeks. From the seventh week, the normal group and the model group were given 0.3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage. The other three groups were given H-Xiayuxue Tang(0.58 g·kg-1), C-Xiayuxue Tang (0.43 g·kg-1), Fuzheng Huayu (2 g·kg-1), respectively. At the end of the ninth week, liver tissues and serum samples were collected for follow-up studies. The pathological changes and fibrosis degree were observed by HE and Sirius red staining, hydroxyproline content in liver tissues was detected by alkaline hydrolysis, serum liver function was determined by automatic analysis, the expressions of collagen type I (COL-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in liver tissues were detected by Real-time PCR. The expressions of α-SMA in liver tissues was detected by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry, and serum inflammatory factors and oxidantion indexes were determined by ELISA, respectively.Result:Compared with control group, the severity of liver fibrosis was observed, the area ratio of Sirius red positive staining, hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, the protein and mRNA expressions of α-SMA, COL-I in the liver tissue were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.01). And the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBil), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of the rats were markedly increased (P<0.01). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were apparently decreased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the degree of liver fibrosis was significantly improved, the area ratio of Sirius red positive staining, the content of Hyp, the protein and mRNA expression of α-SMA and COL-I, and the serum levels of AST, ALT, TBil, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A and MDA were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The serum contents of SOD and GSH-Px were markedly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), respectively, by H-Xiayuxue Tang or C-Xiayuxue Tang. Among them, the improvement of liver histopathological changes was more obvious in the H-Xiayuxue Tang group than in the C-Xiayuxue Tang group. Meanwhile, the percentage of Sirius red positive staining area, the content of hydroxyproline, the expressions of COL-I and α-SMA mRNA and protein in liver tissue were significantly decreased compared with the C-Xiayuxue Tang group(P<0.05, P<0.01). In addition, there was no significant difference in serum liver function, inflammatory factors and oxidantion related indicators between groups, but the improvement trend of H-Xiayuxue Tang was more obvious.Conclusion:H-Xiayuxue Tang and C-Xiayuxue Tang have a better effect in hepatic fibrosis, especially H-Xiayuxue Tang, suggesting that honey can increase the anti-hepatic fibrosis effect of Xiayuxue Tang.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanism of Zhenxin Shengshui Yizhi Fang(XSF) aqueous extract on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) injury induced by amyloid-β protein(Aβ)25-35.Method:HBMEC cells damage induced by Aβ25-35 was used as Alzheimer' s disease(AD) cell model. The study included control group, Aβ25-35 group, and low, medium and high-dose XSF aqueous extract groups (125, 250, 500 mg·L-1). After treatment, the cytotoxicity of different concentrations of drugs and Aβ25-35 was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) colorimetry. Apoptosis was observed by Hoechst-33258 staining. The activity of Caspase-3 was detected by colorimetry. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1).Result:Compared with the control group, the cell viability of Aβ25-35 group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Hoechst-33258 staining showed bright blue fluorescence, chromatin condensation, dense staining or fragmentation dense staining, whitening in color, and significant increase of the percentage of apoptotic cells (P<0.01). Caspase-3 activity increased significantly (P<0.01). Western blot showed that RAGE protein expression increased significantly (P<0.01), while low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein(LRP1), glucose transporter 1(GLUT1) and GLUT3 protein expressions decreased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the Aβ25-35 group, the cell viability of XSF aqueous extract groups was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The XSF aqueous extract had a more significant protective effect of than the other groups (P<0.05). The XSF aqueous extract group (500 mg·L-1) significantly inhibited the number of apoptotic cells (P<0.01), but significantly reduced the Caspase-3 activity (P<0.01). RAGE protein expression was not significantly decreased in XSF aqueous extract group (125 mg·L-1), but significantly decreased in XSF aqueous extract group (250, 500 mg·L-1, P<0.01), while LRP1, GLUT1 and GLUT3 protein expression significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:XSF aqueous extract can attenuate the cytotoxicity of HBMEC induced by Aβ25-35 oligomer, inhibit apoptosis, decrease caspase-3 activity and RAGE protein expression, increase LRP1, GLUT1 and GLUT3 protein expressions, and reduce the abnormal accumulation and deposition of Aβ in the brain, which may be its mechanisms for prevention and treatment of AD.
Keywords：Zhenxin Shengshui Yizhi Fang;Alzheimer's disease;advanced glycation end products;low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1;glucose transporter-1;glucose transporter-3
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of total saponin of Dioscoreae Collettii Rhizoma (TSD) on Toll-like receptor/nuclear factor-κB (TLR/NF-κB) signaling pathway induced by monosodium urate in THP-1 cells, in order to explore the possible mechanism of anti-gout arthritis.Method:Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages, divided into normal group, model group, low, medium and high-concentration TSD groups (1, 3, 10 mg·L-1) and colchicine group (0.2 mg·L-1). Except the normal group, the other groups were stimulated with 400 mg·L-1 monosodium urate to replicate an inflammation model in vitro. Cell viability was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the levels of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α ) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and NF-κB were detected by Western blot. The mRNA levels of TLR4, NF-κB and Pro-IL-1β were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR), and the nuclear shift of NF-κB p65 was detected by immunofluorescence.Result:0~32 mg·L-1 TSD has no effect on cell viability. Compared with the normal group, the secretion levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expressions of key proteins (TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB) and genes (TLR4, NF-κB and Pro-IL-1β) were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, 1-30 mg·L-1 TSD significantly down-regulated the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.01), the expressions of key proteins (TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB) and genes (TLR4, NF-κB and Pro-IL-1β) were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the NF-κB p65 partially trans-located to the cytosol and the superposition in the nucleus were decreased, inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65.Conclusion:TSD may exert an anti-inflammatory effect by down-regulating the expressions of TLR4, NF-κB and Pro-IL-1β mRNA and reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of betulic acid(BA) on steatosis LO2 cells.Method:LO2 cells were intervened with BA at different gradient concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 250 μmol·L-1) for 24 hours. methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) staining was used to observed cell viability to determine the final concentration of BA. The cells were divided into control, model, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and BA groups, as well as BA groups intervened with low, middle and high concentrations. First, model, DMSO and BA group's cells were cultured in 10% Lipid Mix 1 medium for 24 hours to establish a nonalcoholic fatty liver model. Then, DMSO group and low, medium and high-concentration groups were separately cultured with 0.1%DMSO medium and 20, 40, 80 μmol·L-1 BA medium for 24 hours. And control and model groups were cultured in drug-free medium for 24 hours. Oil red O staining and Nile red staining were used to observe the intracellular lipid droplets. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p55) and iNOS.Result:BA within the concentration of 80 μmol·L-1 had no significant toxicity on LO2 cells. Compared with control group, the intracellular lipid droplets were significantly increased in the model group, and the expressions of oxidative stress-related proteins RAGE, NF-κB p65 and iNOS also increased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with model group, the intracellular lipid droplets in DMSO group were similar to those in model group, with no significant difference in the three protein expressions between the two groups. However, the intracellular lipid droplets deposition in the BA group was significantly decreased. And the expressions of RAGE, NF-κB p65 and iNOS proteins in high-concentration BA group were significantly decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:BA can significantly improve the intracellular fat deposition in LO2 cells, which was probably related to the inhibition of the expressions of oxidative stress-related proteins RAGE, NF-κB p65 and iNOS.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the anti-inflammation mechanism of Pien Tze Huang (PTH) via regulating microglia polarization.Method:The experiment was divided into five groups, Blank, M1[lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 100 μg·L-1+ interferon-γ(IFN-γ) 10 μg·L-1], M1-PTH group[LPS 100 μg·L-1+ IFN-γ 10 μg·L-1+ PTH 0.4 g·kg-1], M2 group[interleukin-4 (IL-4) 20 μg·L-1], and M2-PTH group[IL-4 20 μg·L-1+ PTH 0.4 g·kg-1]. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) in the culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and arginine-1 (Arg-1) mRNA were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique(Real-time PCR), and the expression levels of p-STAT1, p-STAT3, iNOS, p-STAT6, and Arg-1 were detected by Western blot.Result:The concentration of NO and TNF-α of the culture supernatant, the level of iNOS mRNA, as well as the level of p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and iNOS in M1 group, which were significantly increased(P<0.01) .Compared with blank group, but the concentration of NO and TNF-α were down-regulated(P<0.01), and iNOS mRNA(P<0.05), as well as the expression of iNOS, p-STAT1, and p-STAT3 was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01) after the invention of PTH in M1-PTH group compared with M1 group. The concentration of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in the culture supernatant, the mRNA level of Arg-1, as well as the levels of p-STAT6 and Arg-1 were significantly increased in M2 group when compared with Blank group, addition to the concentration of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were up-regulated(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the expression of Arg-1 mRNA, the level of Arg-1, p-STAT6 were enhanced(P<0.05, P<0.01) in M2-PTH group compared with M2 group.Conclusion:PTH plays an anti-inflammatory role via regulating microglia polarization.
Keywords：Pien Tze Huang;microglia cell;polarization;anti-inflammation;traditional Chinese medicine
Abstract：Objective:To screen out the effective components of Salvia miltiorrhiza by establishing an in vitro model of pulmonary epithelial mesenchymal transformation.Method:Different concentrations of salvianolic acid A (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 μmol·L-1), salvianolic acid B (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 μmol·L-1), tanshinol (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 μmol·L-1), tanshinoneⅡA (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 μmol·L-1) and the blank group were applied to A549 cell, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay (MTS) were used to detect the proliferation effect of menthol on A549 cells.After screening the safe concentration of the active ingredients of salvia miltiorrhiza by MTS, cells were divided into blank group, model group, salvianolic acid A group, salvianolic acid B group, tanshinol group and tanshinoneⅡA.Then, the inhibitory effect of the active ingredients of salvia miltiorrhiza on the proliferation of A549 cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by MTS. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect salvia miltiorrhiza effective component of fiber protein(FN), collagen type I (COL-Ⅰ) expression. Based on the above results, the active components of salvia miltiorrhiza, which have best inhibition were screened out, and their effects on the expression of E-calcium-viscosity (E-Cad) protein were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with blank group, salvianolic acid A 40 μmol·L-1, salvianolic acid B 160 μmol·L-1, tanshinol 160 μmol·L-1 had toxic effects on A549 cells (P<0.05). In the non-toxic concentration range, compared with the model group, salvianolic acid A 10, 20 μmol·L-1, salvianolic acid B 80 μmol·L-1 showed inhibition effect after 24 h culture (P<0.05). After 72 h culture, salvianolic acid A 5, 10, 20 μmol·L-1, salvianolic acid B 40, 80 μmol·L-1inhibition effect was very significant (P<0.01). ELISA results showed that with the blank group, model group cells the expression of FN and COL-Ⅰ increased significantly (P < 0.01). Compare with model group, salvianolic acid A 20 μmol·L-1, salvianolic acid B 80 μmol·L-1 inhibited FN and COL-Ⅰ(P<0.05). Western blot results showed that salicylic acid A and salicylic acid B had protective effects on E-Cad (P<0.01).Conclusion:Salvianolic acid A and salvianolic acid B have inhibitory effects on epithelial mesenchymal transformation by TGF-β1, which may be the main effective components of salvianolic acid in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Buyang Huanwu Tang combined with Sanrentang in treating early diabetic nephropathy(DN)with deficiency of spleen and kidney, damp-heat and blood stasis syndrome and its effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory factors, in order to explore its mechanism.Method:A total of 72 early DN atients were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, with 36 cases in each group. The control group was orally treated with losartan potassium tablets(50 mg every time, once/day), while the treatment group was treated with modified Buyang Huanwu Tang combined with Sanrentang orally in addition to the therapy of the control group(1 dose/day). Both groups were treated for 3 months. The changes in clinical efficacy and safety indicators were observed for both groups. The 24 h urine albumin excretion rate(UAER), serum creatinine(SCr), serum cystatin C(Cys C), urea nitrogen (BUN), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione Peroxidase(GSH-Px), interleukin-2(IL-2), interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-8(IL-8), interleukin-10(IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)of patients in two groups were observed before and after treatment.Result:The total clinical effective rate was 88.9%in therapy group, which was higher than 61.1%in control group(P<0.05). After treatment, levels of UAER, SCr, Cys C and BUN were lower in both groups(P<0.05), and the levels in treatment group were all lower than those in control group(P<0.05). Levels of FBG, 2 hPG and HbA1c were lower in both groups(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in FBG, 2 hPG and HbA1c levels between two groups after treatment. The levels of HDL-C were higher in both groups(P<0.05), and the levels in treatment group were higher than that in control group(P<0.05). The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were lower in both groups(P<0.05), and the levels in treatment group were all lower than those in control group(P<0.05). The level of MDA was lower in both groups(P<0.05), and the level in the treatment group was lower than that in control group(P<0.05). The levels of SOD and GSH-Px were higher in both groups(P<0.05), and the levels in the treatment group were all higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α were lower in both groups(P<0.05), and the levels in the treatment group were lower than those in control group(P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were higher in both groups(P<0.05), and the levels in the treatment group was higher than those in control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Buyang Huanwu Tang combined with Sanrentang is effective and safe in the treatment of early DN with spleen and kidney deficiency, damp-heat and blood stasis syndrome. They can further improve renal function and lipid metabolism, inhibit oxidative stress reaction and regulate the secretion balance of inflammatory factors in early DN patients.
Keywords：Buyang Huanwu Tang;Sanrentang;early diabetic nephropathy;glucose and lipid metabolism;oxidative stress;inflammatory factors
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of Duhuo Xuduan Tang for oral administration and iontophoresis in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with liver and kidney deficiency and its effect on stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) signaling pathway.Method:Totally 150 KOA patients with deficiency of liver and kidney diagnosed in the Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) were randomly divided into control group, oral TCM group and iontophoresis group, with 50 cases in each group. The control group was given glucosamine sulfate capsule, 0.5 g/time, twice a day, while the oral TCM group was given Duhuo Xuduan Tang, 150 mL/time, twice a day. In the iontophoresis group, Duhuo Xuduan Tang was administered at Kuangu acupoint, Xiguan acupoint, Xiyan acupoint and Dubi acupoint for iontophoresis for 30 minutes, once a day. All of the three groups were treated for 4 weeks. The swelling degree and the pain degree of knee joint before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical efficacy was recorded. The protein contents of SDF-1, CXCR4, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in knee joint fluid before and after treatment were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Result:The efficacy of oral TCM group was better than that of iontophoresis group and control group, and the recurrence rate was the lowest (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the tenderness increased, whereas visual analogue scale(VAS) score, knee swelling score, The Western Ontario and McMaste Universities (WOMAC) score and SDF-1, CXCR4, MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein content in knee joint fluid decreased in oral TCM group after treatment, which were better than those in iontophoresis group and control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Duhuo Xuduan Tang for oral administration and iontophoresis has an obvious effect on KOA with liver and kidney deficiency, with the best effect through oral administration. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 inflammatory signaling pathway and cartilage decomposition.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Shenling Baizhusan on stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome and its regulatory effect on inflammatory factors and immune function.Method:One hundred and ten patients were randomly divided into control group (55 cases) and observation group (55 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got piperacillin sodium and tazobactam sodium for slow intravenous injection, 4.5 g/time, 3 times/days, for 7-10 days, and new antibiotic was chose by drug outcomes, ambroxol hydrochloride injection for low intravenous infusion, 30 mg/time, 2 times/days, for 10 days, and nutritional support and symptomatic comprehensive treatment. In addition to the therapy in control group, patients in observation group were added with modified Shenling Baizhusan, 1 dose/day, for 10 days. And scores of pulmonary infection (CPIS), time of CPIS<6 time of disappearance of cough, time of recovery of temperature, time of recovery of leukocyte, and time of disappearance of lung rales were recorded. And before and after treatment, lung-Qi deficiency syndromes were scored, and levels of procalcitonin (PCT), γ-interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), T Lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+) were all detected.Result:By rank sum test, the clinical effect in control group was better than that in control group (Z=2.106, P<0.05). Scores of CPIS and lung-Qi deficiency syndromes were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And time of CPIS<6, time of disappearance of cough, time of recovery of temperature, time of recovery of leukocyte, and time of disappearance of lung moist rales were all shorter than those in control group (P<0.01). And levels of PCT, TNF-α, hs-CRP and CD8+ were lower than those in control group (P<0.01, P<0.05), while levels of IFN-γ, IgA, IgM, CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ were all higher than those in control group (P<0.01, P<0.05).Conclusion:In addition to the comprehensive anti-infection therapy, modified Shenling Baizhusan can control the degree of illness, alleviate symptoms, regulate the expressions of inflammatory factors, increase the immune function of the body, and improve the comprehensive efficacy.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the efficacy of modified Jingui Shenqitang in the treatment of renal hypertension with spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome and its effect on blood lipids, renal function and vascular endothelial function.Method:Totally 110 patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group by random number table method, with 55 cases in each group. Control group was given levamlodipine (2.5-5 mg every time, once/day) and enalapril maleate (10 mg every time, once/day), and observation group was given modified Jingui Shenqitang in addition to the therapy of control group (1 dose/day). They were treated for 12 weeks. Blood pressure monitoring was performed, the systolic blood pressure (SBD) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared before and after treatment, and the blood pressure compliance was calculated. The 24 h urinary protein quantification (24 hUpr), serum creatinine (SCr), albumin (ALB) and urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected before and after treatment, the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated, and the triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HLD-C) and low-density lipoprotein( LDL-C) were detected before and after treatment. The spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndromes were scored before and after treatment. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), plasma endothelin (ET) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) were detected before and after treatment.Result:The blood pressure efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=1.905, P<0.05). The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndromes in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.416, P<0.01). The compliance rate of causal blood pressure in observation group was higher than that in control group (88.89% vs 71.25%) (χ2=7.861, P<0.01). SBP and DBP in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). TC and LDL-C in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The 24 hUpr, BUN and SCr in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05), while the eGFR was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The levels of ET-1 and Ang Ⅱ in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05), whereas the NO level was higher than that in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to the routine intervention with western medicine, modified Jingui Shenqitang for patients with spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome can further control blood pressure level, improve blood pressure compliance rate, regulate lipid metabolism, protect kidney function, and regulate vascular endothelial function, with a better clinical efficacy than pure western medicine.
Keywords：renal hypertension;spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome;Jingui Shenqitang;renal function;blood lipids;vascular endothelial function
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the pharmacodynamics of volatile oil in couplet medicines of Moslae Herba and Pogostemonis Herba, to establish a method for simultaneous determination of three essential ingredients (thymol, carvacrol and patchouli alcohol) in volatile oil of the couplet medicines by gas chromatography (GC), to optimize the preparation process of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complex of volatile oil in the couplet medicines and to confirm the formation of the inclusion complex.Method:An in vitro inflammatory response model was established by hyaluronidase activity inhibition test in order to detect the anti-inflammatory activity of the volatile oil. Also, the antioxidant activity of the volatile oil was assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. The inclusion of volatile oil in couplet medicines of Moslae Herba and Pogostemonis Herba was prepared by scaturated aqueous solution method, colloid milling method and grinding method, respectively. GC was used to determine the contents of thymol, carvacrol and patchouli alcohol in volatile oil for optimizing extraction and inclusion processes of volatile oil. Scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, thermal differential analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to verify the formation of the inclusion complex.Result:The volatile oil not only inhibited hyaluronidase activity to a certain extent, but also eliminated DPPH and increased with the increase of concentration. There was a good linear relationship between the peak area and concentration of thymol, carvacrol and patchouli alcohol at 0.021 3-0.426, 0.020 04-0.400 8, 0.022 6-0.452 g·L-1 (R2>0.999), respectively. Their recoveries were 99.59%(RSD 1.6%), 100.15%(RSD 1.5%), 100.70%(RSD 1.4%), respectively. The colloid milling method was optimized, and the formation of the inclusion complex was verified by the aforementioned methods.Conclusion:The volatile oil in couplet medicines of Moslae Herba and Pogostemonis Herba has certain anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidation ability. The colloid milling method was the best inclusion process for the volatile oil. The established GC has the advantages of simple, sensitive, accurate, reliable and reproducible, which can meet the requirements of simultaneous determination of thymol, carvacrol and patchouli alcohol in the inclusion complex.
Keywords：Moslae Herba;Pogostemonis Herba;thymol;carvacrol;patchouli alcohol;inclusion complex of volatile oil;β-cyclodextrin
Abstract：Objective:To establish the HPLC fingerprint of carbonized ginger and to determine the contents of zingerone, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol with quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS).Method:The fingerprint of carbonized ginger was established by HPLC. All samples were analyzed by Waters SymmetryShield™ RP18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution by acetonitrile(A)-water(B) (0-30 min, 25%-70%A; 30-50 min, 70%-90%A; 50-60 min, 90%A), the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the detection wavelength was set at 240 nm and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol was chosen as marker ingredients to establish HPLC fingerprint of carbonized ginger decoction pieces. Taking 6-gingerol as internal reference standard, the contents of zingerone, 6-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol were determined at the detection wavelength of 220 nm and 280 nm according to the relative correction factor.Result:The HPLC fingerprint of carbonized ginger was obtained and 10 common peaks were designated, and 7 of them were identified as zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol, respectively. And there were no significant differences between the quantitative results of external standard method and QAMS. It is suggested that the content limits of carbonized ginger should be not less than 0.020%of zingerone (C11H14O3), 0.050%of 6-gingerol (C17H26O4), 0.120%of 6-shogaol (C17H24O3), 0.080%of 10-gingerol (C21H34O4), 0.030%of 8-shogaol (C19H28O3) and 0.050%of 10-shogaol (C21H32O3) calculated with reference to the dried products, respectively.Conclusion:The developed method is accurate and feasible, which can provide a simple and effective method for the quality control of carbonized ginger.
Keywords：carbonized ginger;decoction pieces;high performance liquid chromatography;fingerprint;quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker;relative correction factor;quality control
Abstract：Objective:To compare the difference of the content of volatile oil and the total relative percentage of phthalein compounds in volatile oil among different parts about Ligusticum chuanxiong, or among different decoction pieces with different processing methods.Method:Steam distillation was used(in the extraction of volatile oil.The chemical constituents of the volatile oil were identified by GC-MS analysis, and relative content of each component was determined by normalization method.Result:The contents of volatile oil in different parts were obviously different, and the order of the contents from high to low was rhizome(1.12%)>fibrous root(0.75%)>aerial part(0.41%). The GC-MS analysis similar compounds find in the three different volatile oils, and the order of total relative percentages of phthalein compounds from high to low was roots(83.29%)>rhizomes(44.5%)>aerial part(39.95%). On the other hand, the volatile oil content of three different Chuanxiong Rhizoma pieces with different processing methods was C(0.87%)>A(0.75%)>B(0.7%). The total relative percentages of phthalein compounds analyzed by GC-MS was C(79.14%)>A(73.09%)>B(67.29%).Conclusion:The content of phthalein compounds in the volatile oil of fibrous root was higher than that of rhizome, thus it can be appropriately used.The volatile oil content and chemical composition of different Chuanxiong Rhizoma pieces were significantly different.The content of volatile oil and phthalein compounds in fresh-cut Chuanxiong Rhizoma pieces were the most high, thus fresh-cutting can be used as a new processing method for Chuanxiong Rhizoma pieces.
Abstract：Objective:To establish the evaluation method of Pinelliae Rhizoma (PR) resources by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey correlation degree (GCD) method, so as to explore the differences in quality components, production efficiency and appearance traits of different germplasm resources cultivated in the same environment.Method:The quality component index, efficiency index, and appearance traits index of 15 germplasm resources were measured, including moisture, total ash, extractives, total acid content, harvest index, yield, drying rate, commodity rate, decay rate and deformability of tubers. Based on AHP and grey correlation method, each indicator data was processed in a comprehensive way, its comprehensive correlation value was calculated, and different PR germplasm resources were comprehensively evaluated.Result:Based on three factors-quality composition, production efficiency and appearance traits, the comprehensive correlation value of A6 was the highest, reaching 0.749 4, which was followed by A14, A15, A7, and their comprehensive correlation values were 0.736 6, 0.726 2, 0.718 2, respectively. Therefore, the source of A6 could be used as an excellent provenance introduced to the cultivation of PR, and the provenance of A14, A15, and A7 could be used as a useful supplement.Conclusion:The method of AHP and GCD-based multi-index comprehensive evaluation is simple and comprehensive to evaluate the diversity of different PR germplasm resources, and could provide a reference for the development and utilization of resources and the screening of high-quality provenances.
Keywords：Pinelliae Rhizoma;germplasm resources;analytic hierarchy process method;grey correlation method;multi-index comprehensive evaluation
Abstract：Objective:To analyze and compare different samples in many aspects to identify Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis infected with Huanglongbing(HLB) timely and accurately, in order to prevent and control the disease in time.Method:HLB was identified through character analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), enzyme digestion reaction and Real-time PCR.Result:In terms of characters, there were typically variegated yellow leaves and relatively small fruit, even with deformity but without " red nose fruit" among C. medica var. sarcodactylis infected with HLB. All of these can be used as the basis for the preliminary identification of HLB in the fields. According to the RT-PCR test results and enzyme digestion reaction, when the primer was OI1/OI2c, there was specific band of 1 160 bp, which could be cut into 520 bp and 640 bp by Xba I enzyme. These results were consistent with the characters of other citrus plants infected with HLB. According to the Real-time PCR detection results, C. medica var. sarcodactylis infected with HLB had amplification curves and dissolved peaks, with the melting temperature was 82 ℃ and Ct between 24.6 to 28.2, while the normal plants were not amplified.Conclusion:Character analysis can be used to roughly distinguish HLB in the fields, but with a certain subjectivity. RT-PCR or Real-time PCR can be used to identify C. medica var.sarcodactylis infected with HLB in a timely and accurate manner, and qPCR detection is more sensitive and quantitative. Through the combination of character analysis and molecular identification, C. medica var.sarcodactylis infected with HLB can be determined more timely and accurately.
Keywords：Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis;Huanglongbing(HLB);leaves;character analysis;distinguish in field
Abstract：Objective:The complete chloroplast genome of Pyrrosia assimilis was sequenced, its sequence characteristics was analyzed and herbgenomics of P. assimilis was discussed.Method:Its complete chloroplast genome sequence was determined through high-throughput sequencing technology, and its structural characteristics and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by bioinformatics.Result:The chloroplast genome of P. assimilis was a circular double-chain structure with a total length of 154 964 bp, and the total content of guanine and cytosine (GC) was 41.2%. A total of 131 genes were annotated, including 88 protein-coding genes, 35 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. A total of 43 dispersed repetitive sequences and 56 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. The frequency of codon encoding leucine was the highest, while the number of codon encoding tryptophan was the lowest. Five highly divergent regions (psbA, rrn16, petA-psbJ, ndhC-trnM, and psbM-petN) were screened, phylogenetic analysis showed that P. assimilis was closely related to P. bonii.Conclusion:Comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genome of P. assimilis reveals that non-coding regions exhibited a higher divergence than the coding regions, the large single copy region (LSC) and small single copy region (SSC) are more divergent than the reverse repeat region (IR), the selected five highly variable regions can be used as specific DNA barcodes for identification of Pyrrosia species. Study on the chloroplast genome of P. assimilis can provide a reference for the molecular identification, genetic transformation, expression of resistance protein and secondary metabolism pathway analysis of other Pyrrosia medicinal plants.
Keywords：herbgenomics;Pyrrosia assimilis;chloroplast genome;Pyrrosia;structural characteristics;DNA barcoding;phylogenetic tree
Abstract：Objective:To select volatile oils from 16 species of plants (Cymbopogon citratus, Pelargonium graveolens, Pinus tabulieformis, Litsea cubeba, Mentha haplocalyx, Zingiber officinale, Syzygium aromaticum, Curcuma longa, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Zanthoxylum armatum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans) that have good inhibitory effect on the growth of Aspergillus flavus.Method:Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the surface of Platycladi Semen medicinal materials by plate culture method. The volatile oils of 16 plants were extracted by steam distillation. The colony diameter of Aspergillus flavus was determined by fumigation of filter paper, and the effect of volatile oils on the growth of Aspergillus flavus was systematically studied.Result:Aspergillus flavus was successfully isolated from Platycladi Semen by means of morphological, microscopic and DNA barcoding identification methods, the bacteriostatic rates of the above 16 kinds of volatile oils against Aspergillus flavus were 2.93%, 0.05%, 0.37%, 76.07%, 0.34%, 0.15%, 50.05%, 8.51%, 1.43%, 58.20%, 0.07%, 2.60%, 8.73%, 100.00%, 52.62%, 0.07%, respectively.Conclusion:The volatile oils of 16 plants all have different degrees of antibacterial activities for Aspergillus flavus, and volatile oils of Zanthoxylum armatum, Litsea cubeba and Cinnamomum cassia have good inhibitory effect. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of Aspergillus flavus in the growth and storage of Platycladi Semen, and provide a basis for further research on plant volatile oil as bacteriostatic agents in the storage process of traditional Chinese medicine.
Keywords：volatile oil;Aspergillus flavus;bacteriostatic rate;Platycladi Semen;storage of medicinal materials;Zanthoxylum armatum;DNA barcoding
Abstract：Objective:Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus are medicinal Astragalus, which are closely related and similar in composition, but with unclear medicinal value. Water-soluble protein profiles for A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus were established to explore the differences between the two kinds of Astragalus Radix.Method:The water-soluble protein components were obtained through water ultrasonic extraction and acetone precipitation. After digested with trypsin, the obtained peptides were analyzed by nano ESI-LC-MS/MS method. Proteome Discovery 1.4 software was used to identify the proteins by comparing with the legume protein database, and the different expression water-soluble proteins were analyzed by the label-free quantitative software SIEVE. Finally, relevant information for common expression proteins, including classification, molecular function, involved biological process and signaling pathway, were analyzed by bioinformatics.Result:There were 920 and 717 specific proteins identified for A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus, respectively. Totally 472 proteins were found to be co-expressed, in which 21 were differentially expressed, such as PR-10 protein, NDK-1 protein, glutelin A2, and phospholipase D. There were 14 highly expressed proteins in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and 7 highly expressed proteins in A. membranaceus.Conclusion:There are significant differences in water-soluble protein profiles for two kinds of Astragalus Radix. Specific proteins, differentially expressed proteins and common expressed proteins can provide references for the identification of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. It also can be used to define pharmacological mechanisms and search for drug action targets.
Keywords：Astragalus Radix;water-soluble protein profiles;proteomics;bioinformatics;Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus;A. membranaceus
Abstract：Objective:Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-Exactive Focus hybrid quadrupole and orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was applied for identification of chemical constituents in Pimpinella thellungiana.Method:Chromatographic separation was performed on a WATERS BEH C18 column (2.1 mm ×50 mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid aq (A) and acetonitrile (B) with a gradient elution. Mass spectral analysis were performed on Q-Exactive Focus hybrid quadrupole and orbitrap mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer was connected to UHPLC instrument via an ESI interface. Samples were analyzed in negative ion mode by the full-scan-dd MS 2(data-dependent MS/MS) scanning mode. Then the constituents of P. thellungiana were identified by compared HRMS data with those of the standard compounds, MS cleavage mechanism and the related literatures.Result:Based on the characteristic mass data of accurate molecular weight and fragmentation ion information, 29 chemical constituents were identified including 19 chlorogenic acids, 7 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acid. Among them, the identified components except luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside were reported in P. thellungiana for the first time.Conclusion:The established UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS method can be used to identify the chemical constituents of P. thellungiana quickly and accurately, providing the scientific evidence for its quality evaluation and material basis research.
Abstract：Objective:To predict Xiao Xianxiongtang's treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) targets and analyze their function by the network pharmacology method, and build ingredients-targets-channel network pharmacological model, in order to reveal potential pathways and mechanisms of Xiao Xianxiongtang for CHD treatment.Method:Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) was used to obtain components, and CHD targets over Xiao Xianxiongtang were predicted by using Swiss Target Prediction reverse pharmacophore matching method. CHD targets which Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved were collected from Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), Drugbank and Disease-gene Net databases (DisGeNET). Wenn diagram was used to obtain the correlation intersection.Target characteristics were analyzed with GEO2R online, Reactome FI was used to analyze the enrichment of target pathways, and Cytoscape software was used to construct the " component-target-pathway" network.Result:Network analysis showed that Xiao Xianxiongtang treated CHD by regulating 24 target proteins through 25 therapeutic components, and acting on 21 specific pathways and 4 biological processes.According to the multiple gene chip analysis of GEO2R online, there were up-down-regulated differences in the targets, including 11 up targets and 13 down targets.Conclusion:Xiao Xianxiongtang treats CHD by involving the biological processes through berberine and flavonoid groups of Coptidis Rhizoma, nucleosides and organic acids of Arum ternatum Thunb, stigmasterols and flavonoids of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, such as gene expression, metabolism and protein metabolism, adjusting the gene expressions of relevant target proteins, regulating gene transcription pathways, such as biological oxidation reaction and lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBPs) of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) transshipment and intake, and the degradation of extracellular matrix signaling pathways.
Abstract：Objective:To analyze and excavate the medication rules of ancient physicians in the treatment of depression syndrome, so as to provide reference for clinical treatment of depression syndrome.Method:The ancient medical records of depression syndrome sorted out in Yian Leiju were retrieved and collated, the data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions in medical records were extracted, the obtained data of TCMs in prescriptions were standardized, and the data mining function of the ancient and modern medical records cloud platform V1.5 was adopted to carry out frequency statistics, cluster analysis, association analysis and complex network analysis of TCM data, the common drugs used by ancient physicians for treatment of depression syndrome, properties and classifications of commonly used medicines, pairs of commonly used medicines and core prescriptions were obtained.Result:After screening, a total of 364 medical cases, 461 visits and 439 prescription data of TCM were included, involving 67 ancient books. A total of 607 Chinese medicines were involved, and the total frequency of medication was 4 127.High frequency medicines included Poria (186 times), Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (115 times), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (113 times), Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (101 times), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (98 times), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (94 times), etc. The main properties and flavors of commonly used Chinese medicines were warm, flat, bitter and acrid, which were mainly attributed to the four meridians of spleen, lung, heart and liver. Commonly used couplet medicines were Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma-Poria, Poria-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Poria-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Poria, etc. The core prescription was based on the addition and subtraction of Danzhi Xiaoyaosan.Conclusion:In the treatment of depression syndrome, ancient physicians adopt the principles of invigorating the spleen, nourishing Qi and blood, soothing the liver and regulating Qi, nourishing the heart and tranquilizing the mind, giving consideration to both Qi and blood, and harmonizing the liver, spleen and heart.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;depression syndrome;Yian Leiju;ancient medical records;ancient and modern medical records cloud platform;data mining;medication rule
Abstract：Objective:To screen out active ingredients of Polygonati Rhizoma-Lilii Bulbus, and predict the targets and signaling pathways, in order to explore the potential mechanism in treatment of cancer by using network pharmacology.Method:All of active ingredients and targets of Polygonati Rhizoma-Lilii Bulbus were screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). Disease targets for cancer were collected through databases of gene-disease associations (DisGeNET) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Then the Omicshare platform was used to match the active ingredients and the targets for treating cancer. And the " drug-active ingredients-disease targets" network was established using Cytoscape 3.7.0 software. The functional protein association networks (String) database was used to construct the protein interaction network of drug pair targets for treating cancer. Finally, the Functional Annotation Bioinformatics Microarray Analysis (DAVID) database was used to analyze the biological functions and metabolic pathways of key targets.Result:A total of 19 active ingredients were screened out, 234 targets were predicted, 6 active ingredients were identified to be related to cancer. The anti-cancer effect was mainly correlated with the regulation of target proteins in treating cancer, such as Akt serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt1), Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (JUN), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), Caspase-3, Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (FOS), proteoglycans in cancer, estrogen signaling pathway, human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor(TNF) signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and other pathways.Conclusion:The anti-cancer effect of Polygonati Rhizoma-Lilii Bulbus reflects multi-component, multi-target, multi-pathway characteristics of TCM, and provides a scientific basis for explaining the mechanism and material basis of anti-cancer treatment.
Abstract：Alzheimer' s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, which is seriously affecting people' s lives. Until now, the pathogenesis of AD is still unknown which result in its worldwide difficulties in prevention and treatment. Some studies have shown that AD might be a metabolic disease associated with glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the spleen is acquired foundation and the origination of Qi and blood. The function of spleen is not only closely related to the metabolism of substance and energy, but also related to the aging of human body. In this article, we summarized and analyzed the interrelationship of metabolism, AD and spleen, as well as the effect of spleen-invigorating prescription on AD. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the possible mechanism of TCM treating AD from the perspective of regulating metabolism, explore the potential value of spleen-strengthening TCM in the treatment or prevention of AD, and provide new ideas for exploring the drug development and TCM therapy of AD.
Keywords：glucose metabolism;lipid metabolism;energy metabolism;Alzheimer's disease;spleen;traditional Chinese medicine;mitochondria
Abstract：Based on the pharmacovigilance thoughts of Chinese medicine of cognition, application, prevention and rescue of drug toxicity, to sort out the pharmacovigilance information in representative herbal works of the Ming dynasty, and to analyze the characteristics of the pharmacovigilance thoughts of the Ming dynasty, so as to provide reference for rational drug use in modern clinical practice. Taking Bencao Pinhui Jingyao, Bencao Gangmu, Paozhi Dafa, Bencao Shengya Banjie, Bencao Mengquan as the blueprints, and taking the traditional Chinese medicines in these books as the research objects, the text information was extracted from the four aspects of drug identification, drug use, drug prevention and detoxification, and the idea of pharmacovigilance was summarized. In Ming dynasty, pharmacovigilance had a systematic understanding, and cognition of drug toxicity was clear in identifying poison and correcting the mistakes of predecessors, in the aspects of using and preventing poisons, the use of poisons was prominent, the compatibility and process of poisons were emphasized, and the methods and mechanism of poison relief were clear in detoxification. Ming dynasty has initially formed the whole pharmacovigilance theoretical frame of cognition, application, prevention and rescue of drug toxicity, which has certain guiding and reference significance for modern clinical rational drug use.
Abstract：The research and development of classical prescriptions is an important way to promote the inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and promote the modernization and internationalization of TCM. It is particularly important to summarize the historical development of the composition of classical prescriptions, so as to define their origin, taste efficacy and syndrome taboos. It is also the source to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the whole prescription. As a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal material, Lycii Cortex is widely used and has a good prospect for research and development. There are five prescriptions containing wolfberry bark in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescriptions(the First Batch). There are only a few modern literatures on the development of Lycii Cortex. Therefore, this paper will summarize the development of skeleton skin alias, origin, nature, taste, meridian, efficacy, syndromes and taboos in ancient books of the previous dynasties. Textual analysis found that Lycii Cortex was first recorded in the Fifty-two Pathogenic Prescriptions. Ancient books before the Han dynasty did not mention the Chinese medicinal material named " Digupi" . There are little differences in the contents about Digupi between modern literatures and ancient books of the previous dynasties. With the changes of the times, Lycii Cortex has been rarely used, with a fault inheritance, suggesting that there are still many potential efficacy indications for clinical application. In addition to the traditional Chinese medicinal specifications, ancient books also recorded the processing methods with liquorice soup, fried, roasted, children's stool, wine soaking and steaming.
Abstract：Nanocarriers for delivering active ingredients from Chinese materia medica play an important role in improving their solubility, membrane permeability and in vivo biological behavior, enhancing the therapeutic efficiency and reducing side effects. They are promising for extensive research and application. As novel nanocarriers, organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers composed of organic materials or carriers and inorganic parts possess the dual advantages of organic carriers and inorganic carriers. They may exert desirable action in drug delivery. In addition, they have been designed to improve the stability and biocompatibility, further increase the therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects. They have also been investigated to achieve multi-functionality. In this paper, the research and application of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers delivering active ingredients from Chinese materia medica were summarized and analyzed. The development and application prospect of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers are prospected. The aim of this review is to provide a reference for the investigation of new drug delivery system for delivering active ingredients from Chinese materia medica efficiently and safely.
Keywords：active ingredients from Chinese materia medica;organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers;multi-functionality;efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing;safety
Abstract：Myocardial substrate metabolism is severely impaired after heart failure, and the selection and utilization of substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids, are remodeled, resulting in insufficient myocardial productivity, cardiac dysfunction and progressive left ventricular remodeling. It is believed traditionally that the heart changes from fatty acid metabolism to glucose metabolism during heart failure, which however is contradictory with some findings in recent years. No consistent conclusion can be drawn from studies on the changes of myocardial energy substrate metabolism and its regulatory mechanism after heart failure. Metabolic treatment for heart failure has developed slowly. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the reasons for heterogeneity of these conclusions for defining the metabolic patterns of heart failure substrates and developing metabolically targeted drugs. This review summarizes the metabolic patterns and regulatory mechanisms of normal myocardium under physiological conditions, focuses on the elaboration and comparison of myocardial substrates metabolic abnormalities in heart failure induced by ischemic heart disease, pressure load, volume load and dilated cardiomyopathy in such aspects as etiology, severity, duration of heart failure, species studied, animal models and metabolic detection methods, and makes a preliminary analysis on the consistency and differences of relevant conclusions in various studies, and discusses the future trend of metabolic treatment, with the aim to summarize the rules and molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism and fatty acid metabolism after heart failure and provide clues for the research of metabolic targeted therapy.
Abstract：Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) refers to the primary non-traumatic parenchymal hemorrhage, which is one of the common cerebrovascular diseases, with a high incidence, rapid development, slow recovery and high disabling rate. After intracerebral hemorrhage, a series of pathological changes occur in the brain tissue, such as local hematoma and its space occupying effect, secondary cerebral edema, death of brain cells and destruction of blood-brain barrier, which may lead to brain injury and neurological defects, seriously affect the quality of life of patients, and even endanger the life. Therefore, it is great medical value to find effective therapeutic methods and drugs, explore the mechanisms and targets for improving neurological function, reduce sequelae and improve the quality of life of patients. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), cerebral hemorrhage belongs to " abnormal flow of the blood" , which equals to blood stasis. In recent years, scholars conducted extensive research on drugs for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis with modern scientific methods, and made in-depth discussion for the mechanism, and found that therapies for activating blood and removing blood stasis, plays a key role in intervening a series of physiological and pathological changes after cerebral hemorrhage, with significant curative effects in removing hematoma, improving the microcirculation and reducing the mortality and morbidity. This article summarized drugs for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Hirudo), formulas (Buyang Huanwu Tang, Didangtang, Naoxueshu oral liquid, Tongqiao Huoxuetang) and compound injections (Danhong injection) for the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage targets, and discussed the experimental research progress TCM for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis in treatment of cerebral hemorrhage in terms of promoting hematoma absorption, reducing brain edema and apoptosis, promoting angiogenesis, inhibiting the inflammatory response, and promoting the repair and regeneration of nerve tissue in nearly five years, and summarized the therapeutic mechanism, so as to provide scientific basis for clinical application of the therapeutic methods for activating blood and removing stasis to treat cerebral hemorrhage and the modern scientific research.
Abstract：Stroke is a devastating cerebrovascular event that occurs as a result of cerebral vascular occlusion (ischemic stroke) or burst/bleeding (hemorrhagic stroke) leading to cerebral blood flow disruption, causing physical disability and multiple functional impairment. The incidence of ischemic stroke is higher than hemorrhagic stroke, accounting for more than half of the total incidence of stroke. The main cause of the disease is caused by atherosclerosis, various arteritis, trauma and other plaques that cause cerebral vascular disease, which may be caused by a variety of cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation. Blood, caused by blocking blood vessels in the brain. Due to the complexity of the causes of ischemic stroke, the pathogenesis and development mechanism are complex and diverse, such as energy failure, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicine and compound have the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, multi-effect, and can be applied to the treatment of different stages of stroke occurrence and development. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the pathological process and related mechanisms of ischemic stroke, and the development of targeted drugs, is important to prevent the occurrence of ischemic stroke and control its development. In this paper, the timeline of the occurrence and development of ischemic stroke is the main line. The pathological process and related mechanisms are systematically reviewed. The most widely used traditional Chinese medicine and compound in clinical and basic research are summarized, in order to study the pathological study of ischemic stroke. Clinical treatment provides a theoretical basis and data reference.
Keywords：ischemic stroke;pathological mechanism;pathological process;Chinese medicine;traditional Chinese medicine compound
Abstract：Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an RNA virus, which belongs to the paramyxoviridae family, and is transmitted by air droplets and close contact and the main pathogen causing acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals.Although there have been studies on the prevention and treatment of RSV drugs and RSV infection in patients, many medical demands have not been met.And there is no specific antiviral therapy.The only two drugs approved to be applied in RSV prevention and treatment are perizol and ribavirin.However, the former must be used prophylactically, and primarily in high-risk children, while the latter is less effective, and some children even suffer from airway spasm.Therefore, it is urgent to propose new methods for prevention and treatment of RSV.In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has shown a good anti-RSV effect, with a fewer side effects, less resistance to drugs and broad-spectrum antiviral advantage.There are also newly developed biological and chemical anti-RSV drugs.Some new drugs have shown a good efficacy, with an extended half-life and reduced costs, such as fusion inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies.This paper reviews the research progress of anti-RSV drugs in the aspects of TCM, biological drug and chemical drugs, laying a foundation for the development of new anti-RSV drugs and the formulation of new therapeutic strategies.
Keywords：monomer of traditional Chinese herb;single traditional Chinese herb;Chinese herbal compound presription;biological drug;chemical drugs;respiratory syncytial virus