Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of modified Gegen Qinlian Tang on learning and memory ability and interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) protein expression in hippocampus of type 2 diabetic (T2DM) rats.Method:A total of 62 rats were randomly divided into normal group (n=12), and the remaining 50 rats were established by feeding high sugar and high fat diet and injecting with low dosage of streptozocin(STZ) to T2DM. The successful modeling rats were selected and randomly divided into model group, Saxagliptin and modified Gegen Qinlian Tang group. The normal group and the model group received 10 mL·kg-1·d-1 nomal saline by intragastric administration. 0.005 g·kg-1·d-1 Saxagliptin crude drug and 0.435 g·kg-1·d-1 modified Gegen Qinlian Tang crude drug were given in Saxagliptin group and modified Gegen Qinlian Tang group, and all the treatment lasted for 8 weeks. Learning and memory ability of rats was observed by using Morris water maze. Histopathological changes of hippocampus was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Western blot was used to test the NF-κB p65 in the cytoplasmic and nucleus in rat hippocampus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to test the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α.Result:Compared with normal group, the mean incubation period of model group was significantly prolonged on the 4th day(P<0.01), the number of escape platform entry, the movement time and distance of the effective area were significantly decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in the hippocampus were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with normal group, modified Gegen Qinlian Tang could increase the number of crossing platform(P<0.05, P<0.01), the platform of swimming distance and swimming time (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and NF-κB p65 in hippocampus were significantly improved.Conclusion:Modified Gegen Qinlian Tang could obviously improve the learning and memory ability of the T2DM rat model which was induced by the high-sugar, high-lipid diet and low-dose STZ, and the mechanism may be achieved by suppressing the inflammation of the rat's hippocampus.
Keywords：diabetes;cognitive dysfunction;modified Gegen Qinlian Tang;inflammatory factor
Abstract：Objective:To evaluate the effect of manual decocting and machine decocting on the chemical constituents in Bazhentang based on non-targeted metabolomics, and to find the differential chemical constituents of these two decocting methods.Method:Bazhentang was boiled by standardized manual decocting and machine decocting methods, respectively. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminate analysis(OPLS-DA) and other multivariate statistical methods, combined with variable importance in the projection(VIP) value and t-test, were employed to analyze the effect of two decocting methods on the chemical constituents in Bazhentang. The differential chemical constituents were analyzed by UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS under positive and negative ion modes, mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1%formic acid aqueous solution for gradient elution, the scanning range was m/z 50-1 500.Result:Under the positive and negative ion modes of high-resolution mass spectrometry, a total of 87 differential components were found, 40 of them were identified according to the mass spectrometry data and literature reports, including senkyunolide A, glycyrrhizin, ferulic acid, etc.Conclusion:Based on the analysis of color and chemical compositions of Bazhentang, there are obvious differences between the standardized manual decocting and machine decocting. If the advantages of these two methods are combined, a standardized decoction process can be established on the basis of maintaining the advantages of manual decocting, the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine decoction will be maximized and it will be convenient for patients to take it.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the anti-lung cancer mechanism of Maimendong Tang and Qianjin Weijingtang (Jin Fang) by detecting the expression profiles of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA in mice tumor tissues of orthotopic Lewis lung cancer model.Method:C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group and Jin Fang group (20 g·kg-1·d-1). After successful establishment of Lewis lung cancer model in situ in mice, Jin Fang was given orally the next day after treatment. Using gene chip technology, differential lncRNA and mRNA closely related with Jin Fang's anti-lung cancer effect were detected, and cluster analysis was performed. The key lncRNA and mRNA were screened out by t-test and fold change of differential expression. Bioinformatic methods were used to predict target genes regulated by differential lncRNA, and functional and pathway analysis was performed. The histopathological technique was used to detect the differences in the tumor tissue of each group under light microscope.Result:lncRNA and mRNA chip hybridization results showed that Jin Fang regulated differential expressions of 887 lncRNA, in which 442 were up-regulated and 445 were down-regulated (P<0.05). There were 610 differential mRNA expressions, in which 376 were up-regulated and 234 were down-regulated(P<0.05). GO analysis showed that down-regulated or up-regulated target genes were mainly involved in biological processes (BP), such as cell metabolism regulation and signal pathway regulation. Molecular function (MF) analysis showed such functions DNA binding, protein binding, receptor binding and transcription factor activity in down-regulated or up-regulated target genes. Target genes were involved in multiple biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. Signal pathway predictions indicated that Jin Fang can regulate the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of tran-ions(JAK/STAT) and other signaling pathways closely related to the development of lung cancer. The results of histopathological examination confirmed that Jin Fang could significantly improve the pathological changes of lung tissues in the mice compared with the model group.Conclusion:Jin Fang may exert its anti-lung cancer effect by regulating the expressions of multiple lncRNAs and mRNAs, and down-regulating related signaling pathways.
Keywords：Maimendong Tang and Qianjin Weijingtang (Jin Fang);Lewis lung cancer model in situ;lncRNA;mRNA
Abstract：Objective:To explore effect and mechanism of Jiaotaiwan (JTW) on cognitive impairment in diabetic mice.Method:The 40 db/db mice of spontaneous diabetes were randomly divided into model group, JTW 1 group (1.68 g·kg-1), JTW 2 group (3.36 g·kg-1), and JTW 3 group (8.40 g·kg-1), with 8 mice in each group, and 8 C57BL/6J mice were included into normal group. After 8 weeks of treatment, behavioral test, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (Fins), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acids (FFA), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were detected. Western blot was used to detect protein expressions of pSer199, pSer202, pSer214, p-Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β), phospho-GSK-3β(p-GSK-3β).Result:Compared with model group, FBG, Fins, HOMA-IR, TG, TC, HDL, FFA in JTW group decreased significantly (P<0.01), with a significant improvement in cognitive function (P<0.01), protein expressions of taupSer199, pSer202, pSer214 and GSK-3β in hippocampus of mice decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01), and expressions of p-Akt and p-GSK3 beta significantly increased (P<0.01).Conclusion:JTW 3 (Coptidis Rhizoma-Cinnamomi Cortex 10∶1) can alleviate insulin resistance and cognitive impairment. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of over-phosphorylation of tau protein, the down-regulation of GSK-3β protein expression and the up-regulation of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β expressions.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Erzhiwan (EZW) on the invasion and metastasis of human colon cancer HCT116 cells.Method:The abilities of invasion (number of transmembrane cells) and migration (relative width of 48 h scratch) were observed by Transwell assay. Western blot was used to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and E-cadherin protein, respectively.Result:① Transwell results showed that compared with the blank control group, the number of model piercing cells in each drug group was decreased (P<0.05), and the number of perforating model cells was the least after combined use of L-OHP. ②Scratch test results showed that compared with the blank control group, the migration of HCT116 cells was inhibited in each treatment group (P<0.05). The inhibitory rate of high-dose EZW group was higher than that of L-OHP group at 12 h (P<0.05), and the inhibition rate of EZW in other time groups was lower than that of L-OHP group (P<0.05). The inhibition rate of combined treatment group was higher than that of EZW groups (P<0.05). The figure of combined group was higher than that of L-OHP group at 12 h (P<0.05), and combined group was lower than L-OHP group at 48 h (P<0.05). ③ Western blot results showed that compared with the control group, the expressions of VEGF protein in 10% and 20%EZW group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the expression of VEGF protein in 5.19 mg·L-1 L-OHP combined with 10% EZW group was lower than that in L-OHP group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, EZW groups decreased the expression of E-cadherin protein (P<0.05). And 5.19 mg·L-1 L-OHP combined with 10% EZW group and L-OHP group increased the expression of E-cadherin protein significantly. Compared with L-OHP group, the expression of E-cadherin protein was the highest (P<0.05).Conclusion:EZW can inhibit the invasion and metastasis of colon cancer HCT116 cells, and the best effect is achieved after combined with L-OHP. This may be related to the decrease of VEGF protein expression and the increase of E-cadherin protein expression after combination with L-OHP.
Abstract：Objective:To study the protective effect and mechanism of compound Danshen dropping pills on the heart of rats with type 2 diabetic cardiomyopathy.Method:Seventy-five male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (15 rats) and model group (60 rats). The model group was fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet, high-sugar and high-fat milk and sucrose water. Six weeks later, rats with foodborne obesity (body mass ≥ the mean body mass of blank control group + 2 times standard deviation) were selected and intraperitoneally injected with 1% streptozotocin (STZ)28 mg·kg-1. After 12 weeks, rats with fasting blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol·L-1 and polydipsia, diuresis, polyphagia and weight loss were randomly divided into model group, compound Danshen dropping pills group (0.5 g·kg-1) and metformin group (0.5 g·kg-1) and intervened for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac function. Blood samples were taken to determine the corresponding biochemical indicators of rats. Histopathological changes of myocardium were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson staining. The ultrastructure of myocardium was observed under electron microscope. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and type Ⅰ collagen (Collagen Ⅰ). Real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expression of miRNA-200b.Result:Compared with the blank group, the heart weight index (HMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterin(LDL-C) levels in the model group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterin(HDL-C) decreased significantly (P<0.01); the cardiac function was impaired, the deposition of collagen fibers increased (P<0.01), and the degree of myocardial tissue damage was obvious; the expression of miR-200b in myocardial tissue decreased (P<0.01), and the expressions of VEGF, TGF-β1 and Collagen I increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the levels of HMI, TC, TG and LDL-C in the compound Danshen dropping pills group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the levels of HDL-C increased significantly (P<0.01), the cardiac function was improved, the deposition of collagen fibers in myocardium was decreased (P<0.05), the degree of myocardial tissue damage was reduced, the expression of miRNA-200b in myocardium was increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of VEGF, TGF-β1 and Collagen I was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Compound Danshen dropping pills may play a protective role in the heart of type 2 diabetic cardiomyopathy rats by lowering lipid, up-regulating the expression of miR-200b and inhibiting the expression levels of VEGF, TGF-β1 and Collagen I.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Bushen Zhuangjintang and glucosamine hydrochloride on the repairing of rat knee cartilage defect, the combined application of traditional Chinese and western medicine can promote the repairing of knee cartilage defect more effectively. To provide a new theoretical basis and method for the treatment of knee cartilage injury.Method:SPF rats (64 rats) were randomly divided into 5 groups, sham group, model group, Bushen Zhuangjintang group (7.5 g·kg-1·d-1), and glucosamine hydrochloride group(7.5 g·kg-1·d-1), Bushen Zhuangjin Decoction combined with glucosamine hydrochloride group [(7.5+ 7.5) g·kg-1·d-1] was administered to rats by drug gavage. The knee cartilage defects were repaired by gross observation and scanning electron microscopy at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of Collagen Ⅱ and Aggrecan mRNA in each group. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Collagen Ⅱ.Result:4, 8, 12 weeks compared with group, Bushen Zhuangjintang combined with hyaluronic acid in the glucosamine hydrochloride group was filled with hyaline cartilage. The cartilage in the drilled area was smooth and smooth, and integrated with the surrounding cartilage tissue, which was superior to other groups. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of Aggrecan protein and mRNA were significantly increased at 4, 8 and 12 weeks compared with the blank group (P<0.01). Bushen Zhuangjintang combined with glucosamine hydrochloride group and Bushen Zhuangjintang group, the increase of glucosamine hydrochloride group was the most significant (P<0.01). Compared with model group, Bushen Zhuangjintang combined with glucosamine hydrochloride showed that the defect was found in the cartilage defect, and the surface of the regenerated cartilage was flat. Normal cartilage tissue fusion, structural morphology has tended to normal cartilage tissue, significantly better than the other groups.Conclusion:The combined application of traditional Chinese and western medicine can obviously promote the repair of cartilage defects in the knee of rats. The possible mechanism of the treatment of cartilage injury by the combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine is analyzed from the level of gene protein expression and microstructure.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of tetrahydroxy stilbene glucoside (TSG) on β-amyloid protein 25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced neuron synapses damage.Method:Primary neurons were isolated and purified from cerebral cortex of suckling mouse. Then neurons were divided into control group, model group (incubation with Aβ25-35) and TSG groups (after incubation with Aβ25-35, add 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μmol·L-1 TSG). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) methods were used to observe the viability of neuron, immunocytochemical staining was performed to determine the expressions of synapsin-1 (SYN-1), and the concentration of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and synaptophysin (SYP) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the level of CREB, Phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) and BDNF proteins were determined by immunocytochemical staining or Western blot (WB).Result:Compared with normal group, the cell survival rate of model group was significantly reduced, LDH release was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expressions of SYN-1, PSD-95 and SYP were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expressions of p-CREB and BDNF mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with model group, different concentrations of TSG could increase cell viability and reduce LDH release (P<0.05, P<0.01), the optimal therapeutic concentration of TSG is 25 μmol·L-1, 25 μmol·L-1 TSG can significantly enhance the expression of SYN-1(P<0.01), increased the concentration of PSD-95 and SYP (P<0.05), up-regulated the mRNA expression of BDNF, and promoted the protein expression of p-CREB and BDNF (P<0.05, P<0.01). There was no significant effect on the expression of CREB mRNA and protein.Conclusion:TSG possesses the neuroprotective effect on Aβ25-35-induced neuron synapses, the mechanism may be associated with the activation of CREB/BDNF signaling pathway.
Keywords：tetrahydroxy stilbene glucoside;β-amyloid protein 25-35 (Aβ25-35);synapses;cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway
Abstract：Objective:Microarray chip was used to detect the differentially expressed microRNA (miRNA) in kidney tissues of rats with kidney-Yang deficiency induced by adenine, and its significance was analyzed by bioinformatics method.Method:Rats with kidney-Yang deficiency were induced by intragastric administration of 150 mg·kg-1 adenine in model group, while rats in normal group were given the same amount of saline.Kidney tissues were taken for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining pathological sections after anesthesia and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (SCr) in blood and 24-hour urinary protein (24U-TP) in urine were measured. μParaflo® microfluidic chip technology was used to investigate differential expression miRNA in kidney tissues, and microarray results were verified by Real-time PCR. Bioinformatics database was used to analyze the target genes and functions of differential expression miRNAs.Result:Gene chip results showed that there were 50 differentially expressed microRNAs after modeling. Compared with control group, only 9 miRNAs were highly expressed in kidney tissues with significant difference were detected in model group. Compared with the normal group, the expression of rno-miR-21-5p, rno-let-7i-5p, rno-miR-146b-5p and rno-miR-15b-5p in model group increased significantly(P<0.05, P<0.01), the expression of rno-miR-6215, rno-miR-192-5p, rno-miR-378b, rno-miR-378a-3p and rno-miR-194-5p decreased significantly (P<0.05). Verification by Real-time PCR showed that, compared with the normal group, the expression of rno-miR-21-5p and rno-miR-146b-5p increased significantly (P<0.01), while the expression of rno-miR-192-5p, rno-miR-378b, rno-miR-378a-3p and rno-miR-194-5p decreased significantly (P<0.01). In which, miR-192, miR-21 and miR-378 are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition/mesenchymal-epithelial transition(EMT/MET) balance.miR-192 and miR-378 can be used as anti-fibrosis factors to protect the kidney, while miR-21 can be used as fibrosis factors to induce kidney injury. miR-194 can antagonize the damage of human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) induced by hypoxia-reperfusion by targeting brain Ras homologous protein (Rheb). Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predominantly involved in Wnt and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK)signaling pathway.Conclusion:This experiment found 4 miRNAs involved in the regulation of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and 2miRNAs with unknown functions, which provided a new clue for further analysis of the regulatory network of kidney-yang deficiency.
Keywords：kidney Yang deficiency;renal interstitial fibrosis;epithelial to mesenchymal(EMT);microRNA;biological information
Abstract：Objective:To explore the clinical effect of modified Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang in the treatment of chronic cholecystitis with gallbladder heat and spleen cold syndrome.Method:Totally 129 cases with chronic cholecystitis treated in our hospital from March 2017 to July 2018 were selected as study objectives and randomly divided into observation group (65 cases)and control group (64 cases). After the shedding and exclusion cases were subtracted, 61 patients in observation group and 61 patients in control group actually completed this study. The routine treatment was provided to both groups, and modified Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang was additionally given to observation group. All of the cases received treatments for 3 weeks. The two groups' clinical effect, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)syndrome scores, inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] levels in serum, gallbladder function, gastrointestinal function indicators [motilin (MTL), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)] before and after treatments, as well as toxic side reaction were compared.Result:Totally 7 cases were lost during the study period. The overall effective rate of the observation group was 95.08%(58/61), which was significantly higher than 80.33%(49/61)of the control group (P<0.05). The scores of two groups (the right upper quadrant pain and discomfort, belch, diarrhea, et al)and serum IL-6, TNF-α concentrations after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), gallbladder contractile function and serum MTL content were improved significantly (P<0.05), which was more significant in observation group (P<0.05). There was no significant side effect in both groups.Conclusion:Modified Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang treats patients with chronic cholecystitis with bile heat and spleen cold syndrome by effectively relieving inflammatory response and accelerating the recovery of gastrointestinal function and gallbladder systolic function, with an exact curative effect and high patient tolerance.
Keywords：modified Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang;chronic cholecystitis;gallbladder heat and spleen cold syndrome;inflammatory response;intestinal function
Abstract：Objective:To analyze the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Yishen Simiaotang on gouty nephropathy (GN) complicated with renal failure (RF).Method:Totally 96 cases of GN with RF treated at our hospital from March 2015 to December 2017 were divided into the control group (48 cases) and the observation group (48 cases) according to the random control principle. In addition to the basic therapy, allopurinol was added to the control group, and Yishen Simiaotang was added to observation group. After 2 months of treatment, the clinical efficacy and safety of two groups were compared. The urinary levels of β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), α1-microglobulin (α1-MG), 24 h urine protein (24 hUpro) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were compared between two groups before and after treatment, and the levels of serum albumin (ALB), urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr) and uric acid (UA) were detected and compared before and after the treatment. The serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hypersensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were compared before and after treatment between two groups.Result:The total effective rate of observation group was 89.58%, which was significantly higher than 72.92%of control group (χ2=4.376, P<0.05). After treatment, BUN, SCr and UA in both groups were significantly decreased, whereas eGFR level was significantly increased than before treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of β2-MG, α1-MG, 24 hUpro in both groups decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the indexes of observation group improved more significantly (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of TNF-α, hs-CRP and IL-6 in both groups were significantly lower than those before treatment, and the decrease in observation group was more obvious than that in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between two groups.Conclusion:Yishen Simiaotang is effective in the treatment of GN combined with RF, and can reduce renal tubule injury, improve renal function, regulate the state of micro-inflammation, with a high safety.
Keywords：gouty nephropathy;renal failure;Yishen Simiaotang;micro-inflammatory state
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the clinical efficacy of modified Da Chengqitang by enema in treatment of postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction (EPISBO) after the operation and its effect on inflammatory factors, gastrointestinal motility and intestinal barrier function.Method:One hundred and six patients were randomly divided into control group (52 cases) and observation group (54 cases) by random number table. Patients in both groups were given fasting for solids and liquids, gastrointestinal decompression, maintaining water and electrolyte balance, nutritional support and other basic therapies. Patients in control group were given somatostatin for injection for continuous micro-pumping, 0.003 5 mg·h-1·kg-1, dexamethasone acetate tablets, 2.5-5 mg/time, 2 time/days. Patients with concurrent infection got ceftazidime for injection, 30-100 mg·kg-1, 2-3 intravenous drips. In addition to the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given modified Da Chengqitang, 125 mL/time, 2 times/days. A course of treatment was 5 days. Time of remission of abdominal distention, recovery of exhaust gas, bowel sounds and diet, defecation, hospitalization and transitional surgery were recorded. And main gastrointestinal symptoms and signs were scored. And levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin, motilin, diamine oxidase and D lactic acid were detected.Result:After treatment, according to rank sum test analysis, the clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (P<0.05). And indicators of gastrointestinal function (abdominal distension relief time, bowel sounds recovery time, recovery of exhaust, defecation time and diet recovery time) were all shorter than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). And average length of stay in observation group was shorter than that in control group (P<0.01). According to exact probability analysis, there was no statistical difference in conversion rate between the two groups. And levels of IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP, VIP, DAO, D-lactic acid and scores of main gastrointestinal symptoms and signs were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of motilin and gastrin were higher than those in control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:In addition of routine therapy of western medicine, modified Dachengqi Tang had effects in resisting inflammation, regulating gastrointestinal hormones, and protecting intestinal barrier function, so can improve gastrointestinal motility, alleviate symptoms, shorten the course of disease and improve the clinical efficacy.
Keywords：inflammatory intestinal obstruction;children;Da Chengqitang;enema;inflammation;gastrointestinal motility;intestinal barrier function
Abstract：Objective:To discuss the effect of Peiyuan Tongnao capsules on neurological impairment of patients with ischemic stroke at convalescence, and discuss the mechanism of action in microcirculation improvement, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection.Method:One hundred and thirty one patients were randomly divided into control group (66 cases) and observation group (65 cases) by random number table. Patients in control group were given aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 0.1 g/day, simvastatin tablets, 10 mg/days, and treated by percutaneous nerve electrical stimulator for 30 times, 30 min/time, 1 time/day, 5 times/week. In addition of the therapy in control group, patients in observation group were also given Peiyuan Tongnao capsules, 3 grains/time, 3 times/days. A course of treatment was 12 weeks. Before treatment, and at the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks, neurological deficits in the national institutes of health (NIHSS), activity of daily life scale (ADL), berg balance scale (BBA), fugl-meyer scale (FMA) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes were scored. And levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), homocysteine (Hcy) and serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and hemorheological indicators whole blood viscosity, high shear rate, low shear rate, reduced viscosity, plasma viscosity, platelet aggregation rate, fibrinogen (FIB) and blood sedimentation rate (ESR)were detected.Result:At the 8th and 12th week after treatment, score of NIHSS in observation group was lower than that in control group (P<0.01), and NIHSS in observation group declined more than that in control group (P<0.01). Scores of ADL, BBA and FMA and levels of BDNF were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while scores of TCM syndromes and levels of NSE, IL-6, TNF-α, Hcy, Cys-C and hemorheological indices were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). And by rank sum test, the clinical effect in observation group was superior to that in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Peiyuan Tongnao capsules can promote the recovery of neurological impairment at recovery period of ischemic stroke, regulate inflammatory factors, improve blood rheology, protect neural function, and improve the effect of routine western medicine rehabilitation therapy.
Keywords：ischemic stroke;recovery period;liver and kidney insufficiency;wind-phlegm and blood stasis syndrome;Peiyuan Tongnao capsules;inflammatory factors;hemorheology
Abstract：Objective:To rapidly analyze chemical compositions in raw products and stir-fried products of Gardeniae Fructus, and determine the pharmacodynamic material basis of Gardeniae Fructus Praeparatus.Method:Liquid chromatography-ion trap-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry(LCMS-IT-TOF) was performed on ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm), mobile phase was 0.005%formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) for gradient elution(0-5 min, 10%-15%B; 5-8 min, 15%B; 8-18 min, 15%-95%B; 18-20 min, 95%B; 20-22 min, 95%-10%B; 22-25 min, 10%B), the column temperature was 30 ℃ and the flow rate was 0.4 mL·min-1, volume of sample injection was 2 μL; electrospray ionization(ESI) was applied for mass spectrometric analysis under positive and negative ion mode, the scanning ranges were m/z 100-1 000.The ion peaks were identified by comparison of control substances, mass spectrometry data analysis and literature references.The peak areas of some ion peaks before and after processing were compared, the changes of chemical compositions in Gardeniae Fructus after processing were investigated.Result:Based on the mass spectral data information and references, a total of 38 compounds were identified, no new compounds were produced after processing.The ion peak areas of main compounds were investigated during the stir-frying processing, the contents of geniposide, genipin-1-β-D-gentiobioside, shanzhiside, chlorogenic acid and crocin in Gardeniae Fructus Praeparatus were decreased; the contents of geniposidic acid and crocetin were increased.Conclusion:The method can rapidly and accurately identify the chemical constituents in Gardeniae Fructus Praeparatus.The changes of iridoids and crocins in Gardeniae Fructus during the stir-frying process may be related to hemostatic activity and protection of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of berbamine hydrochloride on the absorption characteristics of berberine hydrochloride in different intestinal segments of rats in normal environment and high calcium environment.Method:Taking rat everted intestinal sac model, the content of berberine hydrochloride in absorbent solution of everted intestinal sac from different compatibility groups was determined by HPLC, and the uptake per unit area in different groups was analyzed by One-way ANOVA.Result:Compared with the normal J70 group(in normal environment, the concentration of berberine hydrochloride was 70 mg·L-1) at the same time point, the uptake per unit area of the normal J70+ Ver100 group(in normal environment, the concentration of berberine hydrochloride was 70 mg·L-1, adding verapamil hydrochloride to a concentration of 100 mg·L-1) was significantly increased in the ileum(P<0.05) at 120 min; the uptake per unit area values of the high calcium J70+ A35 group(in high calcium environment, the concentration of berberine hydrochloride was 70 mg·L-1, adding berbamine hydrochloride to a concentration of 35 mg·L-1) were significantly increased in the duodenum(P<0.05) at 30, 60, 90 min; and the uptake per unit area values of the high calcium J70+ A70 group(in high calcium environment, the concentration of berberine hydrochloride was 70 mg·L-1, adding berbamine hydrochloride to a concentration of 70 mg·L-1) were significantly increased in the ileum(P<0.05) at 30, 90, 120 min.By comparing with the normal group with the same mass concentration, the intestinal absorption of berberine hydrochloride was better in the high calcium J70+ A35 group and the high calcium J70+ A70 group.Conclusion:Berbamine hydrochloride can promote the absorption of berberine hydrochloride in intestine to a certain extent, especially in the high calcium environment.
Abstract：Objective:Syngnathus has long been used as an important traditional animal medicine in China, but many syngnathus-like animals also used as Hailong in herbal markets. This study aims to define the zoological origin of Syngnathus in China Pharmacopoeia.Method:Herbalogical records, particularly pictures and photographs of ancient literatures, Syngnathus specimens in museum were stidued to determine the zoological origin of Syngnathus in Chinese herbal medical classics and China Pharmacopoeia.Result:Based on the morphological and DNA sequencing, all the commercial "S. acus" originated from Syngnathus schlegeli (Kaup, 1856). Feature description of "S. acus" in China Pharmacopoeia also conformed to S. schlegeli. S. acus in China may be a misidentification of S. schlegeli.Conclusion:Syngnathus in China Pharmacopoeia originates from Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray, 1830), Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785) or Syngnathus schlegeli (Kaup, 1856). It is suggested to add identification methods of "Hailong" , especially molecular identification methods in China Pharmacopoeia, in order to improve quality control standards of Syngnathus.
Abstract：Objective:Scolopendra was a traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) with a good medicinal value. Nowadays, there have been increasingly more adulterates of Scolopendra in the medicine market. To ensure the safe and effectiveness of clinical medicines, a convenient and accurate specific polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method for identification of medicinal Scolopendra from its common adulterates was established.Method:Based on the differences of COI gene DNA sequences among Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans and adulterants, the specific primer was designed, the reaction conditions were optimized, and the PCR method for identification was explored and verified in terms of tolerance and feasibility. Besides, the original animal samples and medicine of Scolopendra were collected.Result:Through the established PCR reaction system, the bright and simple fragments of 500 bp was amplified from DNA templates of S. subspinipes mutilans. All of the adulterants were negative by the multiplex PCR assay, such as S. multidens, S. subspinipes, S. dehaani, S. hainanum.Conclusion:The identified primer is highly specific, and the specific PCR method established in this paper can accurately identify Scolopendra and its adulterants, so as to provide an excellent scientific basis for the identification of TCM Scolopendra. The method is simple and intuitive, and facilitates wide promotion and application of the method, with a broad application prospect in the identification of TCM.
Abstract：Objective:To obtain a rapid, efficiency and convenient polymerase Chain reaction(PCR) identification method for medicinal Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum, Cervi Cornu and its common adulterates.Method:Based on three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Cytb gene DNA sequences among Cervus nippon, C. elaphus and its adulterants, a pair of species-specific primers (LR-238.F and LR-238.R) was designed, the reaction conditions were optimized, and the PCR method for identification was explored and verified in terms of tolerance and feasibility.Result:Through the established allele-specific PCR method, under the annealing temperature of 56 ℃ and cycle number of 35, 250 bp of fragments were amplified from DNA templates of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum, Cervi Cornu and its subspecies in origin animal samples as well as herbal medicines. All of the adulterants species of Przewalskium albirostris, Cervus eldi, Odocoileus hemionus, Dama dama, Alces alces, Elaphurus davidianus, Capreolus pygargus, Rusa unicolor and Rangifer tarandus were negative by the PCR assay.Conclusion:The identification primer is highly specific, and the allele-specific PCR identification method established in this paper can accurately identify the medicinal Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum and Cervi Cornu.
Abstract：Objective:In recent years, with the increase in the commodity price of medicinal pheretima, there have emerged increasing adulterates in the medicine market. Besides, the medicinal materials have mostly lost the main identification features, and are difficult to distinguish. Therefore, it is urgent to establish an accurate and stable method for the identification of pheretima.Method:According to the differences of COI gene DNA sequences among Pheretima aspergillum, Pheretima vulgaris, Pheretima guillelmi, Pheretima pectinifera and adulterants, the variation site was found, the specific primers were designed, the reaction conditions were optimized, and the polymerase Chain reaction(PCR) method for identification was explored and verified in terms of tolerance and feasibility in this study. The specific primers were combined to build multiple PCR systems. An effective, accurate, convenient, highly specific and repeatable Multiplex Allele-Specific PCR identification method was established for identifying medicinal pheretima and its common adulterants.Result:Through the established multiplex PCR reaction system, 366, 487, 487 and 475 bp of fragments were amplified from DNA templates of P. aspergillum, P. vulgaris, P. guillelmi and P. pectinifera respectively. All of the adulterants were negative by the multiplex PCR assay. The PCR amplification of specific alleles method established in this paper can accurately identify pheretima.Conclusion:The Multiplex Allele-Specific PCR identification method established in this paper can accurately identify medicinal pheretima and its adulterants.
Abstract：Objective:To establish a rapid on-site method for identifying Chinese medical material recombinase-mediated amplification (RAA) technology for the use of identifying medicinal Bubali Cornu from yak horn.Method:Based on the differences of mitochondrial genome sequences between Bubali Cornu and adulterants, the specific RAA primer (SNJ-1.F, SNJ-1.R) and fluorescence probe SNJ-1.probe were designed by variation sites. Alkaline lysis method was used to extract DNA from milled samples, and optimize RAA reaction system. The incubation was made at 37 ℃ for 15-20 min, the reaction results were monitored through gel electrophoresis and a mobile fluorescence amplification instrument. The RAA identification result was compared with COI DNA sequencing.Result:After incubation at 37 ℃ for 20 min, about 140 bp of bright and simple bands was amplified from DNA templates of Bubalus bubalis, whereas Bos mutus were negative. By the Real-time fluorescent RAA identify method, all reactions in DNAs from Bubali Cornu samples were amplified from 6.21 to 8.37 min, whereas DNAs from yak samples were amplified after 10.08 min, COI sequencing results conformed to the Real-time fluorescent RAA identification.Conclusion:Specific RAA could rapidly identify Bubali Cornu in 20 minutes, and thus be applied in medical material and its products. This method is simple, rapid and sophisticated instrument-free, with promises in on-site identification of traditional Chinese medicine.
Abstract：Objective:A polymerase Chain reaction(PCR) identification method for Suis Fellis Pulvis and its Chinese patent medicines was established to provide an example for the identification of animal-derived components in complex components.Method:A PCR identification method was established based on swine derivatives identification primers, the reaction system was optimized, and the established method was investigated and verified. By the established PCR identification method, the swine derivatives of 20 batches of self-made Suis Fellis Pulvis material, 19 batches of commercially available Suis Fellis Pulvis and 22 batches of Chinese patent medicines containing Suis Fellis Pulvis were identified. The commercially available Suis Fellis Pulvis material and Chinese patent medicines containing Suis Fellis Pulvis positive products that were amplified PCR were verified by enzyme digestion and sequencing.Result:Totally 20 batches of self-made Suis Fellis Pulvis material and Suis Fellis Pulvis control material could expand the specific identification band of about 212 bp, and there was no bands in bovine and ovine reference, only 5 batches of the 19 batches of commercially available Suis Fellis Pulvis had expanded specific identification bands, 10 batches of 22 batches of Chinese patent medicines containing Suis Fellis Pulvis were detected to have swine derivatives, the Suis Fellis Pulvis control material and the PCR-amplified commercially available Suis Fellis Pulvis material positive products can produce about 200 bp of bands after digestion with Mnl I. The highest similarity between the amplification products sequence of Suis Fellis Pulvis and its Chinese patent medicines, and the GenBank database was Sus scrofa, the consistency was 99%, which conformed to the sequence of swine.Conclusion:The PCR identification method established in this paper can accurately identify the biological origin of Suis Fellis Pulvis and its Chinese patent medicines.
Abstract：Objective:To screen the specific reverse primers of Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum, duck gizzard membrane and goose gizzard membrane, and establish a specific PCR for molecular identifying Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum and its common adulterants.Method:Based on the mutation sites on the 12S rRNA sequence, specific polymerase Chain reaction(PCR) identify primers were designed for chicken, duck and goose gizzard membrane. The specific PCR reaction conditions were optimized, and the PCR identification method was explored and verified in terms of tolerance and feasibility. Thirty batches of Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum decoction pieces extracted from the test were identified.Result:Thirty batches of Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum decoction pieces were detected using chicken-specific primers, 273 bp of specific bands was amplified and visualized on the agarose electrophoregram. When duck and goose primers were used, no corresponding amplified band was detected.Conclusion:The allele-specific PCR method can be used as a rapid and accurate method to identify Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum. It is a promise method for special sampling tasks of Chinese herbal medicine and decoction tablets nationwide.
Abstract：Molecular Pharmacognosy is a new interdisciplinary subject formed by the organic integration of molecular biology and pharmacognosy. It is highly practical and innovative. In the course of teaching, both experimental teaching and theoretical teaching are of great significance. " Molecular Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicine" and the traditional teaching mode of confirmatory experiment are the preferred choices for the establishment of Molecular Pharmacognosy experimental courses in universities and colleges. Molecular Pharmacy is a forward-looking discipline with many emerging methods and technologies. Basic experimental teaching is not enough for students to learn this subject better, so it is especially important to introduce the latest scientific research results in experimental teaching. Experimental teaching based on the transformation of the latest scientific research results not only enables students to master basic experimental skills, but also broadens the breadth of students' knowledge, cultivates students' scientific research ideas, stimulates students' innovation spirit. Some suggestions and prospects have been put forward for the compilation of experimental teaching materials, the construction of experimental platform, the cultivation of teachers and academic exchanges. It is hoped that the contents of experimental textbooks will be developed from confirmatory experiments to comprehensive experiments, and the experimental platform for rational, standardized and efficient use will be built. Meanwhile, experimental courses involving multiple fields can be completed by multi-disciplinary teachers, and it is encouraged to actively carry out and participate in flexible, diverse, lively and interesting teaching practices. All the suggestions are intended to promote the development of Molecular Pharmacognosy.
Keywords：molecular pharmacognosy;experimental teaching;scientific research results;experimental teaching materials;experimental platform;the cultivation of teachers;academic exchanges
Abstract：Objective:To establish a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of arecaine, arecoline, norisoboldine and boldine in Xiangbin decoction by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and compare the variation of their contents between single and mixed decoctions.Method:The separation was carried on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18(2.1 mm×150 mm, 1.7 μm)column, with 0.1%formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.2 mL·min-1, and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The quantitative MRM transitions of the four components were m/z 142.10/44.11 for arecaine, m/z 156.20/44.07 for arecoline, m/z 314.29/265.12 for norisoboldine and m/z 328.13/265.10 for boldine. The determination was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) source under positive mode.Result:The linear ranges of arecaine, arecoline, norisoboldine and boldine were 0.479 0-57.48, 0.976 0-78.08, 0.812 0-64.96, 0.091 2-18.24 μg·L-1, respectively. The average recoveries of the above compounds ranged from 93.73%to 104.34%, with RSD (n=6) of less than 5%. The contents of arecoline, arecoline, norbibeldine and boltinine in Xiangbin decoction were (90.07±1.26), (445.27±12.39), (742.35±38.39), (38.50±3.33) μg·g-1, which were significantly lower than the contents in Linderae Radix and Arecae Semen.Conclusion:The method is rapid, sensitive, accurate and reproducible, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of multiple components in Xiangbin decoction, so as to provide a basis for the quality control of Xiangbin decoction. The compatibility of Xiangbin decoction has a significant effect on the dissolution contents of arecaine, arecoline, norisoboldine and boldine.
Abstract：Objective:To study the quality of Acanthopanax senticosus seedlings, develop grading standards and optimize the best analytical method.Method:Observing and measuring the plant height, diameter, leaf area, root length, chlorophyll content and other main agronomic traits of A. senticosus seedlings from different habitats(Baoqing, Qitaihe, Dongfanghong, Yilan, Acheng, Raohe Linkou and Yabuli) in each year. K-cluster grading method, principal component evaluation factor K-cluster analysis method, standard deviation method for grading, three classification methods were evaluated with different levels of seedling survival rate as indicators.Result:The direct K-cluster analysis method was used to determine the quality of A. senticosus seedlings as the best method. The seedlings of A. senticosus were divided into 3 grades, among in the first level the seedling height is≥13 cm, the stem diameter is≥0.37 cm, the root length is≥8 cm, the leaf area is≥28 cm2, the chlorophyll content is≤31, the main origin is Baoqing, Qitaihe area. In the second level the seedling height is 8-13 cm, the stem diameter is 0.30-0.37 cm, the root length is 6-8 cm, the leaf area is 13-28 cm2, the chlorophyll content is 31-32, and the main origin is Acheng, Dongfanghong, Raohe area. In the third level the seedling height is 5-8 cm, the stem diameter is 0.26-0.30 cm, the root length is 5-6 cm, the leaf area is 5-13 cm2, the chlorophyll content is 32-38, and the main origin is Yabuli, Yilan and Linkou.Conclusion:In this experiment, the quality grading standards of A. senticosus seedlings were preliminarily established, Baoqing and Qitaihe can be used as a high-quality production area for breeding seeds in the Heilongjiang province.which provided the basis for quality evaluation of A. senticosus seedling planting and artificial cultivation.
Abstract：Objective:To analyze the pharmacological basis and molecular mechanism of Sanjie Zhentong capsule in the treatment of endometriosis, adenomyosis, secondary dysmenorrhea.Method:The 6 compounds of Sanjie Zhentong capsule showed stronger interactions with 87 proteins relating to endometriosis, adenomyosis, and secondary dysmenorrhea in molecular docking. Then the drug-target network was selected, and the network features were analyzed.Result:The molecular docking and network characteristics revealed 5 main active molecules and 23 potential targets of Sanjie Zhentong capsule.Conclusion:The main active ingredients of Sanjie Zhentong capsule have a trong inhibition effect on endometrial angiogenesis and blood circulation, uterine smooth muscle contraction, immune inflammatory reaction and estrogen secretion by acting on the targets of inflammation, cell invasion, metastasis, coagulation system, smooth muscle contraction and neurohormone regulation, so as to treat endometriosis, adenomyosis and secondary dysmenorrhea.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of small molecule compounds of Hedysari Radix in ntagonizing tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR1) based on molecular docking.Method:The structure of small molecular compound of Hedysari Radix was downloaded from the chemical composition compound library of traditional Chinese medicine, and then optimized to obtain the composition compound library of Hedysari Radix. The three-dimensional structure of the inflammatory target TNFR1 (PDB ID: 1TNR) was identified. After hydrotreating and anhydrating, the binding pocket residues were identified according to the literature. According to the defined target structure and binding pocket, the flexible molecular docking was conducted between the composition compound library and the target, and the score (Glide Score) was obtained. Based on the results of molecular docking, the first nine small molecular compounds of Glide Score were selected as candidate components. On this basis, the drug-likeness was analyzed, which involved small molecular compounds that meet the number of hydrogen-bonded receptors, the number of hydrogen-bonded donors, the formula weight, the number of rotatable key and the numerical range of lipo-hydro partition coefficient. Finally, the binding mode was analyzed according to pharmacokinetic parameters and complex structure of composition-target docking.Result:The residue set in the TNFR1 drug-binding pocket were identified as glutamic acid109 (Glu109), lysine 35(Lys35), alanine62 (Ala62), serine 74 (Ser74), lysine75 (Lys75), cysteine76 (Cys76), argnine 77(Arg77), glutamine82 (Gln82), threonine89 (Thr89), asparticacid91 (Asp91), argnine92 (Arg92), aspartic acid93 (Asp93), threonine 94(Thr94), valine95 (Val95), cysteine 96(Cys96), argnine104 (Arg104), tyrosine106 (Tyr106), asparagine110 (Asn110), leucine111 (Leu111), phenylalanine112(Phe112), glutamic acid 131(Glu131) and lysine132 (Lys132). Totally 43 small molecular compounds of Hedysari Radix were obtained. Five small molecular compounds, namely hedysari radix, quercetin, isoliquiritin, naringenin, calycosin and liquiritigenin, were screened by comprehensive factors, like docking scoring.Conclusion:Quercetin, isoliquiritin, naringenin, calycosin and liquiritigenin are the effective anti-inflammatory substances of Hedysari Radix, with a great possibility of becoming TNFR1 antagonists.
Keywords：Hedysari Radix;molecular docking;tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 antagonists(TNFR1)
Abstract：Classical traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) excellent prescriptions is an outstanding representative in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine, clinical medicine effective tool, and the essence of traditional culture of Chinese medicine.The research and development of classical TCM excellent prescriptions has attracted great attention from group in the whole industry chain of TCM, a series of guiding suggestions and targeted literature laid a good foundation for research and development of classical TCM excellent prescriptions.In this paper, based on the CNKI database, literature about suggestions or enlightenments of classical TCM excellent prescriptions was sorted and refined in order to build the research outline of classical TCM excellent prescriptions, and it was concluded that literature research was the premise, medicine/decoction pieces with good quality was the foundation, standard substance was the core, high quality was the guarantee and preferential policies were the impetus, and related discussions were carried out.All these were expected to promote the research of classical TCM excellent prescriptions and development of related industries.
Keywords：classical traditional Chinese medicine excellent prescriptions;literature research;medicine/decoction pieces with good quality;material basis;high quality;preferential policies
Abstract：With the advance of aging in the world, aging and its relevant cardiovascular diseases have become an important concern for medical care. Aging is a universal and multifactorial process characterized by a gradual decline in physiological functions, cell dysfunction and a variety of diseases. Telomere shortening is currently a hallmark of vascular aging. The shortening of telomere length is accelerated by exposure to smoking, obesity and other factors. Telomere shortening and dysfunction play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of senile-related cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity and stress are considered to increase oxidative stress or inflammation, accelerate the shortening of telomeres, and protect the healthy telomere length. Previous studies have also shown that telomere shortening is closely related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This may be an effective biomarker for the risk stratification of cardiovascular disease. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), human aging and kidney deficiency are accompanied. The heart and kidney are interrelated and mutually constrained for coordinating water and fire. Impaired heart function due to kidney deficiency and self-aging can cause relevant cardiovascular diseases. The study found that TCM or prescriptions for activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis and many kidney-reinforcing TCM or prescriptions are likely to affect cardiovascular diseases by altering telomere length and telomerase activity. In today's aging society, TCM for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis and tonifying kidney from the perspective of telomere is of great significance for the pathological mechanism of cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract：Guominjian is a prescription created by famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) doctor ZHU Zhan-yu. The prescription is composed of four TCM: Saposhnikoviae Radix, Mume Fructus, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Stellariae Radix, which are commonly used in clinical practice for allergic skin diseases, such as urticaria, atopic dermatitis and eczema. Although the medicinal composition is simple, the curative effect is remarkable, and the total effective rate of treatment in clinic is as high as 90%. Guominjian has the effects on phlegm and blood stasis, and can relieve itching and reduce capillary permeability by antagonizing histamine, reducing serum immune globulin (Ig) E, inhibiting mast cell degranulation and changing the differentiation of CD4+ T cell subsets, with anti-allergy effect at multi-target, multi-path, multi-levels. Domestic and foreign scholars have screened out the chemical constituents of single herbs in Guominjian, and found anti-allergic active ingredients, such as α-cubebenoate, cimicin, schisandrin, and saposhnikovia divaricata polysaccharide, and the mechanisms are different. However, the effects of TCM compounds are not equal to the simple combination of single herbs, and it is not possible to measure the efficacy of an active ingredient in a single herb. The anti-allergic chemical composition in Guominjian should be comprehensively analyzed to study the anti-allergy effect of Guominjian in an all-round way. However, the current research on Guominjian is only limited to the pharmacodynamics, but there is still lack systematic, comprehensive and holistic understanding of anti-allergic active components in Guominjian, which limits the secondary development and the establishment of standards of Guominjian. Therefore, the authors systematically collect and summarize the anti-allergic modern research results of Guominjian and its components by searching domestic and foreign literatures, in order to further define the research and new mechanism of anti-allergic chemical components and mechanism of Guominjian, and provide reference for the development of anti-allergic new drugs.
Abstract：Rotavirus (RV) infection of human body is mainly colonized in human intestinal epithelial cells, which results in small intestinal epithelial cell damage, and then induces diarrhea, fever and other symptoms. It is one of the most common causes of infantile diarrhea. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as a kind of pattern recognition receptors, play an important role in the host immune system after virus infection. After different viruses infect human body, various pathogens trigger the host immune response through TLRs, induce the release of various cytokines, and stimulate a series of inflammatory reactions, such as fever, cough and diarrhea, which may further lead to more serious adverse consequences. According to the findings, the anti-inflammatory and anti-viral mechanisms of various effective drugs developed for different pathogens may be closely related to the intervention of TLRs signaling pathway and the regulation of immune response. A large number of studies have shown that rotavirus infection can induce inflammation by affecting the expressions of related proteins and genes in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction pathways, stimulating the release of inflammatory cytokines and inducing inflammatory response. Some studies on the mechanism of drug treatment for rotavirus diarrhea also started with TLRs, but only a few clinical and experimental studies on traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and rotavirus diarrhea involve TLRs signaling pathway. Therefore, this article will focus on the relationship between TLRs signaling pathway and different viral infections, especially with rotavirus infection, in three aspects: viral infection and TLRs signaling pathway, RV infection and TLRs signaling pathway, and the research of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea, in order to guide the clinical and experimental studies on the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea with TCM based on TLR3 and TLR4 signaling pathways.
Keywords：rotavirus;rotavirus diarrhea;Toll-like receptors;experimental study;traditional Chinese medicine
Abstract：Houpo Wenzhongtang was contained in Neiwaishang bianhuolun.It was composed of seven medicinal materials of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(processed with ginger), Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(remove white sac), Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma(processed with honey), Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen, Poria, Aucklandiae Radix and Zingiberis Rhizoma.It was a classic prescription for treatment of deficient cold of spleen and stomach, distention of chest and abdomen, autumn and winter guest cold crime stomach and feel pain at times by LI Dongyuan, who was a famous doctors in Jin-Yuan dynasties.It has been included in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescription(The First Batch) issued by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 2018.This paper systematically reviewed the relevant research progress of Houpo Wenzhongtang from the aspects of famous doctors' theory, usage and dosage, chemical composition, quality analysis, pharmacology and toxicology, clinical application in database, and to provide a reference for further exerting the clinical application of this classical prescription.
Keywords：Houpo Wenzhongtang;famous doctors' theory;usage and dosage;chemical composition;quality analysis;pharmacology and toxicology;clinical application
Abstract：Because it can not only directly reach the lesion site to play a local therapeutic effect, but also avoid the liver first pass effect and play a systemic therapeutic effect, vaginal mucosal administration has attracted more and more attention from domestic and foreign scholars in the treatment of vaginitis, cervicitis and other diseases. This article introduces the physiological characteristics of the vagina and discusses the factors affecting drug absorption. The vaginal mucosal drug-administered preparations, which are contained in the drug database of U. S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) and China Food and Drug Administration(CFDA), and listed in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, are taken as the research objects. And the application of their dosage forms, indications and other aspects were sorted out and analyzed. The related literature on vaginal mucosal drug delivery systems in recent years was reviewed, and the dosages forms and in vitro and in vivo evaluation were summarized. Some problems in the study of vaginal mucosal drug preparations have been pointed out: ①the western medicine preparations are widely used, and the related Chinese medicine preparations have been developed less; ②the majority of dosage forms are tablets, suppositories and other conventional dosage forms; ③there are few studies on the evaluation of vaginal mucosal preparations in vitro and in vivo. It is suggested that the future development of vaginal mucosal drug delivery system can be a useful attempt in the application of new technologies and methods, such as combination of drugs, high adhesion excipients, liposomes, etc; so as to provide reference for the application and improvement of vaginal mucosal drug delivery system.
Keywords：vaginal structure;mucosal drug delivery system;dosage form;clinical application;in vitro and in vivo evaluation;biological adhesion;permeability
Abstract：Cerebral hemorrhage, also known as hemorrhagic stroke, refers to non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Cerebral hemorrhage is a common and frequently-occurring disease in middle-aged and elderly people. It has the characteristics of high mortality and high disability rate. Most survivors have serious neurological deficits, which seriously threaten human health and quality of life.The pathological process of cerebral hemorrhage is more complicated, including the formation and expansion of hematoma, elevated intracranial pressure, destruction of blood-brain barrier, brain edema, neuronal apoptosis and neurological dysfunction.At present, the main methods for treating cerebral hemorrhage by western medicine include antiplatelet therapy, blood pressure reduction and hematoma surgery. However, it is usually accompanied by the risk of rebleeding caused by surgery, infection, nerve damage and insufficient effective perfusion pressure. Chinese medicine believes that blood stasis and endogenous fever are the most basic pathogenesis of acute cerebral hemorrhage. The previous studies found that many traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can improve blood-brain barrier damage, brain edema, neuronal apoptosis and neurological dysfunction related to cerebral hemorrhage to reduce cerebral hemorrhage injury. Main signal transduction pathways regulated by TCM to treat cerebral hemorrhageinclude Aquaporin 4(AQP4)-related, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt), nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB), suppressor protein 53/Bcl-2-associated X protein/Caspase-3(p53/Bax/Caspase-3)molecular pathways, etc.In this paper, based on the current Chinese medicine to improve the brain damage caused by cerebral hemorrhage and the molecular pathway of intervention, it reviews the research progress published in foreign journals in the past ten years, in order to provide clues and reference for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke diseases and and the further development of new drugs.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;cerebral hemorrhage;improvement effects;regulatory mechanisms;research progress