Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of Chaihu Longgu Mulitang on intestinal microflora diversity of schizophrenic model rats, and further reveal its therapeutic characteristics and mechanisms based on the 16S rRNA technique.Method:Except the normal group, male SD rats were intraperitoneally injected dizocilpine maleate with daily dose of 0.1 mg·kg-1.After the success of the model, Chaihu Longgu Mulitang high, middle and low dose groups were converted into the human clinical upper limit daily, and the experimental rats were given Chaihu Longgu Mulitang with doses of 11.2, 5.6, 2.8 g·kg-1, respectively. And the positive drug group was treated with 0.4 mg·kg-1 of risperidone tablets.The normal group and model group was treated with water.The rats were continuous administrated 14 days with dosing volume of 10 mL·kg-1, the contents in caecum of rats were taken after anesthesia.Illumina MiSeq was used as the sequencing platform, the number of operational taxonomic units(OTUs), richness and diversity indexes, diversity of alpha and beta, differential phylum and genus of intestinal flora in V4 zone of 16S rRNA were comprehensively analyzed and evaluated.Result:Chaihu Longgu Mulitang could improve the number of OTUs, richness and diversity indexes of intestinal flora, imbalance of alpha and beta diversity of schizophrenic model rats.And this formula had a callback effect on 5 differential phyla of bacteria(Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and TM7) and 20 genera of bacteria in schizophrenic model rats.Conclusion:Chaihu Longgu Mulitang plays an therapeutic effect on diversity of abnormal microflora in schizophrenic model rats, and this paper reveals the pathological mechanism of intestinal microflora in the state of schizophrenia by 16S rRNA technique.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the regulatory effect of Sinisan(SNS) on the polarization of RAW264.7 macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Method:RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS were used as the in vitro model. The cells were intervened with the different concentrations of SNS in advance. The effects of different concentrations of SNS on the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetry. The degree of cell differentiation was detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay(ELISA) method. The contents of M1 polarization factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and M2 polarization factors interleukin-10 (IL-10) in cell culture supernatant were detected by ELISA method, mRNA levels of M1 polarization factors TNF-α, IL-6 and M2 polarization factors IL-10, arginase-1 (Arg-1) were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) method.Result:SNS had no effect on the cell viability of RAW264.7 cells, inhibited LPS-induced cell proliferation, decreased LPS-stimulated cell differentiation, down-regulated M1 polarizing factors TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β release and TNF-α, IL-6 mRNA levels, and increased the release of IL-10 and mRNA levels of IL-10 and Arg-1.Conclusion:SNS inhibits the inflammation of RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of polarization balance of M1/M2 macrophages.
Keywords：Sinisan;lipopolysaccharide (LPS);RAW264.7;polarization of macrophage;inflammation
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of modified Shaoyao Gancao Tang on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease model mice.Method:The sixty C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Madopar group (50 mg·kg-1) and low, medium and high doses modified Shaoyao Gancao Tang (1, 2, 4 g·kg-1). The modeling method was to intraperitoneally inject C57/BL6 mice with MPTP(40 mg·kg-1) once a day for 7 days. Except normal group and model group were given normal saline daily, drug-administered group was intragastrical administered once a day, and the third day after the drug was administered according to the above method (except normal group). The behavior of each group of mice (climbing test, swimming test, and tail suspension test) was examined up to 15 days after administration. Subsequently, the levels of Cystatin-C (Cys-C) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the serum of each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in striatum of each group were detected by spectrophotometry. The protein expression of α-synuclein (α-syn), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), B lymphoma-2 gene (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 related X protein (Bax) in the striatum of each group was detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with normal group, the swimming experiment scores and suspension experiments scores in the behavioral experiments of model group mice were significantly lower (P<0.01), The climbing time was significantly increased (P<0.01); the serum Cys-C content was significantly decreased (P<0.01), serum NSE content increased significantly (P<0.05). SOD level and GSH-Px level in striatum decreased significantly (P<0.01), MDA level in striatum increased significantly (P<0.05), TH and Bcl-2 expression in striatum were significantly decreased (P<0.01), α-syn and Bax expression in striatum were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the scores of swimming experiment and suspension experiment in the behavioral experiments of Shaoyao Gancao Tang group and Madopar group were significantly increased (P<0.05), while the climbing time was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The serum Cys-C content increased significantly (P<0.05), the serum NSE content decreased significantly (P<0.05). The SOD level and GSH-Px level in the striatum increased significantly (P<0.05), while the MDA level in the striatum decreased significantly (P<0.05). There was also a significant increase in TH and Bcl-2 expression in the striatum (P<0.05), α-syn and Bax expression in striatum were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with Madopar group, the scores of swimming experiment and suspension experiment in the behavioral experiment of high-dose group of Shaoyao Gancao Tang were significantly increased (P<0.05), while the climbing time was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The serum Cys-C content increased significantly (P<0.05), while the serum NSE content decreased significantly (P<0.05). The SOD level and GSH-Px level in the striatum increased significantly (P<0.05), while the MDA level in the striatum decreased significantly (P<0.05). There was also a significant increase in TH expression and Bcl-2 expression in the striatum (P<0.05), while α-syn expression and Bax expression in the striatum were significantly decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion:The neuroprotective effect of modified Shaoyao Gancao Tang on MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model mice may be achieved by inhibiting oxidative damage and apoptosis.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the molecular mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Tang in improving cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.Method:Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, Buyang Huanwu Tang low and high dose (13, 26 g·kg-1·d-1) group. According to 10 mL·kg-1, the drug was administered twice a day for 7 days. The subarachnoid hemorrhage model was made by double occipital pool injection method. The neurological function scores of rats in each group were evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. The diameter of basilar artery was measured by hematoxylin-eosin (HE)staining. The expressions of phosphp-phosphoinositide 3-kinases(p-PI3K), phosphp-protein kinase B(p-Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase(nNOS) protein in basilar artery brain tissue were detected by Western blot. The expression of nitric oxide(NO) and endothelin-1(ET-1) in rat cerebrospinal fluid was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Result:Compared with sham operation group, the neurological function scores of the model group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the diameter of the basilar artery was significantly reduced (P<0.05), and The expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, eNOS, nNOS proteins of the basilar artery brain tissue were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The level of NO in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the ET-1 was significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the different doses in Buyang Huanwu Tang group (26, 13 g·kg-1·d-1) increased the neurological function scores 3 to 5 days after treatment, and the basilar artery diameter was significant increased (P<0.05). The expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt and eNOS protein was significantly increased (P<0.05). The level of NO was significantly increased (P<0.05), and ET-1 was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with low-dose group, the neurological scores of high-dose group were significantly increased after 7 days of treatment with Buyang Huanwu Tang (P<0.05), and the diameter of the basilar artery was significantly increased (P<0.05), p-PI3K, The expression of p-Akt and eNOS protein was higher (P<0.05), the increase of NO was more obvious (P<0.05), the decrease of ET-1 was more significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:The protective effect of Buyang Huanwu Tang on cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage may be related to up-regulation of p-PI3K, p-Akt and eNOS expression in PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, thereby increasing NO production.
Abstract：Objective:To optimize proportion of couplet medicine of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix in the treatment of anti-depression, and to explore the possible antidepressant mechanism of this couplet medicine.Method:The dosages of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were taken.According to U7(72) uniform design table, Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix were carried out into 7 groups.The chronic unpredictable mild depression model mice were induced by intragastric administration of decoction of this couplet medicine and the antidepressant effect was observed by the behavior tests, which included sucrose preference test, tail suspension test, forced swimming test and open field test(crossing scores). The regression equations were established by selecting the effective indexes.The experiments of retest were taken to check the results and the possible antidepressant mechanism was primarily investigated by measuring the phosphorylation level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)-response element binding protein(CREB) and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF).Result:Compared with the blank group, sucrose preference rate of the model group was significantly decreased(P<0.01), the number of crossing was also obtained a significant decrease(P<0.01) in the model group, the immobility times of forced swimming and tail suspension were prolonged obviously(P<0.01) in the model group.The decoction of Bupleuri Radix-Scutellariae Radix could reverse the above indexes of model mice, the sucrose preference rate and the number of crossing were increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), the immobility times of forced swimming was evidently decreased(P<0.01) and the immobility time of tail suspension was also decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01). The experiment of retest showed that the decoction of Bupleuri Radix-Scutellariae Radix could improve depressive behavior of model mice, sucrose preference rates were significantly increased(P<0.01), the immobility time of forced swimming was significantly shorted(P<0.01) and the time of tail suspension was also decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01). The Bupleuri Radix-Scutellariae Radix(1∶1) and (8∶3) groups could increase the number of crossing (P<0.05, P<0.01) of model mice, what's more, the Bupleuri Radix-Scutellariae Radix(1∶1) group was the most effective than the other groups and it could up-regulate phosphorylation levels of CREB and the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus.Conclusion:Compatibility of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix can ameliorate depressive-like behavior of model mice, and the best antidepressant compatibility proportion of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix is 1∶1, the optimal amounts of them are about 5 g. The antidepressant effect may relate to promoting phosphorylation level of CREB and the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Fengshi Qutong capsule (FSQTC) on protein kinase B(Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Method:Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in SD rats, and the synovial membranes of the knee joints were prepared after 19 days of oral administration of 0.25, 0.5, 1 g·kg-1FSQTC. MH7A cells were induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 μg·L-1) in vitro, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). FSQTC (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 μg·L-1) were added to MH7A/HUVEC cells, and then the cells were collected. Proteins of synovial tissue, MH7A and HUVEC cells were extracted, and then were detected the expresstion of p-Akt, p-p38 MAPK, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK) and p-Jun n-terminal kinase(JNK) by Western blot.Result:The expression levels of p-Akt, p-p38 MAPK, p-ERK and p-JNK in the synovial membrane of CIA model were significantly increased compared with normal group (P<0.01), and the treatmend of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g·kg-1·d-1 FSQTC significantly decreased their expression levels (P<0.05, P<0.01). To compared with control group, the expression levels of p-Akt, p-p38 MAPK, p-ERK and p-JNK in MH7A or HUVEC cells induced by TNF-α or VEGF were increased (P<0.01), respectively, and these factors are significantly reduced by 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 μg·L-1 FSQTC (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:FSQTC can down-regulate the abnormal activation of Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in the synovial membrane of CIA rats, fibroblast synovial cells and vascular endothelial cells, which is related to the inhibition of synovial angiogenesis in the treatment of RA.
Abstract：Objective:To assess the anxiolytic effect of Chaimu Anshen granules (CMASG) and investigate its bioactive mechanism.Method:ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, diazepam group(0.002 g·kg-1), Jieyu Anshen granules group(1.4 g·kg-1), high, medium, and low-dose (1.98, 0.99, 0.495 g·kg-1)Chaimu Anshen granule groups, with 20 mice in each group. To detect the anxiolytic effect of CMASG, mice were intragastrically administered for 4 weeks in the morning, and light-dark box transition test and open field test were performed once the other day. After the behavior tests, blood samples were collected. Six mice of each group were perfused with formalin through heart, and then the brains were fixed for immunohistochemistry test. Hippocampus of the other mice in each group were collected and stored in liquid nitrogen. The content of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)and glutamic acid(Glu)in hippocampus and blood samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the ratio of GABA/Glu was calculated. The expression of GABAα1 receptor was evaluated by the immunohistochemistry method. To test the hypnosis effect of CMASG, mice were administered intragastrically for 7 days. The sub-threshold dose of pentobarbital sodium in the sleep experiment was tested.Result:Compared with normal group, the light-dark box transitions test demonstrated that low-dose and medium-dose CMASG groups significantly prolonged the duration in light box(P<0.05), and the middle-dose group significantly increased the frequency of entrance to light box(P<0.05). The open field test confirmed that the high-dose CMASG significantly increased the travel distance (P<0.01)and duration(P<0.05) in central region. Further experiments demonstrated that in hippocampus, compared with the normal group, the high-dose CMASG significantly increased the content of GABA (P<0.05), but significantly reduced the Glu content(P<0.01). The high-dose group significantly increased the GABA/Glu ratio(P<0.01). In the blood samples, high-dose CMASG significantly reduced the Glu content(P<0.01), and the high-dose group significantly increased the GABA content(P<0.01)and the GABA/Glu ratio(P<0.01). The immunohistochemical results of GABAα1 receptor protein in hippocampus showed that the medium-dose CMASG significantly increased the expression of GABAα1 protein. The sub-threshold dose of pentobarbital sodium on sleep experiments confirmed that the medium-dose CMASG significantly increased the rate of sleep in mice.Conclusion:CMASG showed an anxiolytic effect, and its bioactive mechanism was related with the increase of GABA content, and the decrease of Glu content in hippocampus. Furthermore, it increased the expression of GABAα1 protein in hippocampus. The changes in content of GABA and Glu in peripheral blood were positively correlated with the changes in hippocampal tissues, which provided reference for clinical diagnosis. CMASG also exhibited an effect in improvement of sleep.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu tablets (EZT) on microvascular function.Method:The zebrafish models of thrombosis, microvascular defect and vascular endothelial injury were induced by using arachidonic acid, simvastatin and ponatinib respectively, and treated with EZT, astragaloside or asprin. To evaluate the protective effect of EZT on vascular endothelium and its effect on thrombus formation, zebrafish heart output and blood flow velocity were counted, and the vascular area of the zebrafish intestine and the intervascular diameter were calculated. The thrombus in the tail vein was observed under microscope.Result:Compared with model group, EZT improved the cardiac output (P<0.05) and blood flow velocity(P<0.01) of zebrafish in thrombus model at a concentration of 27.8 mg·L-1, and promoted angiogenesis in zebrafish at concentrations of 0.11, 0.33, 1 mg·L-1. Compared with the model group, the vascular diameter of the zebrafish internode was significantly increased at the concentrations of 33 mg·L-1(P<0.05) and 100 mg·L-1 (P<0.01), and the incidence of zebrafish thrombosis was significantly reduced after EZT intervention at 100 mg·L-1(P<0.01).Conclusion:EZT could improve microvascular dysfunction, and its mechanism may be related to the reduction of vascular endothelial damage to promote its angiogenesis and the improvement of microvascular hemodynamics to reduce thrombus formation.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid(PDL) on the acute lung injury rat induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Method:The 72 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, dexamethasone group, PDL 7, 3.5, 1.75 g·kg-1·d-1 group according to body weight.The acute lung injury model was made through inhalation with lipopolysaccharide in the model group, hexadecadrol group, PDL 7, 3.5, 1.75 g·kg-1·d-1 group.To examining each rat alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the total number of white blood cells, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of nuclear transcription factors-kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe morphological changes of lung tissue and explore different doses of PDL effect on acute lung injury in rats.Result:Compared with model group, the account of leukocyte in BALF decreased significantly in PDL 7 g·kg-1·d-1 group and PDL 3.5 g·kg-1·d-1 group (P<0.05). The expression of NF-κB significantly decreased in PDL 7, 3.5, 1.75 g·kg-1·d-1 group (P<0.05). And the expression of IL-10 significantly increased in PDL 3.5 g·kg-1·d-1 group (P<0.05). In PDL 7 g·kg-1·d-1 group, the inflammation, edema and congestion in lung tissue reduced (P<0.05).Conclusion:PDL has a significant protective effect on the inflammation of acute lung injury model, and its mechanism is related to the expressions of NF-κB and IL-10. PDL could also repair the injury of lung in acute lung injury model.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the mechanism of immunomodulatory effect of extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix on immunodeficiency mice by immunosuppressive mouse model induced by cyclophosphamide.Method:An immunosuppressive animal model was established by cyclophosphamide. The blank group, the model group, the low, medium and high dose group of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Sophora extract groups (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1), using mouse organs organ evaluation index using a mouse model to evaluate the carbon clearance phagocytic cell function using luminex to detect levels of relevant cytokines in serum and using flow to detect the number of helper T cells. Mouse mononuclear macrophage leukemia cells (RAW264.7) were cultured in vitro, and the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts on the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells were detected by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay. The proliferation was induced by Real-time PCR. The impact and its possible mechanisms are explored.Result:Compared with blank group, cyclophosphamide significantly inhibited liver index (P<0.01) and spleen index (P<0.05), and the secretion of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly decreased (P<0.05), the phagocytic index decreased significantly (P<0.01), while 50 mg·L-1 cyclophosphamide significantly inhibited the proliferation of mononuclear macrophage RAW264.7 (P<0.01). Compared with model group, high dose of extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix can significantly increase the liver index (P<0.01). The high dose of extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix can significantly promote the chemokine CXC motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, P<0.01), high dose can significantly promote the secretion of IL-6 (P<0.01). The high dose of extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix can significantly improve the auxiliary in the axillary and cervical lymph nodes of mice. The number of T cells (P<0.05, P<0.01), the high dose of extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix could significantly increase the phagocytic index (P<0.01). Medium and high saliency promoted the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells (P<0.01), and promoted IL-6 signaling and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulation of the downstream B lymphoma-2 gene (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 like protein 1 (Bcl-2L1) and the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays an anti-apoptotic role.Conclusion:The extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix can counteract the immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide and enhance the immune function of animals.
Keywords：Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma;Sophorae Flavescentis Radix;compatibility of Chinese medicine;immunomodulation;macrophage
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid on PC12 cells injured by H2O2 and the molecular mechanisms.Method:The oxidative stress model was established by treating PC12 cells with H2O2, and then different dosages of ferulic acid (1, 10, 100 μmol·L-1) were used for intervention. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdelyde (MDA) in cell supernatant, and superoxidedismutase (SOD) in cells was tested by biochemical method respectively. Insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) mRNA and protein expressions were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) and Western blot.Result:The 24 h intervention with different dosages of ferulic acid (1, 10, 100 μmol·L-1) could significantly improve the oxidative damage of PC12 cells induced by H2O2, compared with the model group, ferulic acid at 1, 10, 100 μmol·L-1 significantly increased PC12 cells viability, significantly decreased LDH and MDA content in cell supernatant (P<0.05, P<0.01), and enhanced SOD activity(P<0.01). Real-time PCR and Western blot showed that compared with control group, IGF-1 mRNA and protein expressions in model group decreased significantly (P<0.01), compared with model group, IGF-1 mRNA and protein expressions in ferulic acid group increased significantly (P<0.01).Conclusion:Ferulic acid exerts a protective effect on H2O2-inducing PC12 cells injury, which might be related to insulin signaling pathways.
Abstract：Objective:To observe effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) on the invasion and migration of colon cancer resistant cells HCT116/L-OHP and its specific mechanism.Method:Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of GRh2 (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg·L-1) on HCT116/L-OHP cell proliferation, scratch assay, Transwell assay and adhesion assay were used to detect the effects of GRh2 (0, 2.5, 5, 10 mg·L-1) on cell migration, invasion and adhesion. The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) were examined by Western blot.Result:Compared with control group, GRh2(5, 10, 20, 40 mg·L-1) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT116/L-OHP cells in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05, P<0.01); Compared with the control group, the scratch healing rate of GRh2 group (5, 10 mg·L-1) was significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the number of cells passing through the chamber of GRh2 group was significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), cell migration and invasive ability were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The number of adherent cells in GRh2 group was significantly reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the cell adhesion ability was significantly inhibited. Compared with the control group, GRh2 (10, 20, 30 mg·L-1) promoted E-cadherin protein expression (P<0.05, P<0.01), while protein expression of MMP-9 was inhibited (P<0.01).Conclusion:GRh2 can significantly inhibit the invasion and migration of HCT116/L-OHP in colon cancer cells, and its potential mechanism may be related to the promotion of E-cadherin and the inhibition of MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner.
Keywords：GRh2;colon cancer resistant cells HCT116/L-OHP;invasion;migration;E-cadherin;matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9)
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Jianpi Shugan decoction combined with acupuncture on the clinical symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) with liver depression and spleen deficiency and the intestinal flora.Method:Seventy patients with IBS-D with liver depression and spleen deficiency were randomly divided into two groups by the random number table. The treatment group was given Jianpi Shugan decoction combined with acupuncture for 4 weeks, the control group was treated with Pivavironium bromide for 4 weeks, and 30 healthy people were used as healthy control. The total effective rate, IBS bowel symptom severity scale (IBS-BSS), IBS quality of life questionnaire (IBS-QOL) and traditional Chinese medicine pattern curative effect scoring system (TCM-PES) were evaluated. The counts of Bacillus bifidus, B. acidi lactici, Enterobacteria, and Bacteroides in feces and the colonization resistance (CR) were observed by Real-time PCR.Result:The IBS-SSS scale showed that the TCM treatment group could reduce the scores at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks (P<0.05), and the control group could reduce the scores at 4th and 8th weeks (P<0.05), the 4th week scores of TCM treatment group were better than that of control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate of TCM treatment group was better than that of control group, with statistical difference between two groups (P<0.05). The IBS-QOL scale showed that the TCM treatment group increased the scale scores at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks, and the control group increased the scores at the 4th week (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference between two groups. The TCM treatment group was superior to control group (P<0.05). The counts of B. bifidus and B. acidi lactici increased after 4 weeks of TCM treatment, and the count of Enterobacteria decreased (P<0.05). However, no obvious change was observed in patients of control group before and after treatment. Compared with the control group, B. bifidus increased, while Enterobacteria decreased in the TCM treatment group (P<0.05). There was no significant regulatory effect of Bacteroides after treatment in each group.Conclusion:Jianpi Shugan decoction combined with acupuncture has a reliable curative effect on IBS-D patients with liver depression and spleen deficiency. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of intestinal flora imbalance.
Keywords：Jianpi Shugan decoction;acupuncture;diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome;liver depression and spleen deficiency;intestinal flora;Tongxie Yaofang;Shenqi Baizhu San;Xianglian Wan
Abstract：Objective:To explore the clinical effect of the application of modified Dingchuantang in the treatment of children with cough variant asthma (CVA).Method:Totally 142 children with CVA admitted by our hospital from June 2016 to June 2018 were selected and randomly divided into observation group (71 cases) and control group (71 cases) according to the random number table method. Patients in control group were treated with inhaled budesonide powder inhalation+ oral montelukast sodium chewable tablets, while patients in observation group were treated with modified Dingchuantang. All children were treated for 8 weeks. The two groups' clinical effects, changes of levels of airway function parameters [percentage of forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1%) and expiratory flow rate of forced expiratory in 50%and 75%vital capacity (FEF50, FEF75)] , sputum induction indexes [nerve growth factor (NGF), percentage of eosinophile (EOS), substance P (SP), inflammatory factors [hypersensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23] , and the occurrence of adverse reactions were compared.Result:The total effective rate of observation group was 93.0%(66/71), which was significantly higher than that of control group [81.7%(58/71), P<0.05] . Compared with control group, the onset time and symptom disappearance time of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the values of FEV1%, FEF50 and FEF75 of two groups were increased significantly after treatment (P<0.05), particularly in observation group (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of NGF, SP and the percentage of EOS in induced sputum and the concentrations of hs-CRP, IL-17 and IL-23 in serum were significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.05), particularly in observation group (P<0.05). The adverse reaction rate of observation group [7.0%(5/71)] was higher than that of control group [4.2%(3/71)] , with no statistically significant difference.Conclusion:Modified Dingchuantang can effectively relieve cough and other symptoms in children with CVA, reduce airway inflammation, down-regulate the expressions of inflammatory factors in blood and improve airway function, with a definite curative effect, safety and reliability.
Abstract：Objective:To explore effect of modified Qingre Shenshi Tang on inflammatory factors, oxidative stress and immune function in chronic antral sinusitis patients with damp-heat pouring downward syndrome.Method:A total of 94 cases of chronic antral sinusitis treated in our hospital from June 2017 to April 2018 were randomly divided into two groups, with 47 cases in each group. Control group was treated with metronidazole combined with gentamicin enema. In addition to the therapy of control group, the treatment group was given modified Qingre Shenshi Tang. The symptom scores, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), super oxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ levels of the two groups were observed before and after treatment, and the curative effect, reactions and relapse were observed.Result:After treatment, the total effective rates of treatment group(87.23%) and control group (78.72%) showed statistically significant differences (Z=2.067, P<0.05). The symptoms of anal pain, swelling and dampness in the treatment group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MDA, AOPP, 8-OHDG, CD8+ in the treatment group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05), while the levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, SOD, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4+ /CD8+ were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). After 3 months of follow-up, the recurrence rates of treatment group [4.26%(2/47)] and control group [21.28%(10/47)] were statistically significant (χ2=4.681, P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Qingre Shenshi Tang has a good curative effect in the treatment of chronic antral sinusitis patients with damp-heat pouring downward syndrome by relieving symptoms, inhibiting inflammatory response, regulating oxidative stress, improving immune function and controlling recurrence rate.
Keywords：modified Qingre Shenshi Tang;chronic anal sinusitis;inflammation;oxidative stress;immune function
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the effect of Qili Qiangxin capsules on cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and Yang Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome.Method:One hundred and seven patients were randomly divided into control group (53 cases) and observation group (54 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got metoprolol succinate sustained-release tablet, 47.5 mg/time, 1 time/day, sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets, 50 mg/time, 1 time/day, hydrochlorothiazide tablets, 20 mg/time, 1 time/day, and spironolactone tablets, 20 mg/time, 1 time/day. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given Qili Qiangxin capsules, 4 granules/time, 3 times/days. A course of treatment was 6 months. Before and after treatment, levels of left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), left ventricular myocardial mass (LVM) and left ventricular myocardial mass index (LVMI) were recorded by echocardiography. The classification of cardiac function was recorded by New York College of Cardiology (NYHA). Lee's heart failure and Yang Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome were scored. And levels of N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), soluble ST2 (sST2), galectin-3 (galectin-3), angiotensin-Ⅱ(Ang-Ⅱ), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1), type I procollagen carboxy-terminal peptide (PIP) and type I collagen carboxy-terminal cross-linking peptide (CITP) were detected.Result:After treatment, levels of LVEDd, LVESD, IVST, LVPWT, LVM and LVMI were lower than those in control group (P<0.05), while LVEF was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). According to the rank sum test, NYHA cardiac function classification was lighter than that in control group (Z=2.031, P<0.05). After treatment, level of NT-proBNP was lower than that in control group (P<0.01), Lee's heart failure score and Yang Qi deficiency, blood stasis syndrome score sST2, galectin-3, PIP, CITP, MMP-2, MMP-9 and Ang-Ⅱ were lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition to the routine western medicine, Qili Qiangxin capsules can relieve clinical symptoms, degree of heart failure of DCM patients and ventricular remodeling, ameliorate heart function, regulate levels of sST2, galectin-3, MMPs and Ang-Ⅱ, inhibit myocardial fibrosis, and delay heart failure.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the short-term clinical efficacy of addition and subtraction therapy and external washing treatment of Danggui Niantongtang to knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with heumatism heat Bi syndrome and to investigate its effect on disease activity.Method:One hundred and eighteen patients with KOA were randomly divided into control group (58 cases) and observation group (60 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got celecoxib capsules, 0.2 g/time, 1 time/day, diclofenac diethylamine emulgel for the pain, 3 times/days. Patients in observation group got addition and subtraction therapy and external washing treatment of Danggui Niantongtang. The course of treatment was 2 weeks in both groups. Before treatment and at the 2th, 4th, 6th and 14th weeks after treatment, scores of visual analog scale (VAS) were graded for pain in walking and tranquillization. Function of knee joint was evaluated by western Ontario and McMaster university osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) both before and after treatment. Scores of heumatism heat Bi syndrome and Japanese Orthopaedic Associate (JOA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) levels were evaluated.Result:At the 6th and 14th weeks after treatment, scores of VAS in observation group were lower than those in control group during walking and tranquillization time. Scores of three dimensions in WOMAC (pain, stiffness, joint function) and the total score of WOMAC in observation group were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The score of main symptoms of heumatism heat Bi syndrome and the total score in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). After treatment, levels of ESR, CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MMP-3 were lower than those in control group, and level of SOD was higher than that in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Addition and subtraction therapy and external washing treatment of Danggui Niantongtang can relieve the pain and degree of disease caused by KOA with heumatism heat Bi syndrome, swelling and dysfunction, and can control acute inflammation index, reduce disease activity.
Keywords：knee osteoarthritis;heumatism heat Bi syndrome;Danggui Niantongtang;internal service;outside washing;disease activity
Abstract：Objective:The effect of processing on promoting digestion of Crataegi Fructus was investigated by the method of serum metabonomics based on 1H-NMR and the analysis of traditional biochemical indexes.Method:The dyspepsia model was induced by high protein and calorie diet. The small intestine propulsive rate in mice and the hormone level in rat gastrointestinal tract were used as pharmacodynamic indexes. After administration of Crataegi Fructus, fried and charred Crataegi Fructus, the changes of serum metabolites were analyzed by 1H-NMR technique combined with multivariate statistical analysis, so as to compare the therapeutic effects of each processed products on rats with dyspepsia model.Result:Each processed products group of Crataegi Fructus could improve the ability of intestinal propulsion and gastric emptying, especially in charred Crataegi Fructus group, caused by dyspepsia. The serum metabonomics proved that there were significant metabolic differences between the model group and the blank group. A total of 13 biomarkers related to dyspepsia, covering 3-hydroxybutyric acid, glycerophosphoryl choline (GPC), N-acetylglycoprotein, O-acetylglycoprotein, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alanine, acetic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, creatine, leucine, lactic acid and glucose, were screened on the grounds of VIP value of S-plot, single factor ANOVA and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) (AUC). The metabolite composition of each administration group was the same except that the callback tendency of O-acetylglycoprotein, glutamine and GPC in charred Crataegi Fructus group was closer to that in the blank group.Conclusion:There are differences in the effect of promoting digestion to eliminate stagnation among processed products of Crataegi Fructus, charred Crataegi Fructus is more effective in improving dyspepsia, which may play a role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and energy metabolism.
Keywords：Crataegi Fructus;processing;dyspepsia;promoting digestion to eliminate stagnation;nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (1H-NMR);metabonomics;energy metabolism
Abstract：Objective:To prepare Danshen extract and Danshen capsules, and study on its stability under high humidity, high temperature and light conditions.To determine the hygroscopicity of Danshen capsules and its intermediates.Method:The contents of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid and salvianolic acid B in Danshen extract and Danshen capsules were determined by UPLC, the detection wavelength was 280 nm and the mobile phase was 0.05%phosphoric acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B)for gradient elution(0-2 min, 93%-79.2%A; 2-6 min, 79.2%-75%A; 6-9 min, 75%-65%A; 9-10.5 min, 65%-10%A; 10.5-11 min, 10%-93%A). The critical relative humidity(CRH) was calculated and hygroscopic isothermal curve was drawn by determining the moisture absorption and weight gain of Danshen capsules and its intermediates.Result:The fluctuation of contents of these four phenolic acids in Danshen extract and Danshen capsules was within±10%and no significant change trend after placing at temperature of 40 ℃, relative humidity of 75%and 92.5%, light intensity of (4 500±500) Lx for 10 days.The change rates of danshensu in Danshen extract and Danshen capsules under 60 ℃ were 47.45%and 32.24%, and change rates of salvianolic acid B were -6.39%and -9.64%, respectively.The hygroscopic investigation showed that CRH of starch-based pellets was 58.5%, CRH of Danshen extract was 72.34%, CRH of coated pills was 72.85%, and CRH of Danshen capsules was 73.55%.Conclusion:High temperature has effect on stability of phenolic acids in Danshen extract and Danshen capsules, in order to ensure the quality of them, high temperature environment should be avoided.In order to prevent excessive moisture absorption of Danshen capsules and its intermediates, the relative humidity in the production and storage environment should be controlled below the corresponding CRH.
Abstract：Objective:To compare volatile components in raw products and steamed products of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus.Method:Volatile oil in different batch of raw products and steamed products of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was extracted by steam distillation, and volatile components were identified by GC-MS.The determination was performed with injector temperature of 280 ℃, high pure helium(≥99.999%) as carrier gas, split ratio of 10∶1, and sample size of 3 μL with temperature programming.Mass spectrum conditions included electron bombardment ion source, electron bombardment energy of 70 eV, ion source temperature of 230 ℃, acceleration voltage of 34.6 V, resolution of 2 500, scanning range of m/z 40-350.Peak matching, cutting and noise filtering were used in analyzing data based on GC-MS combined with orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA).Result:A total of 58 components were separated and identified from the different batches of raw Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus and their processed products, and 27 differential chemical components were identified by multivariate statistical analysis, among them, 15 common differential components presented different changing laws.The relative contents of α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, β-linalool, L-4-terpinenol, α-terpineol, nerol, β-cyclocitral, geraniol and α-citral in raw products were higher than that of their corresponding processed products.The relative contents of β-caryophyllene, cis-α-bergamotene, γ-muurolene, γ-elemene and β-bisabolene in processed products were higher than that of their corresponding raw products.Conclusion:The content and composition of volatile components in Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus from Guangdong province have changed after being steamed.The results can provide experimental basis for expounding the processing principle and quality evaluation of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and have positive significance for promoting the research and development of this Lingnan characteristic decoction pieces.
Abstract：Objective:To optimize the decoction process of Digda-4 decoction(DGD-4D), and provide reference for the standardization study of decoction of Mongolian medicine decoction.Method:Taking DGD-4D as model drug, different decoction methods of Mongolian medicine were compared, HPLC was used to determine contents of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ and picroside Ⅱ.On the basis of single factor tests, central composite design-response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the decoction process of DGD-4D with transfer rates of 4 components and dry extract rate as indexes, regression model fitting was carried out by Design-Expert 8.0.6 software, prediction model of process parameters was established, and the optimal process was verified.Result:The optimal decoction condition of DGD-4D was determined to be adding 40 times the amount of water and decocting for 17 min, decocting once.Transfer rates of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ, picroside Ⅱ and dry extract rate were 70.01%, 94.11%, 61.23%, 92.32%, 32.89%, respectively.Conclusion:The optimum decoction process of DGD-4D is established, it has important reference significance for excavating, sorting, improving the level of Mongolian medicine preparations and ensuring the consistency of their clinical efficacy.
Keywords：Digda-4 decoction;aesculetin;geniposide;picroside Ⅰ;picroside Ⅱ;overall desirability;decoction process
Abstract：Objective:To establish HPLC-UV fingerprints of Ilex pubescens pieces, and simultaneously determine two components in 46 batches of I. pubescens in pieces of I. pubescens saponin A1and B1, in order to provide a reference for the quality standard of I. pubescens slices.Method:Methanol was used to extract the I. pubescens saponin samples, and the extracts were measured by HPLC-UV with the absorption wavelength at 210 nm. Kromasil C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) was used for determining the extracts at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The mobile phase condition was acetonitrile-0.1%phosphoric acid aqueous solution with gradient mode. The chromatographic fingerprint similarity evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine (2012 edition) was used to analyze I. pubescens fingerprints. SPSS 20.0 software was used to cluster the peak area of common peaks. Principal component analysis was performed to reduce the dimension of common peaks.Result:There were great differences between the root and stem parts in I. pubescens fingerprints. The fingerprints of roots and stems of I. pubescens were established respectively, cluster results assorted the roots of I. pubescens into three categories andthe branches of I. pubescens into two categories. The integrity and difference of I. pubescens decoction pieces from different parts and places of origin were compared, and the principal component analysis was performed to screen out the common components that played a decisive role in fingerprint of I. pubescens pieces. And the common peaks were determined. The content of saponin A1 and saponin B1 in Radix I. pubescens were determined.Conclusion:The established I. pubescens fingerprints and content determination methods are simple and suitable. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis are used to screen out the key components of quality control of I. pubescens. The results can provide references for quality control of I. pubescens.
Abstract：Objective:To measure the color values of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma and the contents of gentiopicroside, the appearance index value of the representative color was correlated with the intrinsic index value representing the quality, in order to explore the correlation between the contents of active ingredients and the color values, and provide basis for the quality evaluation of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma.Method:The color difference values of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma powder was measured by colorimeter.The content determination method of gentiopicroside in the 2015 edition of China Pharmacopoeia was adopted. The content of gentiopicroside was determined by HPLC, and the correlation and regression analysis was carried out by SPSS 21.0 software.Result:There was a significantly positive correlation between the contents of gentiopicroside and L* (representing colorshade)and E*ab(representing total color difference)(P<0.01), while the contents of gentiopicroside and a* (representing color red-green direction) and b* (representing color yellow-blue direction) had a significantly negative correlation (P<0.01).Conclusion:The color value of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma has a certain correlation with the content of gentiopicroside, and yellowish Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma contain more active ingredients, with a better quality.The contents of gentiopicroside active ingredients in Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma can be quickly predicted by determining the color difference values, which can provide a new idea for quality evaluation of this herb.
Keywords：Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma;color;correlation;gentiopicroside;color difference meter
Abstract：Objective:To systematically and comprehensively analyze coumarin components in Angelicae Sihensis Radix by an efficient and stable HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method, in order to offer the theoretical basis to develop coumarin, establish the quality control standard and apply in clinic.Method:The separation effect of coumarin components was extracted by adjusting the column, temperature, mobile phase, flow rate, sample concentration and other conditions, and various coumarin components in Angelicae Sihensis Radix were identified by corresponding standards, precise molecular mass, polarity, pyrolysis pattern.Result:In this study, a high-efficiency and stable coumarin separation method was established that can be used to separate complex components, and 14 coumarin components were identified in this study, including phellopterin and osthenol that were rarely reported as effective components in Angelicae Sihensis Radix. Major fragment ions of coumarin components were analyzed. The cleavage in methoxy bond or anisole bond on the parent nucleus was the primary pattern for coumarin components, which was summarized for detecting unknowing coumarins.Conclusion:Abundant coumarins were contained in Angelicae Sihensis Radix. Further qualitative and quantitative analysis of coumarins are conducive to improving the quality standards of Angelicae Sihensis Radix, and providing reference for the development of coumarins and clinical application of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.
Abstract：Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma has a long history of medication, and was recorded in Shennong Bencaojing. Through the study of herbal medicine of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, we reviewed and analyzed previous herbal records, studied its basic, origin and processing methods, and provided the basis for further development and utilization of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Through the analysis of ancient herbal researches and drawings, we knew that the ancient resources of this medicine were basically consistent with Gentiana scabra and G. manshurica. The Latin name of the original plant of gentian medicinal herbs set forth in the modern literature was analyzed for the first time. The commodities of this medicine were divided into Guanlongdan and Dianlongdan. Guanlongdan was produced in Northeast China, and consisted of G. scabra, G. manshurica, and G. triflora. Dianlongdan was G. rigescens and grew in Yunnan province. Due to various reasons, such as historical changes, genuine producing areas of medicinal materials gradually changed from Jiangsu and Zhejiang to Northeast China. The processing methods of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma included preparing with wine, preparing with licorice juice and preparing with ginger juice. The purpose of these processing methods is to suppress its nature of bitter and cold. Among those processing methods, preparing with wine has the longest history, and can promote the dissolution of the active ingredients of gentian, thus is a better method of processing. This study provides the basis for radical reform, resource development, correct use, and determination of genuine producing area and processing methods for Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma.
Keywords：Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma;textual research;basic;genuine producing area;processing
Abstract：Based on the characteristics of clinical symptoms of psoriasis in traditional Chinese and Western medicine, and according to the coincidence between existing animal models and the characteristics of clinical symptoms of psoriasis in traditional Chinese and Western medicine, the evaluation criteria of psoriasis animal models are put forward, which can provide corresponding improvement ideas for psoriasis animal models. By listing the clinical manifestations and diagnostic criteria of psoriasis in traditional Chinese and Western medicine, this paper assesses the existing animal models of psoriasis, which accords with 8.3%of the clinical diagnostic criteria of Western medicine, 15%of the main symptoms and 8%of the secondary symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that imiquimod-induced model was found to be the best animal model with high coincidence. The rate of modeling was faster and the cost was lower, but it was reversible with the prolongation of withdrawal time. Allogeneic transplantation model and genotype model have high coincidence with Western medicine, but low coincidence with traditional Chinese medicine symptoms. Because psoriasis is a chronic, non-infectious skin disease that is prone to recurrence, there are many factors leading to psoriasis.The existing models can not simulate the clinical symptoms well. We should use multi-factor modeling method to establish a pathological model reflecting the characteristics of clinical symptoms of psoriasis in traditional Chinese and Western medicine combined with the main external pathogenic factors of psoriasis. Therefore, it is the main task for the future research of psoriasis traditional Chinese medicine to establish animal models that reflect the clinical characteristics of psoriasis and Western medicine and improve the evaluation criteria of psoriasis combined with syndrome animal models.
Keywords：psoriasis;traditional Chinese and Western medicine;clinical syndrome;animal;model
Abstract：Objective:The network pharmacology method was used to predict targets and signaling pathways of the drug pair Astragali Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma in treating colorectal cancer, in order to analyze the effective material basis and action mechanism.Method:Disease targets for colorectal cancer were collected through Therapetutic Target Database(TTD)and Drugbank database. Components of Astragali Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma were obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database, and the Analysis Platform (TCMSP). ChemMapper and PharmMapper database were used to predict the disease targets of effective components. The " compound-disease targets" network model was established by Cytoscape software. The function analysis of gene ontology(GO)and the enrichment analysis of Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG)were carried out with ClueGO plug-in.Result:The network contained 56 compounds and 54 targets. The crucial targets included 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha1(PRKAA1), prostaglandin G/H synthase 1(PTGS1), prostaglandin G/H synthase 2(PTGS2), Thymidylate synthase(TYMS), Carboxylesterase 1(CES1), vascular endothelial growth factor B(VEGFB), vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA), glutathione S-transferase P(GSTP1), and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1(glyA). Function about target genes inclined to peptide-tyrosine phosphorylation, extracellular regulated protein kinase(ERK)1 and ERK2 signal series, negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptosis process, et al. Important KEGG Pathways involved pathways in cancer, Ras signaling pathways, Rap1 signaling pathways, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways.Conclusion:The anti-colorectal cancer activities of Astragali Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma were mainly affected by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, promoting tumor cell apoptosis, resisting tumor angiogenesis, and enhancing immunity as phenotype intervention mode in network. The active signaling pathway is most related to Ras signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Keywords：network pharmacology;Astragali Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma;colorectal cancer;molecular mechanism
Abstract：Objective:To predict the target of active components of Drynariae Rhizoma by the network pharmacology, map related targets of osteoporosis (OP), and analyze key nodes of interaction topologically, so as to comprehensively explore the pharmacological mechanism of anti-op of osteoclasts.Method:Firstly, the main active components of Drynariae Rhizoma were screened out from TCMSP based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and the related targets were predicted by Pubchem and Swiss Target Prediction database according to the Two-dimensional/Three-dimensional(2D/3D)structural similarity. Then, through Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Pubmed text, known OP therapeutic targets were mined, based on putative targets, String database was imported to build Drynariae Rhizoma treatment target OP interaction network diagram. With the help of CytoNCA software, the interaction key nodes were topologically identified according to relevant node parameters, and then imported into String database to build the protein interaction network graph. Finally, biological functions and metabolic pathways of key nodes were analyzed through DAVID database.Result:Sixteen active components of Drynariae Rhizoma were screened out, and 118 related targets were predicted according to the target prediction technique. Totally 316 known therapeutic targets for OP were retrieved. The protein interaction network was constructed according to the String network database. A total of 97 key nodes were screened via CytoNCA topology. The enrichment analysis showed that Drynariae Rhizoma may play an anti-osteoporosis role by regulating stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and immune cells through multiple signaling pathways in aspects of proliferation, differentiation, immunity and oxidative stress.Conclusion:Studies based on network pharmacology have shown that Drynariae Rhizoma may play an anti-op role through direct or indirect targets and multiple major signaling pathways and affect the proliferation and differentiation of multiple types of cells, in order to provid a scientific basis for explaining the material basis and mechanism of Drynariae Rhizoma's anti-osteoporosis effect.
Abstract：As a common tonic traditional Chinese medical herb, Polygoni Multiflori Radix has been extensively applied in clinic. In recent years, there have been many literatures related to Polygoni Multiflori Radix. By reviewing the literatures in domestic and foreign, the latest progress on chemical components and pharmacology of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been summarized and analyzed. At present, more than 133 kinds of compounds have been isolated from Polygoni Multiflori Radix, such as stilbene glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids, phospholipids and phenylpropanoids. Among them, stilbene dimer and dianthrone glycosides are two kind of new compounds recently isolated from it. The current researches about the pharmacological effect of Polygoni Multiflori Radix focus on anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, anti-atherosclerosis and neuro-protective effects, with potentials in treating neurodegenerative diseases, preventing and treating arterial and reducing blood sugar. Its medicinal ingredients mainly include stilbene glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids, in which 2, 3, 5, 4′-tetrahydroxysilbene 2-O-glucopyranoside shows a variety of biological activities. However, there are a few studies on the pharmacological activities of other compounds. Therefore, to ensure the further development and utilization of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, it is suggested to conduct a more in-depth and comprehensive research on the material basis of its efficacy.
Abstract：Vomiting is a common clinical symptom. Long-term severe vomiting could seriously reduce the life quality of patients, so it is necessary to be intervened with antiemetic drugs. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in the treatment of vomiting with remarkable a curative effect. It has the advantages of multi-component, multi-target and multi-system synergistic antagonism. However, due to the active substance and unclear mechanism, it is urgent to adopt an internationally recognized vomiting model system to evaluate the antiemetic characteristics, elucidate the vomiting mechanism, and provide reference for better clinical application. Therefore, this paper systematically introduces several vomiting animal models that are widely used at home and abroad. According to the authors' own experimental experience, this paper focuses on the rat and mice pica models for reference of relevant researchers. Specifically, ferrets are an internationally recognized ideal vomiting animal model, and the golden standard for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs, suncus murinus is the smallest mammalian vomiting model. Rodents have no vomiting reflexes, but studies have shown that its pica behavior is equivalent to the vomiting behavior of other species. Because the easy availability and operation, the model has been promoted and applied in mainland China. Guizhou mini-pig model is a self-developed medium-sized mammalian vomiting model with a similar anatomical structure and vomiting characteristics to human, and worthy of popularization and application. In conclusion, different vomiting models have their own characteristics that need to be optimized according to the purpose of experiments and samples.
Abstract：Diabetes mellitus complicated with cerebral infarction is the commonest and most serious vascular complication of diabetes mellitus. With a high disability and mortality rate, it seriously threatens human health. Because the pathogenesis is still unclear, more and more scholars have focused on the research of diabetic cerebral infarction at home and abroad. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) compounds have a remarkable curative effect in the treatment of diabetic cerebral infarction. Its mechanisms of action mainly include anti-hypertension, reduction of blood sugar and lipid, promotion of vascular regeneration and vascular endothelial function, anticoagulation, anti-thrombosis, improvement of nerve function defect, reduction of infarct volume, improvement of hemorheological, inhibition of inflammation and platelet aggregation, and promotion of collateral circulation. Through literature search, this paper summarizes the research progress of the mechanisms of TCM compounds in treating diabetic cerebral infarction in recent five years at home and abroad, in order to provide reference for clinical treatment.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine compound;diabetes mellitus with cerebral infarction;mechanism of action;research progress
Abstract：Skin photoaging is caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. It is a kind of exogenous aging and one of the important causes of skin aging. The main symptoms include dry skin, roughness, sagging, wrinkles and localized pigmentation. There are diverse and complex mechanisms for causing skin photoaging, mainly involving oxidative stress, apoptosis, the role of matrix metalloproteinases, inflammatory reactions. The prevention and treatment methods of skin photoaging mainly include sunscreens, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory preparations. In recent years, the prevention and improvement of skin photoaging have become hotspots in the world. Therefore, the development of drugs with a defined anti-photoaging effect and clear anti-photoaging mechanism is urgent. Clinically, although retinoic acid and other drugs can alleviate skin photoaging, long-term use can cause side effects on central nervous system, and most of them have a strong irritation and damage to the skin. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has the advantages of natural material, stable action, less toxic and side effects; furthermore, TCM and its compound have a long history in curative application, with a unique effect. This paper explores the anti-skin photoaging mechanism of TCM in recent years, its modern application and study progress, in order to provide some reference for exploring the mechanism and prevention of skin photoaging.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;skin;photoaging;ultraviolet;mechanism