Abstract：Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become a major disease that seriously endangers human health. It belongs to the category of " chest obstruction" and " genuine heart pain" in Chinese medicine, and blood stasis syndrome is its core pathogenesis of CHD, which runs through the disease all the time. On the basis of more than 30 years′ clinical practice and taking " blood stasis syndrome of CHD" as the research object, the research group has carried out a comprehensive, in-depth and systematic studies on diagnostic criteria, biological basis, and evidence-based evaluation. The quantitative diagnostic criteria of blood stasis syndrome of CHD were established, and the research directions of quantification and objectivity of Chinese medicine syndromes were innovated. The biological basis of blood stasis syndrome of CHD was revealed from macroscopic characterization to organ cell molecular level. When the above research results are applied in the prevention and treatment, the accuracy of diagnosis and the clinical efficacy for CHD has been improved in Chinese medicine.
Keywords：coronary heart disease;blood stasis syndrome;diagnostic criteria;biological basis;evidence based medicine
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma on intestinal absorption of ginsenosides in Dingzhi Xiaowan, and reveal the mechanism of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma acting as " adjuvant drug" in this formula.Method:The contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Re and Rb1 were measured by UPLC-MS/MS and the absorption of three ginsenosides in different intestine segments was investigated by rat single pass intestinal perfusion in situ, including absorption rate constant(Ka) and apparent permeability coefficient(Papp). Everted intestinal sac model was used to investigate the absorption dosage of three ginsenosides affected by volatile oil from Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and verapamil[Ver, a P-glycoprotein(P-gp) inhibitor].Result:Papp values of three ginsenosides were ≤0.191×10-3 cm·min-1 in Dingzhi Xiaowan when lack of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma.Compared with lack of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma in Dingzhi Xiaowan group, the Ka and Papp values of lack of volatile oil from Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma in Dingzhi Xiaowan group slightly increased without significant difference in the four intestinal segments, but when the prescription had Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, the Ka increased by 3.97-8.35 fold and the Papp increased by 3.99-8.49 fold.The results of everted intestinal sac test showed that volatile oil of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma could significantly promote the intestinal absorption of ginsenoside Rg1, Re and Rb1, but there was no dose-dependent.Conclusion:Volatile oil of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma can promote the intestinal absorption of three ginsenosides in Dingzhi Xiaowan, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibiting function on P-gp.
Keywords：Dingzhi Xiaowan;Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma;ginsenosides;everted gut sac method;P-glycoprotein;single pass intestinal perfusion in situ;verapamil
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect of Longdan Xiegantang on serum inflammatory factors, related proteins and immune function in patients of secretory otitis media (SOM) with liver and gallbladder wetness-heat Syndrome.Method:Totally 76 cases of SOM with liver and gallbladder wetness-heat syndrome admitted to our hospital from July 2017 to May 2018 were randomly divided into two groups, with 38 cases in each group. Control group was treated with triamcinolone acetonide and ambroxol. In addition to the therapy of control group, observation group was also treated with Longdan Xiegantang. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, IgM, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and NK, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), platelet activating factor (PAF), calcitonin (PCT) and water channel protein-1 (AQP-1), AQP-4, fiber link protein (Fn) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (SIL-2R) levels of two groups were observed before and after treatment. Curative effect and adverse reaction were observed.Result:①Curative effect, after treatment, the total effective rate of observation group was 92.11%, which was higher than 76.32%of control group, with statistically significant differences (Z=2.108, P<0.05). ②Serum inflammatory medium, TNF-α, PAF, PCT, IL-1β and IL-8 in observation group were lower than those in control group after treatment (P<0.05). ③Serum related proteins, in observation group, levels of SIL-2R were lower than those of control group (P<0.05), while the levels of AQP-1, AQP-4 and Fn were higher than those of control group (P<0.05). ④Cellular and humoral immunity, CD8+ , IgA, IgG and IgM of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05), while CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4+ /CD8+ and NK were higher than those of control group (P<0.05). ⑤Adverse reactions, the incidence rates of the two groups were 7.89%and 10.53%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between two groups.Conclusion:Longdan Xiegantang has a remarkable effect in treating patients of secretory otitis media with liver and gallbladder wetness-heat syndrome, and can restore symptoms, inhibit inflammatory response, activate cell and humeral immune system, reduce the secretion of AQP-1, SIL-2R and other proteins, and increase the secretion of AQP-4 and Fn proteins.
Keywords：Longdan Xiegantang;secretory otitis media;gastrointestinal hormones;inflammatory factors;immune function
Abstract：Objective:To observe the preventive and therapeutic effect of Huanglian Ejiao Tang on myocardial injury induced by anthracycline chemotherapeutic drugs in all kinds of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.Method:We chosen all kinds of cancer patients with combined use of anthracycline chemotherapy drugs in our hospital, 21 days as one cycle. The cardiac toxicity reaction was observed after three continuous chemotherapy cycles. A total of 64 patients who met the dialectical criteria of "imbalance between heart-Yang and kidney-Yin" were randomly divided into treatment group (32 cases) and control group (32 cases). Patients in treatment group were treated with Chinese medicine Huanglian Ejiao Tang based on original chemotherapy regimen, adding and subtracting Chinese medical materials according to the symptoms. Patients in control group continued to maintain the original chemotherapy regimen, and both two groups of patients continued to receive 3 cycles of continuous chemotherapy. By comparing the cardiac function classification and cardiac function tolerance between the 3 cycles and 6 cycles of two groups of patients after chemotherapy; changes of echocardiography index, QTc interval, creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), Myoglobin (MYO), cardiac troponin I (cTNI)and nitrogenous terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-pro-BNP) concentration value were compared between two groups; and the concentrations of adrenaline (E), norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin Ⅱ(AngⅡ) were observed and compared; meanwhile, the correlation analysis was carried out at the same time.Result:After 6 cycles of chemotherapy in Chinese medicine treatment group, degree of cardiac function classification and the 6 minute walking heart function tolerance were significantly better than those at the 3 cycles of chemotherapy (P<0.05), but there was no significant change in control group; the concentrations of CK-MB, cTNI, MYO and NT-pro-BNP in treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group(P<0.05), and the electrocardiogram QTc interval in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05); echocardiography indexes E/A ratio and left ventricular ejective fraction (LVEF) value in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). There were no significant changes in left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVDd) and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVDs) between the treatment and the control group. After 3 cycles and 6 cycles of chemotherapy, the blood NE, E and AngⅡ concentrations in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). There were positive linear correlation in concentration changes of blood NE, E and AngⅡ as well as the concentration changes of CK-MB, cTNI, MYO and NT-pro-BNP between 3 cycles and 6 cycles after chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular events in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the 3 cycles of chemotherapy, while the incidence in control group was increased.Conclusion:Huanglian Ejiao Tang can reduce the excitability of the symppthetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system(RAS) in human body and inhibit the release level of NE, E and AngⅡ by effect of "invigorating the kidney and clearing the heart" . It has a certain preventive and treatment effect on the cardiac toxicity of patients with the cumulative use of anthracycline chemotherapy. To a certain extent, it can inhibit myocardial injury, improve cardiac function and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect and mechanism of cinnamaldehyde on the angiogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and the effect of cinnamaldehyde on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced proliferation, migration, tube formation and Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway of EA.hy 926 cells were observed.Method:EA.hy 926 cells were divided into normal control group, model group (7 μg·L-1VEGF), and VEGF+ cinnamaldehyde group (60, 90, 120, 150 μmol·L-1). The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and scratch test were used to observe the effect of cinnamaldehyde on the proliferation and migration of EA.hy 926 cells induced by VEGF. EA.hy 926 cells were divided into normal control group, model group (7 μg·L-1VEGF), and VEGF+ cinnamaldehyde group (90, 150 μmol·L-1). The tube formation experiment was used to observe the effect of cinnamaldehyde on the tube formation of EA.hy 926 cells induced by VEGF. EA.hy 926 cells were divided into normal control group, model group (7 μg·L-1VEGF), VEGF+ AG490 group (50 μmol·L-1), VEGF+ cinnamaldehyde group (90 μmol·L-1), VEGF+ cinnamaldehyde group (150 μmol·L-1), and VEGF+ cinnamaldehyde group (150 μmol·L-1)+ AG490 group (50 μmol·L-1). Western Blot method was used to explore the effect of cinnamaldehyde on the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in EA.hy 926 cells induced by VEGF.Result:Compared with the control group, model group obviously promoted the proliferation and migration of EA.hy 926 cells(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, cinnamaldehyde (60, 90, 120, 150 μmol·L-1) significantly suppressed VEGF-induced proliferation and migration of EA.hy 926 cells (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, VEGF group could promote the tube formation of EA.hy 926 cells. The number of nodes, junctions, meshes and vascular branches were increased, but with no statistical difference. Compared with the model group, cinnamaldehyde (90, 150 μmol·L-1) showed an obvious inhibitory effect on the number of nodes, junctions and meshes of tubules (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the expressions of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, and STAT3 in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Cinnamaldehyde (150 μmol·L-1) significantly reduced the expressions of P-JAK2, P-STAT3, STAT3 proteins (P<0.01). Cinnamaldehyde (90 μmol·L-1) obviously reduced the expressions of p-STAT3 and STAT3 proteins (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Cinnamaldehyde showed a significantly inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration and tube formation of VEGF-induced EA.hy 926 cells, which was related to the inhibition of the activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
Keywords：cinnamaldehyde;vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF);EA.hy 926 cells;proliferation;migration;tube formation;Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(JAK2/STAT3) pathway
Abstract：Objective:To study the accumulation of mercury in liver, kidney and brain of rats and its toxicity on liver and kidney after 4 weeks of administration of different doses of Zhuhong ointment, in order to provide data reference for the safe clinical use of Zhuhong ointment.Method:Forty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, normal-dose group (1.875 mg·kg-1), medium-dose group (37.5 mg·kg-1), and high-dose group (75 mg·kg-1). After transdermal administration for consecutive 4 weeks, the mercury content in the urine, blood, liver, kidney and brain of the rats was measured. In addition, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr), urine β2-miSCroglobulin (β2-BMG) and urine N-acetyl-beta-D glucosidase (NAG) contents were measured, and pathological morphology changes of liver and kidney were observed.Result:Compared with the control group, the levels of blood mercury and urine mercury in Zhuhong ointment groups showed significant increases after administration for 4 weeks(P<0.05, P<0.01). The level of serum ALT was significantly elevated in the high-dose group, and serum SCr was significantly elevated in middle and high-dose groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). Biochemical index in the normal dose remained unchanged. Medium and high doses of Zhuhong ointment destroyed the structure of the hepatic lobule and the radial arrangement of the liver monolayer, shrank the lumen and glomerular, and even led to glomerular balloon enlargement(P<0.05, P<0.01). Normal dose of Zhuhong ointment had no significant effect on liver tissue morphology, but slightly changed kidney tissue morphology.Conclusion:Zhuhong ointment is not toxic at the normal dose, but long-term use can lead to the accumulation of mercury in liver, kidney and bra, which causes liver and kidney toxicity. This study did not find a more sensitive indicator of liver and kidney toxicity than liver and kidney pathology. However, because the rising levels of urinary mercury and blood mercury may predict toxicity, the relationship between mercury exposure and toxicity could be further studied. This study provides a reference for the rational use and toxicity monitoring of Zhuhong ointment.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the changes and benefits of vascular endothelial cell function in rats with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome, and the effect of Yiqi Huoxue recipe (YQHXF) of such changes.Method:Rats were randomly divided into blank control group, Qi deficiency and blood stasis group, and YQHXF high and low dose groups (5.54, 2.77 g·kg-1). A small platform of water environment was used to make the rats stand for a long-term with irregular and incomplete sleep deprivation, 16 h per day for six weeks, so that both mentality and labor of rats were consumed to establish qi deficiency and blood stasis rat models. From the fifth week, intragastric administration was given for 2 weeks, until end of the experiment. Then levels of endothelin-1(ET-1), von willebrand factor (vWF), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), P-selectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rat plasma were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nitric oxide (NO) was detected by nitrate reductase assay.Result:Compared with blank control group, rats in Qi deficiency and blood stasis group showed rough and dark hair, with significantly decreased body weight and pulse amplitude (P<0.01); R, G, B values of the tongue surface were decreased significantly (P<0.01); high and moderate shear values of whole blood viscosity, as well as plasma viscosity were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the indexes of vascular endothelial function such as ET-1, vWF, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, P-selectin, IL-6 and TNF-α were abnormally increased after sleep deprivation (P<0.05, P<0.01). High and low dose YQHXF significantly increased the pulse amplitude and tongue R, G, B values(P<0.01), reduced the high, moderate and low shear values of whole blood viscosity, as well as plasma viscosity (P<0.05, P<0.01); at the same time, the levels of ET-1, IL-6, VCAM-1 and P-selectin in rats were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Sleep deprivation can induce the formation of Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome in rats, and lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction. YQHXF has the function of protecting the vascular endothelium. It can improve the Qi deficiency and blood stasis symptoms in rats with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome by regulating the secretion of vascular endothelial active substances, reducing cell adhesion and inhibiting inflammation.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors(NMDAR1) in hippocampal neurons in rats with vascular dementia and investigate its possible mechanism.Method:The 60 SPF male rats were randomly divided into normal group, sham-operated group, model group, traditional Chinese medicine group(0.20 g·kg-1)and memantine group(2.1 mg·kg-1), with 12 rats in each group. The model was established by repeated ischemia-reperfusion combined with intraperitoneal injection of sodium nitroprusside. After modelling, normal group, sham-operated group and model group were dosed the similar volume of normal saline once a day for 14 days. The learning and memory capacity was assessed by Morris water maze; pathologic change in the CA1 district of hippocampus was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and the expression level of NMDAR1 in hippocampal neuron membrane protein was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry(IHC), the NMDAR1 mRNA in hippocampal tissue was detected by Real-time PCR.Result:Compared with normal and sham-operated group, the latency period was prolonged in model group(P<0.01), the time in the platform quadrant and the frequency of crossing the platform were lessened significantly(P<0.01), the disorder of the neurons, the decrease of the neuronal number, and the neuronal necrosis and apoptosis were obversed in the CA1 district, expression of membrane NMDAR1 of the hippocampal neuron and NMDAR1 mRNA were increased significantly(P<0.01). Compared with model group, the latency period of extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra group and memantine group were shortened significantly(P<0.05, P<0.01), the time and frequency were increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), the pathologic change was improved markedly, the protein expression of membrane NMDAR1 in hippocampal neuron and NMDAR1 mRNA were decreased significantly(P<0.01).Conclusion:The extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra can improve the learning and memory capacity of rats with vascular dementia, and alleviate the injury in CA1 district of hippocampus. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of NMDAR1 expression in hippocampal neurons.
Keywords：extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra;vascular dementia;learning and memorizing;hippocampus;N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors 1
Abstract：Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of Xiaochaihu granule on acute liver injury (ALI) induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats, and to explore the role of transcription factor (NF)-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the pathway of oxidative damage.Method:SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, Xiaochaihu granule low, middle and high dose groups (1, 2, 4 g·kg-1). 250 mg·kg-1 TAA was given to the rats by ip. administration for 2 days to prepare the liver injury model, and from the 3rd day, same amount of double distilled water or different doses of Xiaochaihu granule was given to corresponding groups by ig. administration for 2 weeks. 24 hours after the last administration, liver tissues were taken and stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were measured by colorimetry. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissues were measured by colorimetry. Real-time PCR was used to detect Nrf2 pathway related mRNA expression.Result:As compared with control group, ALT, AST and MDA in model group were significantly increased, while T-SOD was significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and pathological features showed large inflammatory infiltration, both mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), quinone oxidoreductase(NQO1), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit(GCLM) were decreased to different degrees (P<0.01). As compared with model group, ALT, AST, MDA levels in Xiaochaihu granule treatment groups were decreased, while T-SOD was increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01). Pathological results showed that the range and severity of liver lesions in rats were improved to varying degrees after treatment, both mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2, Keap1, NQO1, HO-1, GCLC and GCLM were increased to varying degrees (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Xiaochaihu granule may play a therapeutic role in TAA induced ALI in rats by up-regulating the expression of downstream molecules in Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of the Periplaneta Americana polypeptide on the angiogenesis.Method:Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell scratch assay were used to observe effect of different concentration (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 mg·L-1) of the Periplaneta Americana polypeptide, CⅡ-3 and skimmed cream on the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and a normal group and a thalidomide group were also established in this study. The tubule formation assay was used to detect the effect of different concentration (25, 50, 100 mg·L-1) of the Periplaneta Americana extracts on the formation of tubules in HUVECs cells. The adhesion between HepG2 cells and HUVECs cells was observed by cell adhesion assay. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in HUVECs was detected by immunocytochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Result:MTT results showed that the Periplaneta Americana polypeptide could inhibit the proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The effect of different concentrations of PAP-2 was better than that of PAP-1 and PAP-3 at 24, 48 72 h (P<0.05). However, the survival rate of HUVECs was significantly increased after treatment with different concentrations of CⅡ-3 and skimmed cream in a time-dose dependent manner. Cell wound scratch assay indicated that migration of HUVECs could be inhibited by Periplaneta Americana polypeptide in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), and the effect of PAP-2 was better than that of PAP-1 and PAP-3 (P <0.05). CⅡ-3 could inhibit migration HUVECs to some extent, but the higher the dose was, the weaker the inhibition effect was. Skimmed cream promoted migration of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Tube formation assay revealed that Periplaneta Americana polypeptide could inhibit tube formation of HUVECs, and the inhibitory effect of PAP-2 was better than that of PAP-1 and PAP-3 (P <0.05). CⅡ-3 and skimmed cream promoted the tube formation of HUVECs to a certain extent. Intercellular adhesion assay stated clearly that Periplaneta Americana polypeptide could block the adhesion between HepG2 and HUVECs (P<0.05), and the effect of PAP-2 was better than that of PAP-1 and PAP-3 (P<0.05). However, CⅡ-3 and skimmed cream could promote the adhesion between HepG2 and HUVECs. Results of ELISA assay and immunocytochemical staining indicated that Periplaneta Americana polypeptide could down-regulate the expression of VEGF of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.05), in which effect of PAP-2 was better than that of PAP-1 and PAP-3 (P <0.05). However, CⅡ-3 and skimmed cream could up-regulate the expression of VEGF in HUVECs.Conclusion:The Periplaneta Americana polypeptide can inhibit the invasion, metastasis and tube formation of HUVECs, and down-regulate the expression of VEGF in HUVECs. The effect of Periplaneta Americana polypeptide is better than CⅡ-3 and skimmed cream, and the among the polypeptide, the effect of PAP-2 is superior to the other two.
Abstract：Objective:To study the protective effect of Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultrafine powder with different particle sizes on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, in order to provide theoretical basis for the application of ultrafine powder technology in related products.Method:The SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely sham-operated group, ischemia-reperfusion group, Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅰ group(1.2 g·kg-1), Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅱ group(1.2 g·kg-1), Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅲ group(1.2 g·kg-1), and nimodipine positive drug group(12.6 g·kg-1). The cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was established after 7 days of drug administration. The focal ischemia reperfusion injury model was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The infarct size of brain tissue was measured by triphenyltetrazolium Chloride(TTC) staining. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) in brain homogenate and serum were measured by colorimetry. The contents of glutamate(Glu), aspartic acid(Asp) and glycine(Gly) in hippocampus were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS).Result:The model group showed obvious signs of neurobehavioral deficit (P<0.01) compared with the sham operation group. The area ratio of cerebral infarction was decreased significantly, the contents of Glu, Asp, MDA and the activity of NOS were significantly decreased, while the activity of SOD and content of Gly were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ groups compared with the model group. SOD activity and Gly content in the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅲ group were significantly higher than those in the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅰ group and the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅱ group (P<0.05), and Glu, Asp, MDA content and NOS activity in the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅰ group were significantly lower than those in the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅱ group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder with different particle sizes has a protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅲ group has a more obvious protective effect than the the Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder Ⅰ group. The results showed that the protective effect of Gastrodiae Rhizoma ultramicro-powder on middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion in rats was related to its particle size.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of picroside Ⅱ on the expression of microRNA-1 (miR-1) in the H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes damage, in order to explore the mechanism of picroside Ⅱ in protecting H9c2 cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress.Method:H9c2 cardiomyocytes were divided into 6 groups: control group, model group (H2O2 200 μmol·L-1), picroside Ⅱ (50, 100, 200 μmol·L-1)+ H2O2 (200 μmol·L-1) group and picroside Ⅱ (200 μmol·L-1) group. Picroside Ⅱ group was incubated with picroside Ⅱ for 6 h and then cultured with H2O2 for 2 h. At the end of drugs treatment, the cell viability and the cellular damage of cardiomyocytes were respectively assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3) test were used to evaluate cell apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of Caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and miR-1 were measured by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The protein expression of Bcl-2 was detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with the control group, H2O2 could significantly decrease the cell viability and increase the rate of apoptosis, up-regulate mRNA expression of Caspase-3 and miR-1, and down-regulate expression of Bcl-2 in H9c2 cells (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the cell survival rate was significantly increased by pretreating with Picroside Ⅱ for 6 h (P<0.05, P<0.01). Picroside Ⅱ not only decreased the rate of apoptosis and up-regulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2, but also down-regulated mRNA expressions of Caspase-3 and miR-1 (P<0.05, P<0.01). Western blot showed that picroside Ⅱ can significantly enhance the expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Picroside Ⅱ has a protective effect on H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte injury by down-regulating mRNA-1 expression and up-regulating the expression of the downstream Bcl-2.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the difference of intestinal flora between the patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang and the healthy population.Method:The fecal samples of 9 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang from the first affiliated hospital of Guangzhou university of traditional Chinese medicine in 2018 were selected as observation group, and 6 stool samples from healthy subjects were selected as the control group.The total bacterial DNA was extracted from the two groups of samples, amplified according to the 16S rRNA V4 region, and paired-end sequencing was performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform.The sequencing results were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis software.The flora composition and structure of the samples from two groups were compared.Result:Venn analysis of operational taxonomic units(OTU) showed significant difference in OTU numbers between the observation group and control group.Partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) showed that there was a significant difference in the composition of intestinal flora between patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and healthy subjects.On the analysis of species and abundance, at the classification level of phylum, compared with the control group, the ratio of relative abundance values of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes(F/B) in the observation group was significantly increased, and the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia was significantly decreased(P<0.05); at the classification level of genus, there were significant differences between the two groups in the Prevotella, Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Blautia and Acidaminococcus(P<0.05, P<0.01), the ratio of relative abundance values of Bacteroides and Prevotella(B/P) in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group; at the classification level of species, there were significant differences between the two groups in P. copri, A. muciniphila, B. ovatus, B. fragilis and Ruminococcus callidus(P<0.05, P<0.01). Principal coordinate analysis showed that the two groups of samples were significantly separated, indicating that there were significant differences in flora structure between the two groups.Conclusion:Acute cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang is associated with structural disorder of intestinal flora, which is closely related to the decrease in relative abundance of P. copri and A. muciniphila.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the efficacy of Gushen Dingchuan pills combined with routine western medicine in treating stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with syndrome of lung and kidney Qi yin deficiency, and investigate its effect on serum levels of S100 calcium binding protein A8/A9 complex (S100A8/A9), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1β.Method:One hundred and ten stable chronic COPD patients were selected and randomly divided into control group (55 cases) and treatment group (55 cases) by the random number table. Cases of control group received routine therapy by reference to the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (2013 Revision). In addition to the therapy of control group, cases of treatment group were orally given Gushen Dingchuan pills(1.5-2.0 g/time, tid). Both groups were treated for 12 weeks. Lung function, scores of symptoms of lung and kidney Qi Yin deficiency, life quality St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) score, and the efficacy were compared between both groups. Serum levels of S100A8/A9, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-1β were detected for two groups.Result:After treatment, FEV1% and FEV1/FVC of treatment group were obviously higher, while score of symptoms of lung and kidney Qi deficiency were lower than control group (P<0.01). Total efficacy rate of observation group was 96.15%, which was evidently higher than 80.39%of control group (χ2=4.777, P<0.05). After treatment, score of SGRQ scale was lower than control group (P<0.01). Serum levels of S100A8/A9 and NF-κB of treatment group were obviously lower than those of control group (P<0.01). Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β of treatment group were remarkably lower than control group after treatment (P<0.01).Conclusion:Gushen Dingchuan pills combined with western medicine can treat stable chronic COPD patients with syndrome of lung and kidney Qi Yin deficiency by improving lung function, alleviating symptoms of lung and kidney Qi deficiency, increasing life quality and efficacy and decreasing levels of S100A8/A9 and NF-κB inflammatory factors.
Keywords：Gushen Dingchuan pills;obstructive pulmonary disease;stable phase;syndrome of lung and kidney Qi deficiency
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Jiawei Bushen Huoxuetang on osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF), bone density and bone metabolism.Method:One hundred and sixteen patients with OVCF operation were randomly divided into control group (58 cases) and observation group (58 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group got Alendronate sodium tablets, 70 mg/time, 1 time/week. Menatetrenone soft capsules, 15 mg/time, 3 times/days after meals. Calcium carbonate D3 chewable tablets (Ⅱ), 1 tablet/time, 2 times/days. Based on the treatment in control group, patients in observation group received additional Jiawei Bushen Huoxue decoction, 1 dose/day. The course of treatment was 24 weeks in both groups. The treatment of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) fumigation was used in combination with the TCM for 2 weeks. At the 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks after treatment, pain degree of waist and back were evaluated by pain visual analogue scale (VAS), and waist dysfunction was evaluated by Oswestry disability index (ODI). Before and after treatment, anterior vertebral height (AVBH), Cobb, femoral neck, lumbar spine bone mineral density and Chinese osteoporosis quality of life scale were evaluated. Before and after treatment, levels of carboxy terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), C-terminal cross-linking peptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and bone glaprotein(BGP) were detected.Result:By rank sum test, the clinical efficacy in observation was better than that in control group (Z=2.026, P<0.05). At the 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks after treatment, scores of lumbago and back pain VAS and ODI were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). AVBH, femoral neck bone mineral density, and lumbar spine bone mineral density in observation group were higher than those in control group (P<0.01). Cobb angle was smaller than that in control group; and the four dimension scores of COQOL were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of BALP, CICP, CTX-I and TRACP in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), and BGP was higher than that in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Jiawei Bushen Huoxuetang can enhance bone mineral density, regulate bone metabolism, reduce back pain, promote healing of fracture, and ameliorate osteoporosis, with obvious clinical efficacy.
Keywords：vertebral compression fracture;osteoporosis;kidney deficiency and blood stasis;Bushen Huoxuetang;fumigation of traditional Chinese medicine;bone density;bone metabolism
Abstract：Objective:To elucidate the rationality of integrated processing technology of Leonuri Herba based on comparison of chemical constituents and pharmacological effect of Leonuri Herba between traditional and integrated processing technology.Method:The contents of stachydrine hydrochloride, leonurine hydrochloride, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercetin were used as indexes to compare the differences in the contents of chemical constituents between traditional and integration processing technology of Leonuri Herba.Effect of Leonuri Herba with different processing technology on auricular swelling induced by dimethylbenzene in mice were observed to compared the differences of their anti-inflammatory effect.And rat acute blood stasis model was used to compare the differences of Leonuri Herba with different processing technology on hemorheology and blood coagulation indexes.Result:Contents of stachydrine hydrochloride, leonurine hydrochloride, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercetin in products of integrated processing were 1.558%, 0.168%, 0.137%, 0.113% and 0.078%, they were 1.482%, 0.134%, 0.125%, 0.082% and 0.071% in products of traditional processing, respectively.Both of the processing methods could reduce the degree of swelling and the contents of tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α, interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6 in mouse serum.And both of the processing methods could reduce the whole blood viscosity, prolong the thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT) and reduce the concentration of plasma fibrinogen(FIB) in acute blood stasis model rats.Conclusion:Compared with the traditional processing technology, the integrated processing technology is better in guaranteeing the quality of Leonuri Herba decoction pieces and reducing the production cost, which indicates that the integrated processing of Leonuri Herba is reasonable.
Abstract：Objective:To optimize the recovery technology for 6 kinds of toxic alkaloids in the toxic wastewater from processing of Aconiti Radix with macroporous resin.Method:With the rates of adsorption and elution of benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine, benzoylhypaconine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and aconitine as indexes, static and dynamic adsorption-elution tests were used to select the best one from 15 kinds of macroporous resin, and the recovery technology parameters of six toxic alkaloids in the wastewater from processing of Aconiti Radix were optimized.Result:D101 macroporous resin had a good adsorption and elution effect on 6 kinds of toxic alkaloids in the wastewater from processing of Aconiti Radix, its optimum technology conditions were as follows: each gram of macroporous resin could be used to treat processing wastewater from 4.3 g of Aconiti Radix, the sample loading speed was not higher than 3.0 mL·min-1, the resin column was eluted with 6 BV of 70%ethanol after removing impurities with 2 BV of water.The recoveries of benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine, benzoylhypaconine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and aconitine were 98.03%, 94.09%, 96.53%, 78.15%, 85.40%and 70.57%, respectively.Conclusion:D101 macroporous resin can be used for detoxification treatment of processing wastewater of Aconiti Radix, at the same time, 6 kinds of alkaloids are effectively recovered, which can solve the environmental problems and create certain economic benefits, and the optimized process conditions are stable and feasible.
Abstract：Objective:To set up a callus induction system for Amomum villosum by tissue culture.Method:The rhizome buds of A. villosum and stem segments, root tip segments of sterile A. villosum plantles were used as explants and cultured in MS media with different concentrations of 6-BA, NAA and 2, 4-D (the pH of each medi is about 5.8). A callus induction system was established to explore the effect of different explants and different medium on callus induction for A. villosum.Result:The findings showed that the rhizome buds and sterile plantlet stems and root tip segments of three different explants can be successfully induced into calli. The most suitable medium for callus induction from rhizome buds and sterile plantlet stems was MS with 6-BA (1.5 mg·L-1), 2, 4-D (1.0 mg·L-1) and NAA (0.5 mg·L-1) with the highest induction rates of 15%and 60%respectively. MS medium combined with 6-BA (2.0 mg·L-1), 2, 4-D (1.0 mg·L-1) and NAA (1.0 mg·L-1) was the most suitable proposal for inducing the callus from sterile root tip segments with the highest induction rate of 76%.Conclusion:Under certain culture conditions, rhizome buds, stem or root tip segments of sterile plantlet can be effectively induced into callus. The callus induction system of A. villosum is preliminarily established, and root tip segments of sterile plantlet are the optimal explant.
Keywords：Amomum villosum;tissue culture;rhizome bud;stem segment;root tip segment
Abstract：Objective:To study the correlation between the fingerprint of different polar parts of Huanbei Zhike recipe and its antitussive effect, identify the chromatographic peaks greatly contributing to its pharmacological effect, and ascribe the chromatographic peaks.Method:Gradient elution method was used to establish the chromatographic peaks of different polar parts of Huanbei Zhike recipe. The common peaks and corresponding peak areas of each part were obtained by referring to the water extract chromatogram and after being processed by chromatographic workstation. The cough frequency, the latent period of cough and the contents of interleukin (IL)-4, interferon-γ(IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IL-5 in lung lavage fluid of mice were used as the detection indexes to investigate the antitussive effect of different polar parts of Huanbei Zhike recipe. The correlation analysis among cough frequency, cough latent period and common peak area was carried out, and the peaks greatly contributing to the effect of medicine were pointed out, which were assigned according to the fingerprint of single drug.Result:Bivariate correlation analysis showed that seven chromatographic peaks, i. e. No.12, 13, 29, 32, 33, 35 and 39, contributed significantly to the antitussive effect. The higher the content of the compounds represented by these peaks, the stronger the antitussive effect. There was a significant correlation between No. 32 peak and the latent period of cough, while No. 13 and No. 32 peaks were significantly correlated with cough frequency. These chromatographic peaks were assigned and found to be present in Scutellaria baicalensis, Crepis Herba, Aurantii Fructus, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, etc.Conclusion:The chromatographic peaks of No.13 and No.32 peaks contribute greatly to the antitussive effect of Huanbei Zhike recipe, while Crepis turczaniowii, S. baicalensis and Aurantii Fructus are of significant significance for the whole recipe.
Abstract：Objective:To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, B and C in Qinggan Lidan mixture, in order to provide references for its quality control.Method:The analysis of methanol extract of this drug was performed on a 35 ℃ Luna C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5μm), with the mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile-0.4%phosphoric acid flowing at 1.0 mL·min-1 in a gradient elution mode (0-10 min, 8%-12%A; 10-30 min, 12%A; 30-60 min, 12%-35%A), and the detection wavelengths were set at 238 and 327 nm.Result:Geniposide, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, B and C were completely separated, and well separated from other constituents. The linear ranges of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, B and C were 0.188-2.355, 0.083-1.040, 0.074-0.920, 0.075-0.940, 0.064-0.800, 0.076-0.955, 0.071-0.888 μg (r≥0.999 0), respectively. The average recoveries were 99.45%, 98.45%, 99.06%, 98.50%, 98.16%, 101.01%, 96.93%, with the RSDs of 0.5%, 1.8%, 1.3%, 2.4%, 2.3%, 1.6%, 1.6%, respectively.The contents of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, B and C were 3.420-3.794, 0.835-0.890, 1.222-1.275, 1.064-1.210, 0.377-0.398, 0.419-0.464 and 0.362-0.405 g·L-1, respectively.Conclusion:This method can be used for simultaneous determination of muti-ingredients in Qinggan Lidan mixture, and the established method is simple and accurate, with a good reproducibility and high sensitivity. It can be used for the quality control of Qinggan Lidan mixture.
Abstract：Objective:Jiaotaiwan is a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine for insomnia. Modern clinical research has proved its anti-diabetes effect by "the same treatment for different diseases" theory, so it is necessary to study its pharmacological mechanism for anti-diabetes effect.Method:In this study, the integrative pharmacology platform of traditional Chinese medicine (TCMIP) was used to explore the potential target and mechanism of Jiaotaiwan, and construct its core target network for diabetes. Then the enrich analysis of GO and KEGG on key targets was conducted to build the visual multilayer association network of "Jiaotaiwan-active composition-core target-key pathway" .Result:28 active ingredients were obtained from Jiaotaiwan in this study. Its anti-diabetes effect was relevant to 187 core targets, including 15 known disease targets such as vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), receptor activity-modifying protein 3 (RAMP3), insulin receptor (INSR), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R); as well as 71 predictive drug targets such as cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), glucokinase (GCK), NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA), NF-kappa-B p100 subunit (NFKB2), and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1A).Conclusion:The anti-diabetes mechanism of Jiaotaiwan may be associated with activation of adenylate cyclase activity, cellular response to glucagon stimulus, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, endocrine system, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathway, Chemokine signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine/threonine kinases (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway and other related biological processes and pathways. This study provides a scientific evidence for further study of the anti-diabetes mechanism of Jiaotaiwan.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the hypoglycemic effect of Uygur medicine Ziya Biti tablet on the type 2 diabetic rats, and analyze the hypoglycemic mechanism based on metabolomic techniques.Method:According to the results of clinical research about different origins of Ziya Biti tablet, the optimal composition was screened out; type 2 diabetic rats were taken as an experimental object in the pharmacodynamic experiments; the control group and model group were given the same dose of normal saline, Ziya Biti bablet group was given 300 mg·kg-1, the metformin group was given 300 mg·kg-1 metformin hydrochloride. The fasting blood and weight changes of the experimental group after the treatment were recorded and compared with normal group; ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/electrostatic field orbit trap combined-type high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) technology was used to conduct the metabolomics analysis on the rat serum, and principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on different groups of rat serum metabolites were performed to identify potential biomarkers.Result:Compared with the model group, the rats in the Uygur medicine Ziya Biti tablet showed a healthy states, and the blood glucose were decreased(P<0.05), which indicated that Uygur medicine Ziya Biti tablet had a certain hypoglycemic effect on type 2 diabetic rats. Eight biomarkers were finally obtained according to the results. Compared with model group, L-valine and propionylcarnitine in the Uygur medicine group were decreased(P<0.05), while sphingosine-1-phosphate, LPC (16∶1/0∶0), LPC (18∶0/0∶0), LPC (18∶2/0∶0), LPC 20∶1/0∶0), PC (19∶0/0∶0) were elevated(P<0.05).Conclusion:The experimental results showed that Uygur medicine Ziya Biti tablet can reduce the blood glucose of type 2 diabetic rats and allivate general physiological characteristics. The mechanism of action may be related to the improvement of amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism.
Keywords：Ziya Biti tablet;type 2 diabetic(T2DM);diabetes;LC-MS
Abstract：Infertility with diminished ovarian reserve(DOR) is a major problem in the field of reproductive health and it has attracted great attention worldwidely.Function deficiency of the kidney is one of the fundamental pathogenesis for DOR.Traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) have a long history with rich experience for the treatment of infertility.Some TCMs are very effective in the treatment of kidney deficiency for infertility with DOR.The integrated TCMs and western medicine, and combination of disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation may help for diagnosis and treatment of infertility with DOR.We adopt the concept of unified treatment for special disease, and the methods and principle of treatment can be used.Therefore, we adopt the TCM concept of kidney-tonifying, blood-nourishing, liver-dispersing and spleen-invigorating.The TCMs kidney-tonifying formulae are added and subtracted.TCMs can regulate the reproductive function via multiple systems for simultaneous conditioning of follicular development and ovulation.At the same time, a hypothesis of " simultaneous conditioning of follicular development and ovulation" was proposed.Two-stage therapy with integrated TCMs and western medicine has been used, mainly for increasing the number of eggs, and improving follicle quality.The goal is to achieve simultaneous conditioning of follicular development and ovulation and ultimately for effective treatment of infertility with DOR.
Keywords：infertility;diminished ovarian reserve;kidney-tonifying;integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine;clinical trials;natural pregnancy;assisted reproduction
Abstract：Uterine dysplasia or naive uterus mainly refers to a pathological state in which the uterus volume is significantly smaller than normal after adolescence. It is a common gynecological disease, which is caused by low levels of hormones during development process. The main symptoms are delayed menstruation, scanty menstruation, dysmenorrhea and even amenorrhea, and often manifested as infertility after marriage. The article summarizes existing animal models of uterine dysplasia based on clinical symptom characteristics of uterine dysplasia according to clinical diagnostic standard of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine. According to etiology and pathogenesis of uterine dysplasia and diagnostic criteria of TCM and Western medicine, advantages and disadvantages and coincidence of animal models with characteristics of uterine dysplasia and clinical symptoms of uterine dysplasia were proposed. The corresponding animal model evaluation index system and existing uterine dysplasia animal models were proposed to improve ideas and methods. At present, there are not many methods for establishing uterus dysplasia models. The existing models of uterine dysplasia are pathological models based on western medicine indexes. The existing models reflect clinical situations of uterine dysplasia in some aspects, but there is no evaluation index system of uterine dysplasia model and animal model reflecting cause of TCM. Based on existing single-factor animal models, a composite animal model with clinical conditions and similar typical symptoms of human uterine dysplasia is established, which is more consistent with characteristics of clinical symptoms. At same time, it is focus of future researches to improve evaluation index system of uterine animal models and establish a combination model of dysplasia of uterus with TCM syndromes.
Abstract：Zhaoqing city is located in the midwest of Guangdong province, the middle and lower reaches of the mainstream of the Xijiang river.Many species of southern medicines grow very well in the Xijiang river basin of Zhaoqing because of existing of enormous mountainous and hilly areas, loose and fertile soil, warm climate, as well as abundant sunshine and rain.Zhaoqing has a long history of cultivating some species of southern medicines.For example, Cinnamomi Cortex was planted more than 300 years ago in Zhaoqing.Under the advocacy of national policy, the planting scale of some species of southern medicines expanded rapidly since 1980s.Up to now, plantation of the 4 species of southern medicines, namely, Morindae Officinalis Radix, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Polygoni Multiflori Radix and Cinnamomi Cortex, has developed into a important representative industry in Zhaoqing.Zhaoqing also develops into the genuine producing area of this 4 species of southern medicines currently, and these products are sold well at home and abroad.Although great progress has been made in southern medicine industry in Zhaoqing, there still exist lots of problems for its future development, such as scattering planting instead of overall program, impure germplasm resources, plant diseases and insect pests, pesticide residue and pollution of heavy metal, lack of quality control in trading process, as well as absence of deep-processing and additional value of products.This paper analyzes the development status, advantages and problems of southern medicine industry in Zhaoqing, and puts forward some corresponding measures and suggestions.These proposals may have important guiding significance for promoting the development of local southern medicine industry.
Keywords：southern medicines;Zhaoqing city;problems and countermeasures;genuine medicinal materials;planting industry;industrial chain;geographical environment
Abstract：Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by enterovirus in children. It has a high incidence and can cause fatal complications such as pulmonary edema, myocarditis and aseptic meningitis, seriously threatening the health of children. At present, some core problems such as the pathogenesis of disease, the relationship between different genotypes of pathogenic viruses, the pharmacodynamic evaluation methods, and the antiviral mechanism of drugs are still unclear. The construction of disease animal models with simulation performance of human exposure is the key to solve the above problems. Researchers both at home and abroad have established a variety of animal models for HFMD, of which enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are most common and most widely used. Both EV71 and CA16 are enterovirus A in picornavirus family, so they have similarities in terms of pathogenicity, infection and replication characteristics, clinical symptoms caused by infection and immune response, but also have significant differences in age of susceptibility, method of infection, as well as neurotoxicity, clinical symptoms and signs, and degree of tissue and organ damage. Therefore, researchers shall select and establish proper animal models based on actual conditions, which is critical to the reliability of the results. In this paper, the different types of HFMD animal models established by EV71 and CA16 viruses were reviewed, especially on the species strains, virus strain types, infection methods, and characteristics of viral infections in each model, and the characteristics and clinical symptoms of HFMD induced by EV71 and CA16 were also investigated to provide reference for related research.
Keywords：hand-foot-mouth disease;enterovirus 71;coxsackie virus A16;animal models;characteristics of virus infection
Abstract：Preliminary results have been achieved in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China, but the number of CVD patients will continue to grow rapidly in the next 10 years. Generally speaking, the prevalence and mortality of CVD in China are still on the rise. CVD has worsened and become a major public health problem. It is urgent to prevent CVD. Therefore, the development of safe, effective and inexpensive drugs for the prevention and treatment of CVD is a livelihood project of great significance. Allii Sativi Bulbus, as a commonly used medicinal and edible herbal medicine, has rich resources and a long history of application. Since the 1980s, many studies on Allii Sativi Bulbus have been carried out by global scholars. The results show that Allii Sativi Bulbus has the effects in reducing blood lipid, preventing atherosclerosis, lowering blood pressure, resisting myocardial ischemia and treating other cardiovascular diseases, with many pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, free radical scavenging activities. Focusing on the regulation of blood lipid metabolism by Allii Sativi Bulbus, the latest literatures at home and abroad have been consulted. Both basic research and clinical trials have shown that Allii Sativi Bulbus has a good hypolipidemic effect. Its mechanism is mainly related to the inhibition of key enzymes in the process of lipid synthesis and related factors regulating lipid metabolism. In this paper, the hypolipidemic effect and molecular mechanism of garlic were reviewed to define its research trends and problems, and provide reference for further research and clinical application of Allii Sativi Bulbus.
Abstract：Depression belongs to the category of " stagnation syndrome" in traditional Chinese medicine. There are many clinical types of depression in which liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome is one of the main types. As a classic prescription for liver-soothing and spleen-strengthening, Xiaoyaosan has a definite curative effect in the treatment of depression due to liver stagnation and spleen deficiency. With fewer adverse reactions, a high safety and good patient compliance, it can be combined with western medicine to reduce the recurrence rate and adverse reactions of western medicine, and has become the focus and hotspot of research in recent years. Although many experts and scholars have conducted a lot of research on the pharmacological mechanism of Xiaoyaosan in the treatment of depression due to liver stagnation and spleen deficiency, its mechanism is still unclear. In addition, there are many types of animal models for depression due to liver stagnation and spleen deficiency but only a few systematic reports on Xiaoyaosan in treating depression of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency. Therefore, based on two classic models of chronic mild unpredictable stress depression model (CUMS) and chronic restraint stress depression model (CIS), a review was conducted on the pharmacological mechanisms of Xiaoyaosan in the treatment of depression due to liver stagnation and spleen deficiency by regulating neurotransmitter concentration, affecting the expression of neurotrophic factor, regulating hytothalamus-pitutary-adrenal(HPA)axis imbalance, improving intestinal micro-ecology and gastrointestinal function, regulating endogenous metabolite levels and immune inflammatory factor levels and improving synaptic structure and plasticity, so as to provide potential guidelines for basis study and clinical application of Xiaoyaosan in the treatment of depression due to liver stagnation and spleen deficiency.
Keywords：Xiaoyaosan;liver stagnation and spleen deficiency;depression;pharmacological mechanism;research progress
Abstract：Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by toxigenic Aspergillus spp. (such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus) with carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects. Studies have shown that AFB1 is widely found in crops, food, feed and traditional Chinese medicine, which poses a serious safety hazards to humans healthy. The establishment of a rapid detection technique that is suitable for AFB1 in different matrices has a great significance in preventing contamination, controlling food and medicines safety and ensuring human health. With the continuous improvement of small-molecule immune technology, various rapid immunoassays of AFB1 have been developed and utilized in recent years. This review systematically summarized current relevant standards for the detection of AFB1 in China and the maximum recommended levels for the application of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal medicines in some regions and countries. These standards are mainly applicable for aflatoxins in food, feed and some easily contaminated samples of Chinese herbal medicines. Some studies have shown that except the Chinese herbal medicines specified with the maximum recommended levels, some medicinal herbs and their products were also contaminated by aflatoxins. In addition, this paper reviewed the preparation technology of antigen and antibody for AFB1, and the rapid detection methods based on the specific recognition ability between antigen and antibody, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatographic assay, fluorescence immunoassay, chemiluminescence immunoassay, and novel immunosensor method, were also summarized and compared. This review aims to provide the reference for rapid, accurate, and sensitive technical standards for the detection of AFB1 in traditional Chinese medicine during the agricultural planting, distribution, trade and quality supervision and for the market, pharmacies and hospitals, so as to ensure the quality and safety of the traditional Chinese medicines.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;aflatoxin B1;antibody;antigen;immunoassay
Abstract：Due to the multi-component and multi-target features of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs), multiple active components could be more reasonably represent the quality of CMMs compared with the single-component QC mode. However, it is still difficult to apply the multi-component QC mode because of the instability, high cost and inaccessibility of reference substances of CMMs. Saponins are glycosides with aglycones of triterpene or spirostane and widely distributed in plants. Saponins are also the major active constituents of many CMMs, with multi-effects of inhibiting tumors, regulating the immune system, inhibiting virus, preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, rational and effective control of the quality of CMMs containing saponins is of great significance for ensuring the clinical safety and efficacy of such CMMs and related products. The quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS) can use only one reference substance to achieve the simultaneous monitoring of multiple components in CMMs, and make up the weaknesses of multi-component QC mode, and has been well developed and validated in the QC and evaluation of CMMs for more than ten years since it was put forward. And now it has been widely used in the QC of CMMs containing saponins. Based on the investigation of QAMS theory and literatures in the past decade, studies on the QC of CMMs and related preparations containing triterpenoid saponins and steroidal saponins by QAMS were summarized and discussed systematically. In addition, some possible problems were analyzed and interpreted, in order to provide reliable basis for more QC of CMMs and reference for the continuous use and in-depth development of this method in the research of CMMs.
Keywords：quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS);Chinese medicinal materials;saponinsquality control
Abstract：Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a kind of joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of articular cartilage, synovitis and pain. Its pathogenesis is not yet completely clear. Generally, it is believed that age, sex, obesity, trauma, inflammation, genetic susceptibility and other mechanical and biological factors together lead to the degradation and synthetic coupling imbalance of cartilage cells, extracellular matrix and subchondral bone. In recent years, signaling pathway has become a hot spot in the research of KOA chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and the research of signal pathway in the pathogenesis and targeted therapy of KOA also began. It usually involves the expressions of cytokines, relevant genes and proteins in KOA chondrocyte. These researches mainly focus on the proliferation and apoptosis of chondrocytes, the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and the sclerosis of subchondral bone. More studies focus on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway. Literatures show that p38 MAPK signaling pathway can regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of chondrocytes, maintain the balance of extracellular matrix metabolism, regulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory factors, participate in the degradation of collagen and proteoglycan, and play an important regulatory role in the pathological process of KOA. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) therapy under the guidance of holistic concept and dialectical treatment theory has a strong pertinence and remarkable curative effect, and can control the development of the disease fundamentally. Starting with the relationship between p38 MAPK and the pathogenesis of KOA, this paper summarizes the research progress of p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the diagnosis and treatment of KOA by TCM, and provides new targets for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of KOA.
Keywords：p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK);knee osteoarthritis (KOA);signal pathway;diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)
Abstract：Objective:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common inflammatory arthropathy diseases, characterized by synovium hyperplasia and progressive destruction of articular cartilage, which is significantly associated with dysfunction and shortening of life span. Drug therapy is the main intervention for RA, but the glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant have many shortcomings in treatment, such as great side effect, slow onset and poor efficacy, while biological agents are too expensive. RA belongs to the category of " arthralgia syndrome" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM treatment for RA has a well-established history and multiple advantages such as good curative effect and less side effects, but its mechanism needs to be further studied. Signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RA, so it is one of the main targets in research on the pathogenesis of RA and related pharmacological research of therapeutic drugs. In recent years, a large number of studies have been carried out on the regulation effect of active components of TCM on RA signaling pathways. These signaling pathways include Wnt signaling pathway, Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and transcription activator (STAT) signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathway, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, Toll like receptor (TLRs) signaling pathway, receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) / Osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling pathway and so on. By reviewing the research results in recent years, we hope to provide ideas and reference for the basic research, development of new drugs and clinical treatment of RA.
Keywords：active components of traditional Chinese medicine;rheumatoid arthritis;mechanism;signaling pathway