Abstract：Objective:To study the effective substance foundation of Ephedrae Herba and explore its mechanism, in order to further enrich the theory of drug resistance of Ephedrae Herba.Method:In this experiment, a compound model was used to establish rat model of Harmful Fluid Retention in upper Jiao. The Rats were randomly divided into model group, captopril group (4.38 mg·kg-1), Ephedrae Herba decoction group(468 mg·kg-1), polysaccharide group (265.36 mg·kg-1), volatile oil group (2.34 mg·kg-1), alkaloid group(40.71 mg·kg-1) and phenolic acid group (210.60 mg·kg-1), and normal group (10 mL·kg-1). The normal group and the model group were given the same volume of normal saline for four weeks. The 24 h urine volume of rats was collected by metabolic cage method. The changes of heart and lung tissue morphology were observed under light microscope. The heart index, lung index, left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF), left ventricular short axis shortening rate(LVFS) and pulmonary permeability index, number(LPI), lung dry-wet ratio(W/D), creatine kinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ), aldosterone(ALD), cardiac aquaporin 1(AQP1), lung AQP1, aquaporin-3(AQP3) and kidney AQP1, aquaporin-2(AQP2), interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) change were detected.Result:Compared with the normal group, heart and lungs of the model group were significantly damaged. The amount of 24 h urine, LVEF, LVFS of model rats were significantly reduced(P<0.01); whereas heart index, lung index, CK-MB, LPI, Ang II, W/D, ALD, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the model of Harmful Fluid Retention in the Upper Jiaowas established successfully. The amount of 24 h urine, LVEF, LVFS, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the alkaloid group, and the heart index, the lung index, CK-MB, LPI, Ang Ⅱ, W/D, ALD, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01). And the Alkaloid group can alleviate the heart and lung pathology in the Rats Model of Harmful Fluid Retention in the Upper Jiao.Conclusion:Alkaloid components“Wen”and“Xin”are the effective substance basis of its action. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the anti-inflammatory effect.
Keywords：nature and flavor subdivision of Ephedrae Herba;harmful fluid retention in the upper Jiao;renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS)
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effects of different combinations of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix (Qinjiao) on the ankle joint matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model rats with wind-cold-dampness arthralgia.Method:Eighty healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups, namely blank control group, collage Ⅱ model group, wind-cold-dampness syndrome model group, positive control group, single-taste Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix group, Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix-Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma group (GC group), Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix-Taxilli Herba group (GT group), Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix-Stephanlae Tetrandrae Radix group (GS group), with 10 rats in each group. Rat model of wind-cold-dampness RA was induced through the injection with type Ⅱ collagen emulsion and wind-cold-dampness stimulation. After the establishment of the model, the blank control group, collage Ⅱ model group and wind-cold-dampness syndrome model group were given normal saline, and the corresponding liquid medicine was given to each administration group. In the experiment, the thickness of the left posterior metatarsal of rats was measured every 3 days, and the swelling degree of metatarsal was calculated. The arthritis index (AI) was evaluated on the 38th day of the experiment. The serum rheamatoid factor(RF) content of rats was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expressions of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in ankle joint were detected by Western blot. The expressions of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 mRNA in ankle joint were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with the blank group, the swelling degree, AI score, serum RF content, MMP-3 protein expression and MMP-3 mRNA expression in ankle joints of coll age Ⅱ model group and model wind-cold-dampness syndrome group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the TIMP-1 protein expression and TIMP-1 mRNA expression in ankle joints were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the wind-cold-dampness syndrome model group, the swelling degree of foot and metatarsal, AI score and serum RF content of each administration group were decreased to different degrees, especially in Qinwei group (P<0.01). The results of Western blot and Real-time PCR showed that the expressions of MMP-3 protein and MMP-3 mRNA in ankle joints of each administration group were significantly lower than those of wind-cold-dampness syndrome model group (P<0.01). The expressions of TIMP-1 protein and TIMP-1 mRNA in ankle joints of rats in positive control group, GC group and GT group were significantly higher than those in GC group (P<0.01).Conclusion:For rheumatoid arthritis with wind-cold-dampness arthralgia, mild and warm traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a better effect than the combination of mild and cold TCM or mild TCM drugs. The experimental results are basically consistent with the principle of “treating cold diseases with hot medicine”. The mechanism of the compatibility in treating rheumatoid arthritis due to wind-cold-dampness arthralgia may be related to the reduction of MMP-3, the increase of TIMP-1 expression and the reduction of articular cartilage damage.
Abstract：Objective:To overall evaluate the mutual detoxication mechanism of Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma(LGT) compatible with Lysimachiae Herba(JQC) in tumor-bearing state.Method:Twelve differentially characteristic components before and after compatibility were used as chemical composition spectrum, six indicators including serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), creatinine(Cr) and urea nitrogen(BUN), malondialdehyde(MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues were used as attenuation spectrum, and twelve biological indicators including glutathione(GSH), glutathione-S-transferase(GST), glutathione peroxidase(GPx), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT) and interleukin(IL)-10 in the liver and kidney were used as the biological information spectrum.Mutual detoxication mechanisms of LGT compatible with JQC in tumor-bearing state were overall evaluated by principal component analysis(PCA), and the contribution of chemical components and biological indicators to mutual detoxication was further evaluated by gray correlation analysis(GCA) of“chemical composition spectrum-attenuation spectrum-biological information spectrum”.Result:Compared with the model group, the attenuation spectrum scores Z values of S180(Z1 value) and H22(Z3 value) increased significantly after LGT being used alone(P<0.01). Compared with LGT alone group, the compatibility groups of LGT and JQC significantly reduced excessive Z1 value and Z3 value caused by LGT when the ratio of LGT and JQC was 4∶1, 2∶1, 1∶1, 1∶2 and 1∶4(P<0.01). The overall efficacy of Z values(Z1 value and Z3 value) of LGT-JQC in the mass ratios including 4∶1, 1∶1, 1∶2 and 1∶4 was significantly higher than that in the ratio of 2∶1(P<0.01). LGT also caused a significant decrease in the Z values of the bioinformatics scores in the S180(Z2 value) and H22(Z4 value) tumor-bearing state, these two values were significantly increased after compatibility with JQC.The chemical components contributing the most to the attenuating effect of S180 and H22 in tumor-bearing state were 3# and 10#, respectively.The most important biological indicators were kidney GPx and renal GSH.Conclusion:LGT combined with JQC in the mass ratio of 4∶1-1∶4 can attenuate LGT-induced subacute toxicity in S180 and H22 tumor-bearing state, and the best ratio of such effect is 2∶1.The attenuating effect reflects the thought of“there is no reason why there is no meteorology”. The mechanism of attenuating action involves antioxidative damage and anti-inflammatory reaction of the liver and kidney, especially the renal GPx(S180) and renal GSH(H22) as the greatest contribution to the detoxication mechanism.
Keywords：mutual detoxication mechanism;principal component analysis;gray correlation analysis;overall evaluation;"there is no reason why there is no meteorology";Lysimachiae Herba;Tripterygii Radix et Rhizoma
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the quality of Platycladi Cacumen carbonisata pieces in the market, then to explore control standard of“carbonizing retains characteristics”of Platycladi Cacumen.Method:The properties, water content and alcohol extract content of commercial Platycladi Cacumen carbonisata pieces were determined by the method in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.Thin layer chromatography(TLC) identification of quercetin and contents of quercetin and quercitin were determined.Result:The carbonizing degree of 9 batches of Platycladi Cacumen carbonisata pieces were heavier than which is specified in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.The conditions of TLC identification in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia should be revised to avoid stratification; the carbonizing degree could affect the contents of quercetin and quercitin in Platycladi Cacumen carbonisata pieces; the simultaneous detection of quercetin and quercitin can be used as one of the quality control indexes of this carbonisata pieces.Conclusion:Most of commercial Platycladi Cacumen carbonisata pieces have the quality problem of excessive carbonizing degree, the established quality control standard of“carbonizing retains characteristics”can be used to effectively ensure the quality of Platycladi Cacumen carbonisata pieces.
Abstract：Objective:To prepare nerve growth factor(NGF) temperature sensitive in situ gel and investigate its therapeutic effect on sciatic nerve injury of rats.Method:NGF thermosensitive gel was prepared and its prescription was optimized by central composite design-response surface methodology.Fifty rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, NGF injection group(10 mg·L-1), NGF low-dose(10 mg·L-1) and high-dose(20 mg·L-1) thermosensitive gel groups, and sciatic nerve injury model of rats was established.The effect of NGF thermosensitive gel on the injury of sciatic nerve were comprehensively examined by taking rat behavior, sciatic nerve function index(SFI), time of withdrawal reflex, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle, and histomorphological changes as indicators.Result:The gelation temperature of NGF thermosensitive gel was 35.2 ℃ after the formulation being optimized, which was in line with the standard for injection.Four-eight weeks after operation, the SFI and wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle in rats of NGF high-dose thermosensitive gel group were significantly higher than those in the model group and NGF injection group, but its time of withdrawal reflex was significantly lower than those in the model group and NGF injection group, and the effect was in a dose-dependent manner.Arrangement of regenerated nerve fibers in sciatic nerve injury area of rats from NGF high-dose thermosensitive gel group was more tidy, dense and continuous than that of the model group.Conclusion:NGF thermosensitive gel can promote repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats.
Keywords：nerve growth factor;thermosensitive in situ gel;central composite design-response surface methodology;sciatic nerve injury;restorative effect;sciatic nerve function index;time of withdrawal reflex
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the influence of different drying methods on physical fingerprint and total flavonoids content of Mori Ramulus extract.Method:The Mori Ramulus extract was dried by freeze drying, vacuum drying, ambient pressure drying, respectively.The content of total flavonoids in samples with different drying methods were determined and compared with each other.Physical fingerprint of Mori Ramulus extract was established by radar map and the physical fingerprint of samples with different drying methods were compared with each other.In the meantime, compressible parameters were employed to analyze the compressibility characteristics of Mori Ramulus extract treated by different drying methods.Result:Similarity of control physical fingerprint of Mori Ramulus extract treated by different drying methods was 77.8%-87.3%, relative standard deviation(RSD) of average value of the first level indexes and the compressible parameters was 0-16.6%.Except for homogeneity and stability, the remaining RSDs were less than 10%.Effects of different drying methods on homogeneity and stability of Mori Ramulus extract were greater than that of other factors.Conclusion:Different drying methods have certain effects on physical fingerprint of Mori Ramulus extract, but they have little influence on total flavonoids content in Mori Ramulus extract.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Yangzheng Sanjie decoction on proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway of human gastric cancer MKN-45 cells.Method:Gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 was treated for 24, 48, 72 h with Yangzheng Sanjie decoction (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 g·L-1); cell proliferation was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8); cell colony forming ability was observed by the plate cloning experiment after intervention with Yangzheng Sanjie decoction (0.4, 0.8 g·L-1); MKN-45 cells was treated with 4, 8 g·L-1, and then cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry; the expression of ERK and its phosphorylation level were detected by Western blot assay after treatment with 2, 4, 8 g·L-1.Result:Compared with the blank group, Yangzheng Sanjie decoction could significantly inhibit the proliferation of MKN-45 cells. After treatment for 24, 48 h, Yangzheng Sanjie decoction started from 2 g·L-1, and after treatment for 72 h, it started from 1.5 g·L-1, the cell viability gradually decreased in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05, P<0.01). After 48 hours of intervention with different concentrations of Yangzheng Sanjie decoction, the cell clone formation rate of Yangzheng Sanjie decoction was significantly lower than that of the blank group with a dose-response relationship (P<0.01). After the intervention with Yangzheng Sanjie decoction at a concentration of 0.8 g·L-1, cell colonies could not be formed; the apoptosis rate of Yangzheng Sanjie decoction was significantly higher than that of the blank group (P<0.05, P<0.01); after 12 h of intervention, compared with the blank group, Yangzheng Sanjie decoction started from 4 g·L-1, and the phosphorylation level of ERK protein in MKN-45 cells was down-regulated (P<0.01).Conclusion:Yangzheng Sanjie decoction can inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 and promote its apoptosis. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong Fang (WZ) on proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells in aging rats by regulating miR-let-7-Imp axis.Method:A total of 40 18-month-old male SD rats were randomly divided into aging model group, and low, middle and high-dose WZ groups, with 10 rats in each group. Ten 2-month old rats were used as young control group. Low, middle and high-dose WZ groups were given by gastric WZ 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 g·kg-1 respectively. Young control group and aging model group were given normal saline for 4 months, which was suspended for 2 days every week. Rats were put to death after the final treatment with WZ, and then the testes were quickly removed from rats. The relative mRNA expression levels of miR-let-7 and Imp were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The expressions and localization of p-JAK2/JAK2, phosphate(p)-signal transduction and transcriptional activators3 (STAT3)/STAT3 signaling pathway proteins were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The numbers of spermatogonial stem cells and the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunofluorescence. The testicular tissue morphology was observed using htoxylin eosin (HE) staining.Result:Compared with young control group, the expression levels of miR-let-7 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression levels of Imp mRNA were decreased in the aging model group(P<0.01). Conversely, the expression levels of miR-let-7 mRNA were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the mRNA expression levels of Imp mRNA were significantly increased after WZ treatment(P<0.05). The results of Western blotting and immunofluorescence showed that the expression levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 in aging model group were decreased significantly(P<0.01), while WZ significantly increased the expression levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3(P<0.05, P<0.01). Immunofluorescence results showed that compared with young control group, the number of spermatogonial stem cells and PCNA expression decreased in aging model group. After WZ treatment, the number of spermatogonial stem cells was increased, whereas PCNA expression was up-regulated. HE showed that WZ significantly improved the testicular tissue structure of aging rats.Conclusion:WZ effectively promote the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells by regulating miR-let-7-imp axis in testis.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Yangxinkang tablets on myocardial fibrosis in mice after heart failure, and to explore its mechanism.Method:The model of chronic heart failure in mice was established by thoracic aorta constriction (TAC). After successful modeling, mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, 3-methyladenine(3-MA, 15 mg·kg-1) autophagy inhibitor group, Yangxinkang tablets high, medium, and low dose groups (1 170, 585, 390 mg·kg-1). The sham operation group received equal volume of distilled water. After 30 days, cardiac ultrasound was performed to collect hemodynamic parameters. Cardiac paraffin slices were stained with Masson to observe the morphological changes and fibrosis of cardiomyocytes. Western blot was used to detect lysosome-associated membrane protein(LAMP), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1 autophagyportein, α-smooth muscle activin(α-SMA ), CollagenⅠ, Collagen Ⅲ protein expression.Result:As compared with normal group, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractional shortening(FS) were significantly decreased(P<0.05), the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVDs) were significantly increased (P<0.05), the degree of myocardial fibrosis was significantly aggravated in model group (P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of α-SMA, CollagenⅠ, Collagen Ⅲ, LAMP, LC3, and Beclin-1 were significantly increased in model group (P<0.05). As compared with model group, the cardiac ultrasound indexes of the 3-MA group, Yangxinkang high and medium dose groups were significantly improved (P<0.05), the degree of myocardial fibrosis was significantly reduced (P<0.01), the protein expression levels of α-SMA, CollagenⅠ, CollagenⅢ, LAMP, LC3 and Beclin-1 were decreased in 3-MA group, Yangxinkang high and medium dose groups(P<0.05), while the protein expression levels between the model group and Yangxinkang low-dose group showed no significant difference.Conclusion:Yangxinkang tablets can reduce myocardial fibrosis and improve cardiac function in mice with heart failure probably by down-regulating autophagy.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of serum-containing Qingxin Tongmai decoction(QXTMD) on the apoptosis rate of mouse mononuclear macrophage cell line RAW264.7 induced by Acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL) and the expressions of type A scavenger receptor(SR-A), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α(IRE1α), exploring the possible mechanism of QXTMD in the treatment of atherosclerosis.Method:Eight New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the atorvastatin group (2.6 g·kg-1) low, medium and high-dose QXTMD groups (3.33, 6.66, 13.32 mg·kg-1). After 7 days of gavage, the carotid blood was collected to prepare drug-containing serum. The RAW264.7 cell line was stimulated with 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%drug-containing serum culture for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The cell proliferation rate was observed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. The RAW264.7 cell line was cultured in vitro and divided into blank group, model group, atorvastatin group, and low, medium and high-dose QXTMY groups. The cells in blank group were cultured with bovine serum albumin(BSA). The model group was stimulated with BSA+ 50 mg·L-1 ac-LDL for 24 h. The other groups were stimulated with BSA+ 50 mg·L-1 ac-LDL+ 10%drug-containing serum for 24 h. The apoptosis rate and SR-A expression of RAW264.7 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and IRE1α protein were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with the blank group, the model group could increase the apoptosis rate of RAW264.7 cells (P<0.01) and the expressions of Bax and SR-A protein (P<0.01), but decrease the expression of Bcl-2 protein (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, low, medium and high-dose QXTMD groups could decrease the apoptosis rate of RAW264.7 cell line (P<0.05) and the expressions of SR-A and IRE1α (P<0.05, P<0.01). The low-dose QXTMD group and the high-dose QXTMD group could decrease the expression of Bax(P<0.05, P<0.01). The middle-dose group and the high-dose group could decrease the expression of Bcl-2(P<0.01).Conclusion:QXTMD can reduce the apoptosis rate of macrophages. The mechanism of atherosclerosis may be related to the expressions of Bax, IREα, SR-A and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate effect of curdione on the migration and invasion of human breast cancer HCC1937 cells and its mechanism.Method:HCC1937 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with curdione at various doses (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol·L-1) for 24, 48 h, the cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 method. curdione groups (12.5, 25, 50 μmol·L-1) and blank group were established. The effect of curdione on the adhesion of HCC1937 cells was detected by the cell adhesion assay. The effect of curdione on migration of HCC1937 cells was detected by wound healing assay. The effect of curdione on the migration and invasion of HCC1937 cells were detected by transwell chamber assay. The effect of curdione on regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK)and protein kinase B(Akt)signaling pathways and the protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) of HCC1937 cells were detected by the Western blot analysis. Effect of curdione on mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 of HCC1937 cells were detected by Real-time PCR.Result:Compared with the blank group, curdione (12.5, 25, 50 μmol·L-1) groups had no significant effect on cell viability, but a remarkable effect on cell viability HCC1937 cells, and cell viability was gradually decreased with the increase of the concentration of curdione (P<0.05, P<0.01) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Compared with blank group, curdione groups (12.5, 25, 50 μmol·L-1) had a significant effect on cell adhesion rate, migration rate and invasion rate of HCC1937 cells (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, curdione groups (12.5, 25, 50 μmol·L-1) could down-regulate phosphorylation levels of key proteins extracellular regulated protein kinases(ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), Akt on MAPK and Akt signaling pathways (P<0.01), as well as the protein and mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 of HCC1937 cells.Conclusion:curdione can inhibit the migration and invasion of human breast cancer HCC1937 cells, and the mechanism may be related to down-regulation of phosphorylation levels of key proteins ERK, JNK, Akt on MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, so as to reduce the expressions of MMP2 and MMP-9.
Keywords：curdione;breast cancer;migration;invasion;mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK);protein kinase B(Akt);matrix metalloproteinases
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate the toxicological safety of over-ground parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, in order to provide basis for the rational utilization of over-ground parts of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma recourses.Method:Mice acute oral toxicity test, micronucleus test of mice bone marrow, mice sperm shape abnormality test and toxicological test based on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis model were carried out.Result:Maximal tolerable dose(MTD) of over-ground parts of G. uralensis water extract (WE) and alcohol extract (AE) were 96, 128 g·kg-1, respectively. Macro-porous resin enriched product of AE was harmful to mice, with gender differences. Micronucleus rates of each dose(8, 16, 32 g·kg-1) group and control group for female mouse were 0.28%, 0.34%, 0.26% and 0.22%, respectively. Micronucleus rates of each dose(8, 16, 32 g·kg-1) group and control group for male mouse were 0.32%, 0.30%, 0.36% and 0.28%, respectively. Sperm shape abnormality rates of each dose group and control group were 3.16%, 3.01%, 2.67% and 3.23%, respectively. Micronucleus rate and sperm shape abnormality rate had no significant increase compared with the negative control. The 30-day repeated intragastric WE and AE had no effect on the general conditions of the model rats. Compared with normal group, AE group showed a significant decrease in heart weight, and significant increases in liver weight, liver index and kidney index (P<0.05). Both of AE and WE group showed significant increases in globulin (GLB) and creatinine (CRE) levels (P<0.05). The transaminases of individual rats were abnormal. Four liver pathological changes were found in necropsy, histopathological examination revealed that liver cells degeneration, necrosis and liver tissue inflammation occurred in the individual rats with abnormalities in biochemical index and organ index.Conclusion:The results indicated that both of WE and AE have potential toxicity. WE does not show any genetic toxicity to mice. Therefore, further studies shall be made for toxicological safety of over-ground parts of G. uralensis.
Keywords：over-ground parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis;safety evaluation;acute toxicity;genetic toxicity;liver and kidney toxicity
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the inhibitory effect of leonurine on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ) and its effect on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway and miRNA-1.Method:Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by Ang Ⅱ (0.1 μmol·L-1) in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Experiments were designed in 6 groups as following: normal group, model group, p38 MAPK inhibitor group (SB203580, 10 μmol·L-1), low-dose(5 μmol·L-1), middle-dose(10 μmol·L-1) and high-dose(20 μmol·L-1) group. The cardiomyocyte surface area was measured by image software, and the protein contents were detected by Lowry. The concentrations of ANP in the culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression level of miRNA-1 was detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), and the protein expression levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with normal group, the surface area of cardiomyocyte, the protein contents, the concentrations of ANP, and the protein expression levels of ET-1, p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, MEF2, β-MHC in model group were higher (P<0.05), but the protein expression levels of α-MHC and miRNA-1 were lower than those in normal group (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the surface area of cardiomyocyte, the protein contents, the concentrations of ANP, and the protein expression levels of ET-1, p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, MEF2, β-MHC in high-dose group were lower (P<0.05), but the protein expression levels of α-MHC and miRNA-1 were higher than those in model group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Leonurine (20 μmol·L-1) could inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by AngⅡ, and the mechanism is related to the inhibition of activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway and up-regulation the expression of miRNA-1.
Keywords：leonurine;cardiomyocyte hypertrophy;p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK);microRNA-1(miRNA-1)
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang on angiogenesis of osteoarthritis with Yang deficiency and cold coagulation.Method:Totally 60 female SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, celecoxib group (20.82 mg·kg-1) and low, medium, high-dose Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang groups (3.24, 6.48, 12.96 g·kg-1). All groups, except for control group, were involved in duplicating the osteoarthritis(OA) model through frozen and knee fixation, as well as 42-day cold environmental stimulation. After modeling, all drug-group rats were respectively administrated with corresponding drugs for 28 days, once a day. Meanwhile, control group and model group were given equivalent distilled water by gavage. 24 hours after the last gavage, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) in serum were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) method, VEGF expressions in cartilage and synovial with immunohistochemical method, and interleukin-17(IL-17) and VEGF levels in synovial with Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR).Result:Compared with normal group, the expression of VEGF in serum, cartilage and synovial were significantly increased (P<0.01), and PGE2 and TGF-β1 expressions, IL-17 level were increased significantly (P<0.01) as well. Compared with model group, VEGF in serum, cartilage and synovial were significantly decreased in the 4 drug groups. Meanwhile, PGE2, TGF-β1 and IL-17 level were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Among drug groups, IL-17 of high-dose group in synovial was higher than that of celecoxib group (P<0.05), and VEGF of medium and high-dose Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang groups in synovial was higher than that of celecoxib group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference among other drug groups.Conclusion:Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang has an effect in suppressing angiogenesis of knee and alleviate cartilage lesion by regulating VEGF and its upstream cytokines PGE2 and TGF-β1.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the protective effect of sodium ferulate on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats and to explore its possible mechanism.Method:The cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in SD male rats. 36 modeled rats with neurologic damage were randomly divided into 4 groups: model group, low, medium, high-dose sodium ferulate groups (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1). Another nine rats were selected as a sham operation group.Neurological function was assessed by neurological scoring system in rats.Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the pathological changes of the rats' brain. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and brain tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of nucleus and cytoplasm nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) in brain tissues.Result:As compared with normal group, neurological deficit score was increased; the neuronal necrosis and inflammatory cell number were present; the serum and brain tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased; nucleus/cytoplasm NF-κB p65 protein expression ratio was increased significantly in model group (P<0.01). As compared with model group, sodium ferulate distinctly decreased the neurological deficit score(P<0.05, P<0.01), inhibited neuronal necrosis, reduce inflammatory cell number, significantly reduce the serum and brain tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6(P<0.05, P<0.01). Western blot showed that sodium ferulate could inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 protein(P<0.05, P<0.01), and finally, it can alleviate the inflammatory injury caused by ischemia reperfusion.Conclusion:Sodium ferulate protects the brain against focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, and the mechanism may be related to inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 protein to alleviate inflammatory response.
Abstract：Objective:The classical formula of Dingxiang Shiditang can be used for hiccup and vomit which caused by many reasons, its molecular mechanism of this formula was investigated.Method:Based on the integrated pharmacology platform of traditional Chinese medicine, the potential molecular mechanism of Dingxiang Shiditang was revealed from the dimensions of multi-components and multi-targets.Result:There were 89 compounds related to hiccup and vomit of Dingxiang Shiditang, and there was 1 common target[cannabinoid receptor 1(CNR1)]. On the one hand, CNR1 could inhibit the occurrence of hiccup and vomit by inhibiting the release of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA), dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT); on the other hand, CNR1 could inhibit gastrointestinal motility and delay gastric emptying, and it was speculated that CNR1 may play a role in regulating gastrointestinal motility through brain-gut axis.Meanwhile, the mechanism of Dingxiang Shiditang may be related to nucleotide metabolism and nervous system.Conclusion:Dingxiang Shiditang may regulate gastrointestinal motility by affecting the release of neurotransmitters, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and achieve its effect on hiccup and vomit based on the joint intervention of multiple targets and multiple pathways.
Keywords：classical formula;Dingxiang Shiditang;integrated pharmacology;hiccup;mechanism of action;nervous system;nucleotide metabolism
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficiency of the liver soothing method(modified Danzhi Xiaoyaosan) in the treatment of post-stroke depression(PSD), and explore its mechanism.Method:A total of 148 patients with PSD were randomly divided into study group and control group, with 74 cases in each group. Control group received Escitalopram Oxalate, 10 mg·d-1. Study group received Shugan granule 3 g, twice a day, in addition to the therapy of control group. One course of treatment of 4 weeks. Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, neurotransmitter power, 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), noradrenalin(NE) levels and inflammatory factors were compared between the two groups.Result:The clinical efficacy of study group was significantly better than that of control group(Z=2.97, P<0.05), and the total effective rate in study group was significantly higher than that of control group (87.84%, 74.32%, χ2=4.40, P<0.05). HAMD scores in both groups decreased in the process of treatment (P<0.05). HAMD score in study group was reduced more significantly than that in control group (P<0.05). The overall levels of HAMD score in study group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The power and overall levels of 6 kinds of neurotransmitters in both group were increased in the process of treatment (P<0.05). The power of 6 kinds of neurotransmitters in study group were increased more significantly than that in control group (P<0.05). The levels of 5-HT and NE in both groups increased in the process of treatment (P<0.05). The overall levels of 5-HT and NE in study group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) levels in both groups decreased in the process of treatment (P<0.05). TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in study group were decreased more significantly than those in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Modified Danzhi Xiaoyaosan combined with traditional antidepressants has a more significant curative effect in the treatment of PSD. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the expressions of inflammatory factors. Further studies shall be conducted.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the protective effect of Xiao Chaihutang and Wulingsan on residual renal function in patients with maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) and investigate its effect on peritoneal fibrosis and microinflammation.Method:The 65 patients with PD who were admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled in the study, and divided into control group (32 cases) and study group (33 cases) according to the random number table. The control group received routine treatment. The study group received routine treatment+ Xiao Chaihutang and Wulingsan. The fasting venous blood was taken before treatment and 3 months after treatment to measure serum creatinine (SCr) and urea nitrogen (BUN). Urine was collected; 24 hour urine volume was recorded; 24 h urine protein (24 h UP) was measured by colorimetry; glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated; residual renal function (RRF) was expressed with residual renal creatinine clearance. Inflammatory factors were detected by using chemiluminescence, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Serum Janus Kinase (JAK) 2 as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 levels were determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were determined by Western blot.Result:Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the residual renal function between two groups. After treatment, the residual renal function of the study group was significantly better than that of control group (P<0.05). After treatment, 24 h UP of study group was lower than that of control group, and the daily average urine volume was higher than that of control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in study group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05); the levels of JAK2 and STAT3 in study group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The expression of E-cadherin protein in the dialysate of control group was significantly decreased after treatment (P<0.01), and the expression level of α-SMA protein was significantly increased after treatment (P<0.01); however, study group had no significant changes in the expression of E-cadherin and α-SMA protein after treatment.Conclusion:Xiao Chaihutang and Wulingsan can protect the residual renal function of PD patients, and the mechanism may be related to the improvement of peritoneal fibrosis and the reduction of micro-inflammation of the body, showing a high application value.
Keywords：Xiao Chaihutang;Wulingsan;patients with end-stage renal disease;residual renal function;micro-inflammatory state
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the clinical efficacy of modified Sinisan (Qizhi Weitong granule) and saccharomyces boulardi in treating functional dyspepsia (FD) in children, and its effect on changes in serum cytokine and gastrointestinal hormones.Method:Totally 156 cases were divided into control group (78 cases) and observation group (78 cases). The control group was treated with saccharomyces boulardi, 0.25 g, po, bid, after meal. In addition to the therapy of control group, the observation group was also given modified Sinisan (Qizhi Weitong granule), 2.5 g, po, tid, 30 minutes before meal. Four weeks was a course of treatment. Then the clinical efficacy, the time of symptom improvement and the change of serum cytokine and gastrointestinal hormones were observed.Result:The total effective rate of observation group (96.15%) was higher than that of control group (82.05%), with statistical difference (P<0.01). The serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ(IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), plasma motilin(MTL) and Leptin of both groups had no statistical difference before treatment. After treatment, the serum levels of IL-10, MTL of both group were increased, while the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, Leptin of both group were decreased. However, the decreasing range and the increasing range of observation group were statistically obvious than those of control group (P<0.01). After the 6-month follow-up, the recurrent rate (6.67%) of the observation group was statistically lower than that of control group (18.75%).Conclusion:Modified Sinisan(Qizhi Weitong granule) combined with saccharomyces boulardi have an obvious clinical efficacy in treating child's FD, with a low recurrence. The mechanism may be correlated with the effect of integrated Chinese and Western medicines in regulating serum cytokine and gastrointestinal hormones levels.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of addition and subtraction therapy of Xuanshen Ganju Tang combined with Sanniutang to post infection cough (PIC) with lung injury caused by dryness and heat, and investigate its effects on allergic inflammation and neurogenic inflammatory mediators.Method:One hundred and eighty eligible patients with PIC were randomly divided into control group (58 cases) and observation group (122 cases) according to the visiting sequence. Patients in control group got compound methoxyphenamine capsules, 2 capsules/time and tid. Patients in observation group got addition and subtraction therapy of Xuanshen Ganju Tang, combined with Sanniutang, 1 dose/day. The treatment course was 7 days in both groups. Symptom scores for cough (day and night), visual analogue scale of coughing (VAS) and scores for lung injury caused by dryness and heat injury were graded. Time to relieve a cough, time to relieve symptoms, time to vanish cough, and cough recurrence were recorded. Life quality was evaluated by cough-specific quality of life questionnaire (CQLQ), and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and substance P in sputum neurogenic inflammatory mediators (SP), neuropeptide A (NKA) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) were detected.Result:Ridit analysis showed that the clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (P<0.05). After treatment, scores of coughing at daytime and night, VAS and lung injury caused by dryness and heat were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Time to relieve a cough, time to relieve symptoms, and time to vanish cough were all shorter than those in control group (P<0.01). Remission rate of cough and vanishing rate of cough in observation group were higher, while recurrence rate of cough was lower than those in control group (P<0.05). Expect for emotional health and fear of personal safety, scores of other items in CQLQ, the total score and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, SP, NKA and CGRP in observation group were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Addition and subtraction therapy of Xuanshen Ganju Tang combined with Sanniutang can control systems of cough, shorten coughing course, reduce recurrence rate, improve patients' life of quality, and can inhibit allergic inflammation and neurogenic inflammatory mediators in the treatment of PIC with symptom of lung injury caused by dryness and heat, with a better clinical efficacy than pure compound methoxyphenamine capsules.
Keywords：post-infection cough;Xuanshen Ganju Tang;Sanniutang;symptom of lung injury caused by dryness and heat;allergic airway inflammation;neurogenic inflammation
Abstract：Objective:To observe effect of method of regulating Qi to dissipate blood stasis and phlegm on degree of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, disease progression in patients with Qi deficiency and blood stasis type chronic heart failure (CHF).Method:One hundred and thirty-four patients with CHF were randomly divided into control group (62 cases) and observation group (62 cases) by random number table. The patients in control group got spironolactone tablets, 20 mg/time and qd. Benazepril, 20 mg/time and qd. Bisoprolol, 10 mg/time and qd. And digaoxin tablets if necessary. Based on the treatment in control group, patients in observation group additionally received Danshenyin and Xuefu Zhuyutang, 1 dose/day. The treatment course was 3 months in both groups. Before and after treatment, scores of Lee heart failure score were graded, cardiac function classification of the New York Heart Association (NYHA), 6 mins' walking test (6 MWT), scores of Qi deficiency and blood stasis and Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire (MLHFQ) were evaluated. Echocardiography, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left ventricular end-stolic diameter (LVEDs), interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole (IVSd) and left ventricular myocardial mass index (LVMI) were recorded. Levels of matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), N-terminal pro-B-type na-triuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), galectin-3 and copeptin were detected.Result:Ridit analysis showed that after treatment, effect on cardiac function in observation group was better than that in control group (P<0.05). Classification of cardiac function of NYHA was lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The LVEDd, LVEDs and LVMI in observation group were all less than those in control group (P<0.05), while LVEF was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in IVSd between two groups. Scores of Lee heart failure score, MLHFQ and Qi deficiency and blood stasis in observation group were lower than those in control group, and distance of 6 mins' walking was larger than that in control group (P<0.01). Levels of serum MMP-9, TGF-β1, NT-proBNP, galectin-3 and copeptin in observation group were lower than those in control group, while level of TIMP-1 was higher than that in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Based on the routine western medicine treatment, additional Danshenyin and Xuefu Zhuyutang can ameliorate symptoms of heart failure, relieve degree of heart failure, improve exercise tolerance and quality of life, inhibit ventricular remodeling, improve cardiac rehabilitation and delay progress of the disease for the CHF patients with Qi deficiency and blood stasis.
Keywords：chronic heart failure;Danshenyin;Xuefu Zhuyutang;ventricular remodeling;quality of life;progress of the disease;cardiac rehabilitation
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on breaking the dormancy of Acanthopanax senticosus seeds and the changes in endogenous hormones and enzymes, and provide a basis for breaking the dormancy as well as artificial cultivation of A. senticosus seeds.Method:Different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 mmol·L-1) of sodium nitroprusside (NO donor) were used to treat the A. senticosus seeds, and then thermophilic stratification was conducted. The content changes of endogenous hormones such as gibberellin (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), indolo acetic acid (IAA), indolo butyric acid (IBA) and salicylic acid (SA) at different stratification time (0, 30, 50, 80, 100, 130 d) were tested by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity change of its in vivo enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] were tested by enzyme-labeled instrument.Result:In the seed germination process of A. senticosus, the contents of GA3, IAA, IBA, and SA were increased gradually, while the content of ABA was reduced gradually. The enzyme activities of POD and MDA were significantly reduced, and the enzyme activities of CAT and SOD were increased obviously. Exogenous NO could increase the seed germination rate and shorten the seed germination time. The effect of 20 mmol·L-1 sodium nitroprusside showed the most obvious effect and 10 mmol·L-1 SNP showed the weakest effect in promoting seed germination, showing an obvious“V”shape for changes.Conclusion:Sodium nitroprusside could promote the seed germination effect of A. senticosus, probably by increasing the content of hormones and enzyme in the stage of seed germination and improving the contents of endogenous NO during germination.
Abstract：Objective:To analyze the microsatellite characteristics and develop microsatellite markers for Sinowilsonia henryi, a rare and endangered plant endemic to China.Method:The Illumina second generation sequencing technology was used to establish the genome library and the microsatellite library of S. henryi. The compositions of the microsatellite were analyzed, and the primers of S. henryi were designed. Its polymorphism was analyzed by the amplification and detection of 5 S. henryi populations.Result:A total of 38, 942, and 660 matched sequences of 100 bp were returned by the second generation sequencing. Among them, 200, 386 splice sequences were obtained by mass pruning and splicing; the number of sequences with length greater than 335 bp was 7 614, and 694 microsatellite loci were detected in the 7 614 sequences, in which the single nucleotide repeats were most and the number of A/T repeated in the single nucleotide repeats was highest. Dinucleotide showed the greatest length variation; the number of AG/CT repeats was highest, and the variation in repeat length was positively correlated with microsatellite abundance. The primers were designed for 36 S. henryi microsatellite sequences with high repetition. By PCR amplification and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 20 pairs of primers showed rich polymorphism and clear bands. The number of alleles (NA) ranged from 3 to 6, with average of 4; the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.535 5 to 0.754 0, with average of 0.615 5.The population genetic analysis of 5 S. henryi populations showed that the genetic diversity of the species was high (h=0.697 5, I=1.436 8, HE=0.702 2), and the population genetic differentiation was significant (Fst=0.374).Conclusion:The population genetic analysis of S. henryi also showed that the primers developed by this study had a high usability. In this study, the primers of microsatellite markers of S. henryi were established, laying the foundation for the molecular genetics of S. henryi.
Abstract：Objective:To establish high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of the total saponins from Aralia elata leaves, and compare the difference of components in A. elata leaves from different harvest time and different regions.Method:High efficiency silica gel G thin sheet (20 cm ×20 cm) was used, with chloroform-methanol-ethyl acetate-water (9.5∶10∶20∶0.5∶5) as developing system, ethanol solution of 10% concentrated sulfuric acid as chromogenic reagent, heating at 100 ℃ in constant-temperature air dry oven until clear spots. The fluorescence HPTLC chromatogram fingerprints were obtained under 365 nm ultraviolet light. Speckle patterns were obtained by software processing and the common pattern was established for similarity analysis and cluster analysis.Result:The HPTLC fingerprints with good separation and clear spots were obtained and the common pattern of fingerprints was established. The common pattern was composed of 10 common speckled peaks, 4 of which were identified for components. The results showed that samples in early August to mid September from different regions had good similarity. 11 samples of different batches were clustered into one class.Conclusion:The HPTLC method is simple, fast and reliable, and can be used for the identification and quality evaluation of medicinal materials of A. elata leaves. The A. elata leaves collected in August conform to the quality standard, so they can be used as medicinal materials.
Keywords：saponins of Aralia elata leaves;thin-layer chromatography;fingerprint;similarity analysis;cluster analysis
Abstract：Objective:To analyze and compare the difference of volatile components between Trifolium pratense and T. repens seeds.Method:The volatile components were extracted by the headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the relative contents of the components were calculated by the area normalization method.Result:Fourty six compounds were identified in the seeds of T. pratense , with a total peak area of 3.48×109 for the volatile components. The compounds with high content in this species were 1-octen-3-ol (30.24%), 1-hexanol (11.94%), heptane, 2, 2, 4, 6, 6-pentamethyl (11.00%), nonanal (7.74%), octanal (6.79%) and hexanoic acid (6.04%). 44 compounds were identified from the seeds of T. repens, with a total peak area of 6.37×109 for the volatile components. The compounds with high content in this species were 1-octen-3-ol (42.98%), heptadecane (14.47%), 3-octanol (9.42%), n-caproic acid vinyl ester (8.82%) and pyrimidine-4, 6-diol, 5-methyl (6.59%). 20 components were commonly shared in the seeds of T. pratense and T. repens, but the content of each component was quite different. 1-octen-3-ol had the highest content in the common components. T. pratense seeds had 26 unique components, accounting for 54.85%of volatile components. T. repens seeds had 24 unique components, accounting for 46.79%of volatile components.Conclusion:The seeds of both T. pratense and T. repens have rich volatile components, but there are great difference in the variety, peak area and relative content of the volatile components between these two varieties
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate the feasibility of heat-treating de-sulfur method for sulfur-fumigated Codonopsis Radix (CR) by investigating the changes in contents of sulfur dioxide residue and sulfur-containing derivatives after sulfur-fumigation.Method:Qualitative and semi-quantitative characterization of sulfur-containing derivatives was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS), and sulfur dioxide residues were determined by acid-base titration method. Then the correlations between sulfur dioxide residues and sulfur-containing derivatives in sulfur-fumigated CR samples with different sulfur-fumigation and heat treatment extents were analyzed.Result:Atractylenolide Ⅱ and atractylenolide Ⅲ sulfur-containing derivatives were identified as major characteristic markers of sulfur fumigated CR. With the increase of sulfur-fumigation time, the content of sulfur dioxide residues was continuously increased, while the content of sulfur-containing derivatives was elevated at the beginning and then reached to a plateau, so there was not necessarily a positive correlation between sulfur dioxide residue and the amount of sulfur derivatives. With the increase of heat-treated time, the content of sulfur dioxide residues was continuously decreased, while the content of sulfur-containing derivatives was decreased first and remained at a high level later. There was no clear correlation between sulfur dioxide residue and sulfur-containing derivatives in different sulfur-fumigated and heat-treating de-sulfur degrees of CR.Conclusion:Heat-treatment could decrease the content of sulfur dioxide residue, but the content of sulfur-containing derivatives still remained at a high level, so heat treatment could not reinstate the inner quality of sulfur-fumigated CR to its non-fumigated ones. Therefore, heat-treating de-sulfur is not a feasible method for the quality assurance of sulfur-fumigated CR.
Abstract：Diabetic nephropathy(DN) is a kind of severe diabetes mellitus(DM) complications, which is one of the most common cause of end-stage renal failure.The incidence of DN increases with the increase of the number of DM patients, and early prevention is the key.DM and DN are characteristic advantages of Tibetan medicine, the “holistic view”of dynamic balance based on the three major factors in the body(Sanyin, included rlung, mkhris-pa and bad-gan) is a unique understanding of DM and DN among Tibetan medical practitioners, and which has rich and unique clinical and medication experiences in DN treatment.This paper discussed the medical theory “holistic view”on the Tibetan medicine for DM and DN, dug commonly used Tibetan drugs and Tibetan medical prescriptions for clinical treatment of DN, in order to provide new ideas for the treatment of DN and the discovery of new drugs for DN, and give full play to the unique advantages of Tibetan medicine.
Keywords：Tibetan medicine;diabetic nephropathy;new drug discovery;holistic view
Abstract：Serum pharmacochemistry of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a new subject based on the identification of migrating components in serum after oral administration of TCM.After more than 20 years of development, serum pharmacochemistry of TCM has been widely recognized and applied by researchers.Based on the references related with the serum pharmacochemistry from these years, the research summarized the methods of serum pharmacochemistry of TCM, for example, selection of experimental animals, preparation of gastric irrigation, design of drug administration scheme, method and time of adoption blood, pretreatment of serum containing drug, as well as analysis of serum sample.In addition, the paper will emphatically introduce the application of serum pharmacochemistryof TCM, which includes clarifying the substance basis of Chinese medicine, establishing the quality standard of TCM, and clarifying the compatibility of compound Chinese medicine.At the same time, we will through some existing problems to look forward to the future of serum pharmacochemistryof TCM, so that people can have a comprehensive understanding of serum pharmacochemistryof TCM, hoping to lay a foundation for the further application of this method in TCM research.
Keywords：serum pharmacochemistry of traditional Chinese medicine;methodology;application;drug delivery programme;quality standards;compatibility mechanism;material basis
Abstract：Psoralea Fructus, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in clinical application, is warm, spicy and bitter in nature and belongs to the kidney and spleen meridian. Psoralea Fructus has the function of warming kidney and tonifying yang, absorbing Qi and relieving asthma, warming spleen and stopping diarrhea, and in topical use, it can remove beverage. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the study of chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Psoralea Fructus. Nearly one hundred compounds have been isolated from it, including coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes, and various types of compounds such as lipids, glycosides, volatile oils, and trace elements have been also found in Psoralea Fructus. In this article, the original literature was reviewed to summarize the main compound types and structural formula, with detailed reviews on pharmacological studies about its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressive, regulating estrogen level, promoting bone growth, liver protection, and neuroprotection effects. In addition, the compounds with the same or similar pharmacological effects were sorted out and summarized to correlate the chemical structure and pharmacology. Psoralea Fructus and its modern preparations are widely used in modern clinical practice. The researches and papers on chemical constituents of Psoralea Fructus at home and abroad and the papers on pharmacological activities in recent years were reviewed, and the chemical types of individual compounds were corrected in this article, providing a reference for further study of Psoralea Fructus in efficacy material basis, quality standards and pharmacological activities.
Abstract：Polygalae Radix and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma were first recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic. Both of them can“improve people's memory”. Long-term administration can make body light and macrobian. They have often been used as couplet medicines and the core combination of nootropic and memory improvement prescriptions. At present, traditional Chinese medicine clinicians believes that the principle of Polygalae Radix and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma in improving memory or intelligence is to supplement the deficiency, remove phlegm and unblock nine orifices, with sufficient evidences for the traditional theory. However, its material basis and mechanism for improving memory have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we searched the literatures about pharmacological and pharmacodynamics mechanism of Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and their chemical components on nervous system in recent ten years from Pubmed database and CNKI. The main material basis for improving memory of Polygalae Radix-saponins, oligosaccharides and alone, the main material basis for improving memory of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-α-asarone, β-asarone and eugenol, the changes of the quality and quantity of the active substances after combination, and the mechanism of improving memory of the single drugs and their couplet medicines, such as scavenging free radicals, regulating cholinergic system, clearing β-amyloid protein(Aβ), decreasing the level of phosphorylation of Tau protein, improving the rate of apoptosis and regulating synaptic plasticity, were systematically collected, analyzed and summarized. In view of the current research situation, this paper points out the possible shortcomings, with the aim to further explore the mechanism of Polygalae Radix combined with Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma with the mechanism of “1+ 1>2”.
Abstract：Gelsemium elegans, the evergreen woody vine of the genus Gelsemium of the Loganiaceae family in China, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. It is spicy, bitter, warm, highly toxic and commonly used for dispelling wind-evil, attacking poison, reducing swelling and relieving pain. In this article, the researches on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of G. elegans in recent years were retrieved, reviewed and summarized. So far, alkaloids, iridoids, triterpenes, phenolic acids, steroids, coumarins, lignans, megastigmane glycosides and other ingredients have been separated from G. elegans. Alkaloids, mostly of indole alkaloids, are the main active ingredients there of which can significantly inhibit central nervous activity. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that alkaloids have a variety of pharmacological activities, which can achieve the purpose of anti-tumor by regulating cell cycle; enhance macrophage phagocytosis, protect white blood cells, and promote immune regulation; relieve cancer pain and long-term pain; reduce the myocardial contractility, get vasodilation to achieve antihypertensive effect; and also play an important role in the treatment of anxiety disorder and dermatosis. In the future research on G. elegans, it is still necessary to further study the chemical constituents, develop promising lead compounds, conduct in-depth research on its toxicology and clinical pharmacology, and clarify its mechanism of action, make it used more fully and reasonably, and lay the foundation for the application and safe use of G. elegans.
Abstract：Breast cancer is one of the common diseases among women. It is a malignant tumor with a variety of complex mechanisms. Its pathogenesis has not been clearly studied. Physical, chemical and surgical treatments often cause vomiting, nausea, dizziness and headache for women. As compared with traditional treatment, Chinese medicine is characterized by multiple targets, small side effect and good effect in treating breast cancer. In this paper, 85 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that can treat breast cancer were included. Among them, 69 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines have been included in the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines have not been included. The main medicinal ingredients in these Chinese herbal medicines for treatment of breast cancer were alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, terpenes, carbohydrates, volatile oils, coumarins and so on. In addition, these herbal medicines were classified according to their effects in breast cancer. Then, combined with the recent studies at home and abroad, this paper summarized the effect of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) on breast cancer, including the reversal of multi-drug resistance, the inhibition of metastasis and proliferation, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the arrest of the cell cycle for breast cancer. This paper also explained three pathways for treating breast cancer by TCM, including intervening the tumor cell related apoptosis gene to inhibit breast cancer, inhibiting the expression of P-glycoprotein in the cell membrane to reverse the multi-drug resistance of breast cancer cells, and regulating the related epithelial mesenchymal transition signal pathway to prevent breast cancer cells metastasis and proliferation. In the end, it was concluded that Chinese medicine can reduce the drug resistance and metastasis of breast cancer cells, block the cell cycle of breast cancer cells, and also intervene the expression of apoptotic factors to promote the death of breast cancer cells. The inhibition of breast cancer by Chinese medicine was the result of the common effect of various ingredients. Therefore, Chinese medicine treatment for breast cancer has the unparalleled advantages as compared with chemical and surgical treatment. Chinese medicine is one of our important means to overcome breast cancer.
Abstract：Shenfutang is a famous prescription used in clinic. It has been used for more than one thousand years, and currently is still widely used in clinic, with a significant effect. Shenfutang was first recorded in the Shengji Collection. It consists of two herbs, namely Ginseng Radix Et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. It can be used to mainly treat syncope and collapse due to sudden collapse of Yang Qi, and the symptoms include disfigurement of the extremities, cold sweats, cold limbs, umbilical and abdominal pain, weak breathing, and slight desire. Ginseng supports healthy Qi, and comforts five organs. Aconitum is good at activating twelve meridians and collaterals. With the effect of returning the yang to rescue the enemy, aconitum can also support yang. Different ratios of ginseng and aconitum are combined for reinforcing Yang of heart, kidney and spleen, so as to treat various syndromes. However, the occurrence and development of diseases are complicated and changeable. Different ratios of Shenfutang may increase the efficacy due to the synergistic effect, or weaken or even lose the original efficacy due to mutual antagonism. Different ratios of ginseng and aconitum can be used for different diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, various types of inflammation, respiratory diseases. In the existing literatures on Shenfutang, there is a lack of systematic summarization for how to adjust the ratios. This paper introduces the effect and mechanism of the combination, and summarizes different ratios of the two herbal ingredients, so as to provide certain reference for the clinical application.
Keywords：Shenfutang;ratio of compatibility;toxicity;clinical application
Abstract：Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) is a new liquid chromatography technology, which developed on the basis of high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). It has the characteristics of super high efficiency, high separation degree and high sensitivity, and has been widely used in the analysis of components in traditional Chinese medicine, the studies on metabolomics, establishment of fingerprint chromatogram, determination of unknown compounds combined with mass spectrometry and other detectors, etc.In this paper, the authors reviewed the application of UPLC in the field of traditional Chinese medicine through a review of the literature in the past 5 years, and summed up its relative advantages and development prospects, in order to provide scientific guidance and basis for pharmaceutical workers to make better use of UPLC technology.