Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Suanzaoren Tang on hippocampal neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 mice and to explore its possible mechanism of neuroprotection.Method:The mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, donepezil group(0.92 mg·kg-1), Suanzaoren Tang low and high-dose groups(12.96, 25.92 g·kg-1). After 30 days of continuous administration in each group, pathological changes of dentate gyrus (DG) in hippocampus of mice in each group were observed by Nissl staining.The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum of each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in hippocampus of each group. The expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionic calcium binding protein 1 (IBA1) in hippocampus of each group were detected by immunohistochemical staining (ICH) and Western blot.Result:Compared with blank group, the granule cells in DG region were unevenly arranged in model group, with obvious cell loss, and the nissl bodies in some neurons disappeared or condensed, serum TNF-α and IL-1β content significantly increased (P<0.01), mice hippocampus of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression quantity significantly increased (P<0.01), levels of GFAP and IBA1 in the hippocampal DG region were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the granule cells in the hippocampal DG region were slightly aligned in donepezil group, Suanzaoren Tang low and high-dose groups, neuron loss of ease, and intracellular austenite disappear or pyknotic conditions improve, the expressions levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the serum were decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01), the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA in the hippocampus were decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01), protein expression levels of GFAP and IBA1 in the hippocampal DG region were decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Suanzaoren Tang can improve neuronal loss in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of hippocampal neuroinflammation in mice.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the effect of Shenghuitang on learning and memory, biological clock gene [brain and muscle arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)] in hypothalamus and interleukin-6(IL-6)and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic dementia model mice, in order to explore the possible mechanism of Shenghuitang to improve learning and memory and sleep disorders.Method:The experimental mice were randomly divided into model group, blank control group, melatonin group, high-dose Shenghuitang group and low-dose Shenghuitang group. Autonomic activity analysis system was used to detect the autonomic activities of mice in each group. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning ability and spatial memory ability of each group. quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expression of Bmal1 mRNA in the hypothalamic area of mice. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Bmal1 protein in each group. The content of inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus of mice was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The correlation between inflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α and Bmal1 gene was analyzed by pearson analysis.Result:The results of voluntary activities showed that compared with the control group, the number of activities and activity distance of the model group were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the number of activities and activity distance of the mice in each drug group increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01), there was no significant difference in the low dose group of Shenghuitang. Morris water maze results showed that compared with the control group, the platform latency and swimming total distance were significantly prolonged in the model group (P<0.01), and the number of crossing platforms and target quadrant time was significantly reduced (P<0.01). The original platform time increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the platform latency and total swimming distance were significantly decreased in each group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the number of crossing platforms and target quadrant time increased significantly(P<0.05, P<0.01), the time to the original platform was significantly reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of Bmal1 mRNA was up-regulated in the model group compared with the control group. Compared with the model group, the mRNA expression of Bmal1 gene was down-regulated in each group. Western blot results showed that compared with the control group, the expression of Bmal1 protein in the model group was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Bmal1 protein expression was significantly decreased in each group(P<0.01). The results of ELISA showed that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the model group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the drug group were significantly lower(P<0.01). Pearson analysis showed that IL-6, TNF-α and Bmal1 were correlated and negatively correlated.Conclusion:Shenghuitang may reduce the levels of inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus by up-regulating the expression of Bmal1 gene in hypothalamic region, thus improving Alzheimer's disease(AD) and circadian rhythm disorders.
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the relationship between NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3(NLRP3)/cysteine aspartate-specific protease(Caspase)-1 signaling pathway and esophageal inflammation by observing the effect of Xuanfu Daizhe Tang on the composition of inflammatory body and the expression of relevant inflammatory factors in rats with reflux esophagitis (RE), so as to explain the mechanism of Xuanfu Daizhe Tang in treating RE.Method:Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: the normal control group, the model control group, the Xuanfu Daizhe Tang group (9.89 g·kg-1) and the positive control group (omeprazole enteric-coated tablets+ mosapride, 2.58 mg·kg-1), with 15 rats in each group. Except for the blank control group, the remaining rats were operated by " 4.2 mm pyloric clip+ 2/3 gastric fundus ligation" to establish models. Since the 8th day after the operation, the rats were given corresponding drugs twice a day for 14 days. The arterial blood and esophageal tissues were taken out at the 15th day after the intervention. The pathological morphology of esophagus was observed by naked eyes and under light microscopy. The secretion of cytokines Caspase-1 and interleukin(IL)-1β in serum was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The expressions of NLRP3, Caspase-1 and IL-1β in esophagus were detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with the normal group, the injury of esophageal mucosa in the model group was the most serious. Compared with the normal group, the levels of Caspase-1 and IL-1β in serum and the expression of NLRP3 protein in esophageal tissue of the model group were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Xuanfu Daizhe Tang could significantly reduce the contents of Caspase-1 and IL-1β in serum of rats, and down-regulate the expressions of NLRP3, Caspase-1 and IL-1β protein in esophageal tissue (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Xuanfu Daizhe Tang can regulate the expressions of NLRP3 and Caspase-1, and reduce the content of IL-1β, suggesting that it may antagonize esophageal inflammatory response, reduce esophageal inflammatory injury and treat RE by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effect of Linggui Zhugan Tang on gut microbiota in ob/ob mice, in order to explore whether its bone protective effect is related to its regulatory effect of gut microbiota.Method:The ob/ob mice were divided into control group, model group, Linggui Zhugan Tang group, and Atorvastatin group. After administration for 4 weeks, morphological changes in intestine and bone were observed by htoxylin eosin(HE) staining. The protein expression of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) was detected by Western blot in bone. The expression of farniol X receptor(FXR) was detected by in immunofluorescence staining. And the content of interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum was analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) method. Gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA.Result:Compared with control group, the trabecular bone of the femur became thinner, the bone marrow cavity was infiltrated with fat, and the epithelium of the small intestine was damaged in the model group. The protein expressions of ALP and FXR decreased, while the content of IL-6 in serum was increased in the model group. Compared with model group, the protein expressions of ALP and FXR increased, while the content of IL-6 in serum was decreased in the Linggui Zhugan Tang group. At the genus level, compared with control group, the abundance of Lachnospiraceae_UCG-001 increased (P<0.05), while that of norank_f__Bacteroidales_S24-7_group decreased in model group (P<0.01). Lachnospiraceae_UCG-001 was positively correlated with the weight of body (r=0.661), while norank_f__Bacteroidales_S24-7_group was negatively correlated with the weight of body (r=-0.622).Conclusion:Linggui Zhugan Tang has a protective effect on bone injury in ob/ob mice, and its mechanism may be related to its regulation of gut microbiota.
Abstract：Objective:Exploring the material basis and mechanism of Wuzi Yanzongwan in the treatment of male infertility based on network pharmacology.Method:Traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform(TCMSP) was used to screen the active ingredients and targets in Wuzi Yanzongwan. GeneCards, OMIM and PharmGkb databases were used to screen the targets of male infertility. R language software was used to screen common targets of drugs and diseases, Pharmaceutical active ingredients-disease target interaction network was constructed by using Cytoscape software. The common target protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed by STRING platform, the gene ontology(GO) analysis of common target was analyzed by ClueGo plug-in, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway was enriched by R language software.Result:A total of 72 active ingredients were obtained from Wuzi Yanzongwan, and 35 possible targets for the treatment of male infertility were obtained. These targets are mainly involved in biological processes such as oxidation and antioxidant activity, and are mainly concentrated in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt) and hypoxia inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathways.Conclusion:The network pharmacology confirmed the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway action characteristics of Wuzi Yanzongwan, predicted the possible mechanism of Wuzi Yanzongwan in the treatment of male infertility, and provided theoretical basis for further study of its active ingredients and mechanism.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of pilose antler different components on the bone tissue of ovariectomized osteoporosis model rats and ascertain the material basis of pilose antler.Method:fifty-six SD rats were divided randomly into seven groups: normal group, model group, Xianling Gubao group(468 mg·kg-1), Bujiale group(80 mg·kg-1), polysaccharide group(50 mg·kg-1), polypeptides group(175 mg·kg-1), polysaccharide and polypeptide mixture group(50 mg·kg-1+ 175 mg·kg-1). Osteoporosis mode was established through ovary resection of female rats, meanwhile, the rats were given different components of pilose antler for consecutively 12 weeks. Subsequently, using absorptiometry to measure the rats' bone mass density. The activities of bone alkaline phosphatase(BALP), osteocalcin (OT), bone morphogenetic protein2(BMP-2), Smad1, Smad5, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of BMP-2, Smad1, Smad5, Runx2 protein was examined by Western blot and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). Morphological assay for bone tissue were detected by htoxylin eosin(HE) staining.Result:After 12 weeks, Compared with the normal group, the osteoporosis model group showed significantly decrease in bone mineral density(P<0.05), and bone BALP, OT, BMP-2, Smad1, Smad5, Runx2 content(P<0.05), the mRNA and protein expression of BMP-2, Smad1, Smad5, Runx2 in bone were significantly decrease(P<0.05). Bone tissue was destroyed. Compared with the osteoporosis model group, different components of pilose antler could significantly improve the activities of BALP, OT, BMP-2, Smad1, Smad5, Runx2 and bone mineral density in bone, and up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of BMP-2, Smad1, Smad5, Runx2.Bone structure is repaired.Conclusion:Pilose antler different components has therapeutic effect on ovariectomized osteoporosis model rats.The mechanism may be related to up-regulat the expression of BMP-2/Smad1, Smad5/Runx2 signal pathways.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Liuwei Dihuangwan on the improvement of autophagy level of hippocampal neurons in mice with kidney deficiency Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its partial mechanism, in order to explore part of therapeutic mechanisms of kidney-tonifying and essence-filling therapy for AD.Method:Healthy male C57-B6 mice were divided into control group, AD group, kidney deficiency AD group and Liuwei Dihuangwan group(1.08 g·kg-1). The control group and the AD group were subcutaneously injected with normal saline (15 mL·kg-1) daily, and the kidney deficiency AD group and the Liuwei Dihuangwan group were subcutaneously injected with hydrocortisone injection (15 mL·kg-1) daily for 20 consecutive days. On the 21st day, the other three groups were injected with 6 μg amyloid beta protein 25-35(Aβ25-35) in the lateral ventricle, while the control group was injected with sterile saline into the lateral ventricle. The levels of serum cortisol and testosterone in each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the morphological changes in hippocampal neurons were observed by transmission electron microscopy, the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) was detected by immunofluorescence, and the expression of selective autophagic junction protein (p62) was detected by Western blot.Result:Compared with normal group, serum cortisol and testosterone levels in AD group and kidney deficiency AD group were significantly reduced (P<0.01), LC3 expression in hippocampus of mice was significantly reduced (P<0.01), and p62 protein expression in hippocampus of mice was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with AD group, serum cortisol and testosterone levels in kidney deficiency AD group were significantly reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01), and p62 protein expression in hippocampus of mice was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with AD group and kidney deficiency AD group, serum cortisol and testosterone levels of mice in Liuwei Dihuangwan group were significantly increased (P<0.01), LC3 expression in hippocampus was significantly increased (P<0.01), and p62 protein expression was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Autophagosomes were observed in mouse neuron cells in normal group and Liuwei Dihuangwan group, and rarely in AD group and kidney deficiency AD group.Conclusion:Kidney-tonifying and essence-filling therapy can protect hippocampal neurons, increase LC3 expression in hippocampal neurons, decrease p62 expression level and increase autophagy level of hippocampal neurons. It has a certain therapeutic effect on kidney-deficiency Alzheimer's disease.
Keywords：autophagy;Alzheimer's disease;hippocampal neurons;Liuwei Dihuangwan;amyloid beta protein 25-35
Abstract：Objective:To study the mechanism of Tiaogeng decoction in improving apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway.Method:The GT1-7 cell line of hypothalamic neuron cells treated by tributyltin chloride (TBTC) was used to induce a model of neuronal apoptosis, with 17β-estradiol as a positive drug. They were divided into control group, model group (1 mg·L-1), 17β-E2 group(100 nmol·L-1) and low, middle and high-dose Tiaogeng decoction groups (31.25, 62.5, 125 mg·L-1). The cell morphology was observed under a fluorescent inverted microscope, and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the cell viability. The cell nuclear morphology and the apoptosis rate of hypothalamic neurons were detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide(PI) double staining. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK1), JNK, p53 and cleaved Caspase-3 of JNK pathway in GT1-7 cell. Western blot was used to analyze apoptosis-associated protein apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (ASK1), JNK, p53, cleaved Caspase-3 expressions in JNK pathway and phosphorylation of JNK after intervention with JNK inhibitor SP600125, protein expression level of cleaved Caspase-3.Result:Compared with normal control group, the cell viability of the model group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), whereas the apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P<0.01). The expressions of phosphorylated ASK1(p-ASK1), p-JNK, phosphorylated p53 (p-p53) and cleaved Caspase-3 increased significantly (P<0.01). After intervention with Tiaogeng decoction, compared with model group, the activity of GT1-7 cells was significantly improved(P<0.01), while the apoptotic rate was decreased (P<0.01). The expressions of p-ASK1, p-JNK, p-p53, and cleaved Caspase-3 proteins were down-regulated. High-dose Tiaogeng decoction combined with SP600125(10 μmol·L-1)treatment significantly inhibited the expressions of p-JNK and cleaved Caspase-3 in GT1-7 cells (P<0.01).Conclusion:Tiaogeng decoction can improve the apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons through JNK pathway, and provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of menopausal syndrome and central nervous system protection.
Abstract：Objective:To study the effect of Genkwa Flos on the thermosensitive channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by electrophysiological whole cell patch clamp technique and animal behavior experiment, in order to explore its mechanism.Method:The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to measure transmembrane currents induced by 75%ethanol extract from different concentrations of Genkwa Flos in HEK293 cells that expressed human TRPV1.TRPV1 specific antagonist capsaicin was used to observe whether it could inhibit the transmembrane current induced by Genkwa Flos. Totally 30 C57BL/6 mice were taken for behavioral detection, and divided into blank group (6 mice), high-dose group (6 mice), medium-dose group (6 mice), low-dose group (6 mice) and ibuprofen positive control group (6 mice). Genkwa Flos treatment group was given low dose (0.195 g·kg-1·d-1), medium dose (0.39 g·kg-1·d-1) and high dose (0.78 g·kg-1·d-1) by gavage. One hour later, the changes of behavioral latency of cold pain and hot pain in mice were observed in cold plate at (0±2) ℃ and hot plate at (55±1) ℃.Result:Whole cell patch clamp experiment showed that 75%ethanol extract of Genkwa Flos in hTRPV1/HEK293 cells could activate TRPV1 channel to generate obvious transmembrane current, which was similar with that generated by the known TRPV1 agonist capsaicin in current density and current-voltage relationship. The dose-effect experiments showed that compared with extracellular fluid, 10 g·L-1 ethanol extract of Genkwa Flos could activate hTRPV1/HEK293 cells to induce significant transmembrane current (P<0.01). The transmembrane current generated by 10 g·L-1 ethanol extract of Genkwa Flos was more than 3 g·L-1(P<0.01). The TRPV1 specific antagonist capsaicin could completely inhibit the transmembrane current induced by 10 g·L-1 ethanol extract of Genkwa Flos. In the experiment of cold plate and hot plate in mice, there was a dose-effect relationship between the latencies of cold pain behavior and hot pain behavior in mice prolonged by Genkwa Flos. In the experiment of cold plate, compared with the blank group, the cold pain behavior latency of mice in the medium-dose group was significantly prolonged (P<0.01), and that of mice in the high-dose group was significantly prolonged (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the cold pain behavior latency of mice in the ibuprofen positive control group was significantly prolonged (P<0.01). In the hot plate experiment, the incubation period of hot pain behavior in the high-dose group of Genkwa Flos was significantly longer than that in the blank group (P<0.01), while that in the ibuprofen positive control group was significantly longer than that in the blank group (P<0.05).Conclusion:More than one TRPV1 agonist was included in 75%ethanol extract of Genkwa Flos. The warm, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Genkwa Flos may be a series of effects after activation of TRPV1.
Abstract：Objective:To construct oxaliplatin (L-OHP) drug-resistant cell line HCT-116/L-OHP in human colon cancer, in order to observe the reversal effect of curcumin (cur) on its drug resistance, and preliminarily explore the possible drug resistance mechanism.Method:The concentration gradient increasing method was used to gradually increase the L-OHP concentration of HCT-116 in parental colon cancer cells, and the cell line HCT-116/L-OHP resistant to L-OHP was established. The cytotoxicity of L-OHP and curcumin to HCT-116 and HCT-116/L-OHP cells was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) method to observe whether curative resistance could be reversed. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of drug-resistance-related proteins. Real-time PCR was used to detect changes in related genes.Result:Human colon cancer cell line resistant to L-OHP were successfully established and named as HCT-116/L-OHP, with a drug resistance index of 12.6.Compared with HCT-116 cell lines, the expression levels of resected and repaired cross complementation gene 1 (ERCC1) protein and gene in HCT-116/L-OHP cell lines were significantly increased (P<0.01). The expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), glutathione-s-transferase-consciousness (GST-consciousness), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and apoptotic inhibitory gene (Survivin) also increased significantly (P<0.01). After the treatment with different concentrations of curcumin (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 μmol·L-1), the expression of ERCC1 decreased (P<0.01), and the expressions of Bcl-2, GST-π, MRP, P-gp, Survivin also decreased to different degrees (P<0.05).Conclusion:HCT-116/L-OHP cell lines have a stable drug resistance, and its drug resistance mechanism may be up-regulated with the expression of ERCC1, which leads to the up-regulation of Bcl-2, GST-π, MRP, P-gp, Survivin and other related proteins, and enables tumor cells to acquire drug resistance. Curcumin can reverse the drug resistance of HCT-116/L-OHP, and its mechanism may be to reduce the expression of ERCC1, thereby down-regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, GST-π, MRP, P-gp, Survivin and other drug-resistant related genes and proteins, and increase the sensitivity of tumor to L-OHP, so as to reverse the drug resistance of tumor cells.
Abstract：Objective:To study the protective effect of Fuzheng Quxie prescription on liver injury by influencing the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, apoptosis factor (Fas), apoptosis factor ligand (FasL), and macrophages (CD68) in the liver tissues of concanavalin A(ConA) model mice.Method:The sixty mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, bicyclol group (62.5 mg·kg-1), and low, medium and high-dose Fuzheng Quxie prescription groups(50.3, 67.0, 83.8 g·kg-1). The normal group and the model group were given the equal volume of pure water for 7 d. They were fasted for 12 hours before the last administration. At 2nd hour after the last administration, phosphate buffer(PBS) was injected into the caudal vein of the normal group, and ConA (20 mg·kg-1) was injected into the caudal vein of the other groups for modeling. The animals were put to death six hours later after the injection, and the expressions of TNF-α, Fas, FasL and CD68 in liver tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry.Result:Compared with normal group, the expressions of TNF-α, Fas, FasL and CD68 in the liver tissues of the model group were significantly increased(P<0.01), indicating the successful replication of the liver injury model. The expressions of TNF-α, FasL and CD68 in liver tissues of the bicyclol group were significantly decreased compared with the model group(P<0.01). The expressions of TNF-α, FasL and CD68 in liver tissues were significantly decreased in medium and high-dose Fuzheng Quxie prescription groups (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Fuzheng Quxie prescription can effectively reduce the apoptosis of liver cells in ConA model mice by inhibiting Kupffer cells and Fas/FasL system activation.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the anti-inflammatory effect of Dendrobii Huoshanense Herba.Method:Totally 60 Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, high, middle and low-dose Dendrobii Huoshanense Herba groups (DHS-H, DHS-M, DHS-L, 4, 2, 1 g·kg-1) and dexamethasone acetate group (DXMS, 0.01 g·kg-1). The rats were intragastrically administered for 14 days. After the last administration for 1 h, a total of 20 μL of xylene was added to both sides of the right ear center of the mice to establish the ear swelling model. All of the mice were decapitated 1 h later, and the ear swelling inhibition rate of each group were calculated. Totally 36 healthy SD rats were divided into normal model, model group, DHS-H, DHS-M, DHS-L groups (2.8, 1.4, 0.7 g·kg-1) and DXMS acetate group. The rats were intragastrically administered for 7 days. One hour after the last intragastric administration, a foot swelling model was established through subcutaneous injection of 10%fresh egg white in the right hind limb toe of each group. The right hind paw circumference of each rat was measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 h, and the paw swelling of the rats was calculated. Totally 60 SD rats were implanted subcutaneously with sterile dry cotton balls in the bilateral groin and grouped as above. All of the rats were intragastrically administered for 14 days since the next day. After the last administration, cotton balls were taken out, and the inhibition rate of granuloma was calculated. And the contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the serum of each group were detected.Result:Compared with the normal group, the ear swelling rate, the foot swelling degree were significantly increased in the model group(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the swelling rate of mouse ears in high, middle and low-dose Dendrobii Huoshanense Herba groups reduced significantly (P<0.01). The swelling degrees of the high and middle-dose groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The dry weight of cotton buds in each group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), with no significant change in thymus and spleen index. Compared with the normal group, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ in the model group were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01). And compared with model group, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ in Dendrobii Huoshanense Herba group and positive drug group were decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion:Dendrobii Huoshanense Herba could effectively inhibit acute and chronic inflammatory reactions.
Abstract：Objective:To observe the effects of addition and subtraction therapy of Danggui Shaoyaosan combined with Huaihuasan on ulcerative colitis (UC) with syndrome of dampness-heat in large intestine during active stage, and the effects on brain-gut petide neurotransmitter and inflammatory cytokines.Method:A total of 130 cases were included and randomly divided into control group and observation group, 65 cases in each group. In the control group, the patients received oral administration of mesalazine enteric-coated tablets, 1.0 g/time and 3 times/days. Severe patients received prednisone acetate tablets (0.75 mg·kg-1·d-1) in several times by oral administration. Based on the treatment in control group, patients in observation group also received addition and subtraction therapy of Danggui Shaoyaosan combined with Huaihuasan, 1 dose/day. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks. Symptom scores, Mayo scores, colonic mucosa scores and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) scores were assessed before and after treatment. Patients in remission stage were followed up for 6 months to record the recurrence. Before and after treatment, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SS), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 were detected.Result:After 4 weeks of treatment, the clinical remission rate was 93.22%in the observation group, better than 80.7%in the control group (χ2=4.035, P<0.05). The scores of various symptoms in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The Mayo scores and colonic mucosal scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The IBDQ scores in all dimensions and the total IBDQ scores in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). In 6 months of follow up for the patients in clinical remission stage, the recurrence rate in the observation group was 18.18%, lower than 36.96%in the control group (χ2=4.509, P<0.05), and the recurrence time was longer than that in the control group (P<0.01). The levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). Plasma VIP and SS levels in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01), while SP levels were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:On the basis of conventional western medicine treatment, addition and subtraction therapy of Danggui Shaoyaosan combined with Huaihuasan in the treatment of UC (dampness-heat in large intestine) during active stage can control the disease activity in a short term, promote restoration of the colonic mucosa. And delay the recurrence in a long term, reduce the recurrence rate, regulate ghrelin neurotransmitters and pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels.
Keywords：ulcerative colitis;dampness-heat in large intestine;simultaneous treatment of Xue and Shui;Danggui Shaoyaosan;Huaihuasan;braingut petide neurotransmitter;inflammatory cytokines
Abstract：Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of Gancao Xiexintang combined with vitamin B12 on recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) in children.Method:Totally 116 children with ROU admitted in Jiangxi Provincial Children's Hospital from June 2016 to June 2018 were divided into observation group and control group on the basis of random number table, with 58 cases in each group. The control group was orally treated with vitamin B12, while the observation group was orally treated with Gancao Xiexintang in addition to the therapy of the control group. All of the children were treated for 14 days. Clinical efficacy, changes of T lymphocyte subset (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ /CD8+ ), ulcer area, content of oral flora (veillonella, streptococcus) before and after treatment, and side effect were compared between the two groups.Result:The overall effective rate of the observation group was 96.6%(56/58), which was much higher than 84.5%(49/58) of the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, both groups had much higher CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4+ /CD8+ in peripheral blood, but lower CD8+ compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and T lymphocyte subset (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ /CD8+ ) indexes in observation group was improved more significantly (P<0.05). After treatment, the ulcer area of both groups shrank (P<0.05), and observation group had a much smaller ulcer area than control group after 7, 14 d of treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, both groups showed higher content of veillonella and streptococcus compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the observation group showed a more obvious increase (P<0.05). Neither group showed severe side effect.Conclusion:In treating ROU in children, the combination of Gancao Xiexintang and vitamin B12 can significantly correct imbalance of T lymphocyte subset, promote the recovery of oral ulcer, and positively regulate oral micro-ecological environment, with an exact curative effect and high patient tolerance.
Keywords：recurrent oral ulcer in children;Gancao Xiexintang;vitamin B12;T lymphocyte subset;oral flora;ulcer area
Abstract：Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of addition and subtraction therapy of Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Huanglian Ejiaotang to primary insomnia in the elderly (liver and kidney Yin deficiency syndrome), and to investigate its regulation effect on neurotransmitter.Method:Randomly 136 patients were divided into control group (68 cases) and observation group (68 cases) by number table. Patients in control group got Estazolam tablets by oral administration before going to bed, 1-2 mg/time, 1 time/day. Patients in observation group got addition and subtraction therapy of Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Huanglian Ejiao tang, 1 dose/day. Both groups of patients received sleep guidance and cognitive behavior guidance, with treatment course of 8 weeks. During the observation period, physical therapy and acupuncture could not been used. Before and after treatment, pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), whole night polysomnography, sleep latency (SL), awakening times (AT), sleep efficiency (SE), rapid eye movement (REM), latency (RL), total actual sleep time (TST) and proportion of N1, N2, N3 and REM in the whole sleep stage were recorded. Scores of self-rating depression scale (SDS), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), kidney Yin deficiency syndrome score and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were graded, and levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid(5-HIAA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) were detected.Result:In rank sum test, clinical efficacy in observation group was better than that in control group (Z=2.115, P<0.05). Scores of various PSQI factors and total scores of PSQI in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.01). SL, RL, N2, AT were less than those in control group (P<0.01). TST, Nl and N3 were longer than those in control group (P<0.01). SE and REM proportions were higher than those in control group (P<0.01). Scores of SDS, SAS, liver and kidney Yin deficiency syndrome and TESS were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Levels of 5-HT, GABA and 5-HIAA in observation group were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while levels of NE and DA were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Cumulative incidence of adverse reactions in observation group was 8.2%, lower than 31.03%in control group (χ2=9.945, P<0.01).Conclusion:Addition and subtraction therapy of Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Huanglian Ejiaotang can improve sleep quality, prolong sleep time, alleviate depression, anxiety, and can also regulate neurotransmitters to improve sleep effect. The efficacy of PSQI is better than that of Estazolam tablets.
Keywords：primary insomnia;the elderly;liver and kidney Yin deficiency syndrome;Liuwei Dihuangwan;Huanglian Ejiaotang;neurotransmitter
Abstract：Objective:To carry out the risk assessment on the factors in the process of granulation fluidized bed of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) by using failure model and effect analysis(FMEA) and Bayesian network(BN), in order to effectively control risk factors and improve product quality.Method:The risk analysis of the fluidized bed granulation process was carried out by FMEA and the selected medium risk and high risk factors were taken as the main control points, the corresponding BN was established. The sensitivity analysis was used to screen out the main risk factors affecting particle fluidity, particle size uniformity, solubility and product cleanliness, the occurrence probability of each risk factor was determined by the evidence of unqualified particle quality, finally, taking fluidized bed granulation process of Sanye tablets as an example, the FMEA and BN were combined into the risk assessment process to verify the effectiveness and reliability of the method.Result:Based on the middle and high risk points of fluidized bed process, particle size of raw materials, moisture content and hygroscopicity of raw materials, dosage, concentration and addition amount of binder, cleaning degree and integrity of collection bag, and nozzle position, which were selected by FMEA, a fluidized bed granulation risk network with causality was constructed. Among them, hygroscopicity of raw materials, concentration and addition amount of binder, inlet temperature and atomization pressure were high probability risk factors, and the probability of occurrence were 55%, 63%, 59%and 58%, respectively. According to the Bayesian risk relationship network which controlled Sanye tablets fluidized bed granulation analysis results showed that the P values of inlet temperature, atomization pressure and concentration of binder were 0.003 4, 0.032 6 and 0.041 8, respectively in the regression model of influencing factors and particle size uniformity, indicating that there was a significant correlation between the three factors and the particle quality, which was basically consistent with the conclusion obtained by FMEA-BN method.Conclusion:The combination of FMEA and BN for visualized risk assessment of fluidized bed granulation helps to effectively control the risk factors in the granulation process, reduce product quality risks and provide strong support for the improvement of granulation process of TCM.
Keywords：failure model and effect analysis;Bayesian network;sensitivity analysis;risk assessment;traditional Chinese medicine;fluidized bed granulation;particle quality
Abstract：The quality constant evaluation method was applied to the grading evaluation of Albiziae Cortex decoction pieces. The morphological and component indexes of 12 batches of the decoction pieces were measured, their quality constants were calculated and graded. The results showed that the quality constant ranged from 0.041 to 0.167. If the percentage quality constant ≥80%was the first-grade decoction pieces, <80%and ≥50%was the second-grade decoction pieces, <50%was the third-grade decoction pieces; the quality constant of the first-grade decoction pieces was≥0.133 6, the second-grade decoction pieces was≥0.083 5 and <0.133 6, and the third-grade decoction pieces was <0.083 5. In this paper, the authors further applied the quality constant evaluation method of skin piece in the grading evaluation of Albiziae Cortex decoction pieces, which proved that the method was reasonable and scientific, and it can provide a reference for the quality grading of this decoction pieces.
Keywords：Albiziae Cortex;grading;quality constant;traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces;commodity specifications;quality evaluation;appearance
Abstract：Objective:To realize the rapid and accurate discrimination of Swertia plants by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and chemometrics.Method:The original infrared spectra data from different parts (roots, stems, leaves) of all of the 543 samples of S. davidii, S. mileensis, S. punicea, S. angustifolia and S. cincta were collected and preprocessed by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV), Savitzky-Golay filter (SG), first derivative (1D), second derivative (2D), third derivative (3D). Then, the spectral ranges of 4 000-3 700, 2 799-1 800 cm-1 and 682-653 cm-1 were deleted before PLS-DA and SVM analysis.Result:The samples of the five species could not be distinguished with similar averaged infrared spectra in the same part. The characteristic peaks of different parts in the same species were different, and the sequence of complexity was leaves>stems>roots. The five species of Swertia could accurately be identified by PLS-DA and SVM models established by spectra data in roots, stems and leaves. MSC+ SG+ 2D showed the best preprocessing effect, and the prediction accuracies of all models were 100%. The values of R2Y in PLS-DA of all of the parts were more than 0.8, and the RMSEP was less than RMSECV, indicating that the model was stable and more effective. Furthermore, the value of Q2 exceeded 0.6, and the accuracy of prediction set reached 100%, indicating a high classification accuracy. It showed that PLS-DA models had a strong prediction ability. The c values in SVM model of roots, stems and leaves were 22.627 4, 2 and 1.414 2, respectively, which were all within the normal ranges. The accuracy of prediction set was 100%, suggesting a high accuracy.Conclusion:FTIR combined with PLS-DA and SVM could accurately distinguish different species from Swertia, and the model has a good prediction effect and provides certain reference for the identification of other plants.
Abstract：Objective:To study the chemical constituents, especially hallucinogenic substances of fruiting bodies of Gymnopilus spectabilis from France.Method:The fruiting bodies of G. spectabilis were extracted with chloroform-acetone-methanol (1∶1∶1), then the compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, gel chromatography, MPLC and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis methods, such as 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS.Result:Six polyisoprenepolyols compounds were isolated and identified from fruiting bodies of G. spectabilis, namely gymnopilene A (1), hypsiziprenol B10, A10, A11(2-4), ymnopilin A10, 3a(5-6).Conclusion:Compound 1is a new compound that is named gymnopilene A, and compounds 1-4are isolated from G. spectabilis for the first time.
Keywords：Gymnopilus spectabilis;polyisoprenepolyols;hallucinogenic mushroom;gymnopilene A
Abstract：Objective:Echinocystic acid(EA)is a kind of oleanolic pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, due to its main structural features of stability and less active sites, the structures of EA were modified in this paper to synthesize a series of EA derivatives, improve their bioavailability, and investigate their inhibitory effect on lipase.Method:In this study, EA derivatives were designed and synthesized from EA, which is a natural lipase inhibitor. Their inhibitory effects on lipase were tested by using 2, 4-dinitrophenyl butanoate(PNPB) method.Result:Nine compounds were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by infrared spectrum (IR), ultraviolet spectrum (UV), mass spectrum (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR), all of which were identified as new compounds. Further experiments on the inhibitory effect on lipase showed that compounds 1-9 had higher inhibitory effects than EA, IC50=7.03, 2.05, 2.14, 3.65, 3.24, 0.28, 0.34, 0.46, and 0.39 g·L-1. Compounds 6-9 had higher inhibitory effect than Orlistat(IC50=0.53 g·L-1). Inhibition rates were as follows: 6>7>9>8> Orlistat>2>3>5>4>1>EA.Conclusion:It is feasible to design and synthesize derivatives with EA as the lead compound to improve the inhibitory effect on lipase.
Abstract：Objective:To study the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Cyclosorus parasiticus.Method:The whole plant of C. parasiticus were repeatedly percolated with MeOH. The MeOH residue was dispersed in H2O and successively extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and butyl alcohol. The chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS columns, and semi-prep high performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined on the basis of IR, MS, NMR analysis (1H and 13C-NMR) and spectroscopic data from literatures.Result:Sixteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction, and their chemical structures were identified as physcion (1), ent-kaur-16-ene-2β, 15α-diol (2), ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene (3), 5, 7, 8, 4′-tetramethoxyflavone (4), oleanolic acid (5), 5-hydroxy-7, 4′-dimethoxyflavone (6), 1, 7-dihydroxyxanthone (7), interruptin B (8), quercetin (9), apigenin (10), kaempferol (11), afzelin (12), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosid (13), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), β-daucosterol (15) and β-sitosterol (16).Conclusion:Compounds 1-7 and 9-15 were isolated from the C. parasiticus for the first time. These results provide a foundation for studying the pharmacodynamics material basis and quality control of C. parasiticus.
Abstract：Objective:To explore the correlation between colors and contents of water and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra (GRRR).Method:The colors were observed under sunlight on a sheet of white paper. The chroma value and color difference were determined and calculated by a colorimeter. Water content was determined by the oven-drying method. An HPLC method was established and used to determine the content of 5-HMF. The correlation was analyzed by the Spearman and Pearson analysis.Result:The colors of GRRR were yellowish-white, ocher-yellow, and yellowish-brown. The values of L*, a*, b*, and ΔE* had a certain range, and could reflect the colors of GRRR. The content of water ranged from 4.01%to 8.31%and was in accordance with the requirement the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The content of 5-HMF ranged from below the limit of detection (1.985×10-4 μg) to 78.97 μg·g-1. The results of correlation analysis shows significant correlations between L*, a*, b*, ΔE* values and water content, that is to say, the deeper the color was, the higher the content of water was, but with no significant correlation with 5-HMF content.Conclusion:The color of processed GRRR was related to water content but not related to 5-HMF content, which was not consistent with the correlation between color and 5-HMF content that generally existed in a series of raw Chinese medicinal materials. It indicated an essential difference between the color shade of processed Chinese medicinal materials and the cause of color change of raw Chinese medicinal materials. Therefore, it was significant to control water content for ensuring the stability of GRRR. This study determined the colors of GRRR by a colorimeter, systematically determined 5-HMF content, and proposed the effect of water contents on the color of GRRR.
Keywords：Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra;color;water;5-hydroxymethylfurfural;correlation analysis
Abstract：Objective:The HPLC fingerprinting of Swertia mussotii was established to study the correlation between chemical components and ecological factors in different areas.Method:The fingerprint of S. mussotii was established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the evaluation and analysis were made based on the " Chinese Medicine Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System 2004A Edition" promulgated by the National Pharmacopoeia Commission. The analysis was carried out on a Wondasil C18 column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with methanol-0.2%phosphoric acid as the mobile phase for gradient elution, and the column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, and the detection wavelength was set at 245 nm. And data on ecological factors in each sample habitat, such as climate and soil, were collected. The gray correlation and bivariate analysis were carried out on the chemical constituents and ecological factors of medicinal materials in different areas using DPS data processing system and SPSS 21.0 statistical software.Result:The HPLC fingerprint of S. mussotii was established, a total of 12 common fingerprint peaks were marked, and the chemical constituent of the seven peaks were determined. The chemical constituents, such as swertiamain and mangiferin of S. mussotii, were significantly correlated with ecological factors. Moreover, the chemical constituents were obviously affected by the monthly average temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality in the climatic factors, the soil organic carbon ratio and soil pH in the soil factors.Conclusion:The chemical constituents of S. mussotii have a correlation with the external ecological factors, the findings could provide a basis for the artificial planting of the medicinal material and the scientific connotation of the " environment-based" theory for Tibetan medicines.
Abstract：Objective:To clone cellulose synthase-like(Csl)gene from ethnic medicinal plant Ampelopsis megalophylla, and analyze its sequence by bioinformatics.Method:Specific primers were designed for AmCsl gene sequences obtained from A. megalophylla transcriptome sequencing data. The full-length cDNA of AmCsl gene was amplified by PCR using cDNA of young leaves as template, and TA clone and sequencing was performed. The sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics.Result:The full length cDNA was 1 438 bp, containing a 561 bp open reading frame(ORF), and encoding 186 amino acids, the molecular formula of protein was C1011H1547N233O257S10, the theoretical relative molecular weight was 22.40 kDa, the theory isoelectric point(PI)was 7.59, and the aliphatic index(AI)was 116.88.There was a transmembrane region and no signal peptide, which may be located in the endoplasmic reticulum, the average hydrophobic coefficient was 0.670, and the instability index was 42.56.It belonged to a hydrophobic unstable protein. The conserved domain contained a cellulose synthase, and the secondary structure mainly was dominated by α-helix. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AmCsl had a high homology with Vitis vinifera.Conclusion:The full length of AmCsl gene was obtained for preliminary bioinformatics analysis, which laid a necessary foundation for further study on the accumulation of polysaccharides and the regulation of biosynthesis.
Abstract：Objective:To study the changes in total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant enzyme activity of Polygala tenuifolia callus in MS medium with different concentrations of H2O2, in order to explore the physiological mechanism of Polygala tenuifolia callus in adapting to H2O2 environmental stress at the cellular level.Method:Five gradients of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mmol·L-1 were set for H2O2 concentration and added to MS medium, with P. tenuifolia callus as the experimental material. Total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant enzyme activities of callus were determined after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 d of culture, respectively.Result:The contents of total phenols and flavonoids were the highest when the concentration of H2O2 was 5 mmol·L-1 for 15 d. The SOD activity was the highest when the callus was cultured for 5 d and the exogenous H2O2 concentration was 5 mmol·L-1. POD activity was the highest at 25 d and 5 mmol·L-1 concentration of exogenous H2O2.CAT activity was the highest at 25 d and 15 mmol·L-1 concentration of exogenous H2O2.Conclusion:P. tenuifolia callus has the ability to adapt to the environmental stress of H2O2 at a certain concentration. When it is subjected to the environmental stress of H2O2, P. tenuifolia callus can alleviate the damage by regulating its secondary metabolites and protecting enzyme system. It can significantly promote the content of total phenols and flavonoids in secondary metabolites at 5-10 mmol·L-1. SOD activity was significantly increased at 5 d and the concentration of exogenous H2O2 of 5 mmol·L-1. POD activity was significantly increased at 25 d and the concentration of exogenous H2O2 of 5 mmol·L-1. CAT activity was significantly increased at 25 d and concentration of exogenous H2O2 of 15 mmol·L-1.
Abstract：There are safety problems in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) injections. Most of the adverse reactions of TCM injections are very similar to those of hypersensitivity reactions. The hypersensitivity reaction of macromolecular substances in TCM injections has also been confirmed by experiments. Polysorbate 80 (trade name of tween-80) is a solubilizing excipient commonly used in TCM injections. Polysorbate 80 contains macromolecular impurities and the material basic research is not clear enough, and its quality problems need to be solved urgently. Based on this, the authors concluded that the macromolecular impurities in polysorbate 80 were the important material basis for the safety of TCM injections contained polysorbate 80. In this paper, the research progress of application of polysorbate 80 as a solubilizing excipient in TCM injections was reviewed and analyzed, so as to provide ideas for improving the safety of TCM injections contained polysorbate 80 and to promote the healthy development of TCM injections.
Keywords：polysorbate 80;traditional Chinese medicine injections;macromolecular impurities;safety;material basis;adverse reactions;quality control
Abstract：Syndrome is the basis and essence of the treatment according to syndrome differentiation theory in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), which comprehensively summarizes the overall reaction state of the organism under the influence of internal and external factors, and has subjective and qualitative characteristics. But the test indexes of modern medicine for diagnosing diseases have the objective and quantitative characteristics. The subjective and qualitative TCM syndromes can be quantitatively treated and combined with the objective and quantitative modern test indexes, this method provides a new idea for the modernization of syndrome differentiation system of TCM. In this paper, the prehypertension with syndrome of upper hyperactivity of liver Yang was taken as an example, a syndrome discriminant model was set up by using the technique of scale and metabonomics, and the feasibility of establishing macro-micro syndrome differentiation system of TCM was also discussed. This paper has important guiding significance for realizing the objectification of diagnosis of TCM syndrome and the standardization of the treatment according to syndrome differentiation theory of TCM.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine syndrome;syndrome differentiation system;scale;omics;macro-micro combination;indicators for syndrome diagnosis;partial least squares-discriminant analysis
Abstract：Objective:Based on the experience of famous doctors, the pattern of syndromes of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the distribution of syndrome elements are defined to provide a basis for guiding clinical practice and scientific research.Method:The name list of famous doctors was defined. Relevant literatures on famous doctors' diagnosis and treatment of BPH between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2018, were systematically retrieved in CNKI, CBM, CQVIP, Wanfang database. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, relevant literatures were read, and eligible literatures were included. A literature analysis database was established for analysis and integration of relevant content of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndromes and syndrome elements. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistics and analysis of BPH TCM syndrome types and distribution characteristics of syndrome elements.Result:This study included a total of 141 eligible documents, involving 92 famous doctors. Based on the doctors' overall discussion of BPH and medical case examples, common types of BPH syndrome included kidney deficiency and blood stasis syndrome, bladder dampness syndrome, kidney Yin deficiency syndrome, kidney Yang deficiency Syndrome, liver Qi stagnation syndrome, main symptom factors of disease location included kidney, bladder, spleen, lung, liver, and main symptom factors of disease nature included blood stasis, Qi deficiency, heat, yang deficiency, and dampness. The characteristics of the symptoms in the medical case were collected and summarized, including frequent urinary symptoms, frequent urination, urinary drip, urgency, nocturia, difficulty in urinating, the tongue is mainly light red, red, dark red, and sputum, the tongue coating is mainly yellow, thin white, thin yellow and white greasy, and the pulse is mainly composed of deep, fine, string and slipping.Conclusion:Based on the experience of famous doctors, the core pathogenesis of BPH is deficient in origin and excessive in superficiality, the kidney deficiency is the root cause, the dampness heat is the symptom, and the compound syndrome is common.
Keywords：prostatic hyperplasia;syndrome;syndrome elements;literature research
Abstract：Triptolide (TP) is a kind of epoxy diterpene lactone compound extracted from xylem of Tripterygium wilfordii (TWHF). It is one of the main active components of TWHF, with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities and pharmacological effect. It can be used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and such cancers as leukemia, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. In recent years, TP has been gradually applied in clinic and basic research, with a certain curative effect. But it also has certain side effect on digestive system, urinary system, reproductive system, circulatory system and immune system, including liver dysfunction, reduced fertility, chest tightness, heart palpitations, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, arrhythmia, kidney dysfunction, lymphoid organ atrophy, lymphoid tissue necrosis of lymphocytes, and reduction in the number of cells, impaired immune function. These toxic and side effect have greatly restricted the clinical application of TP. In the meantime, the researches and development related to preparations of TP have also been restricted, which has aroused wide attention from clinicians and researchers. To improve the therapeutic effect of TP and reduce the toxicity of TP in the process of application, domestic and foreign researchers have made a lot of studies and attempts, such as changing the chemical structure of TP to improve its solubility, developing drug delivery system to reduce its toxicity and using combination therapy with traditional Chinese herbal medicines to increase efficiency and reduce toxicity. In this paper, the toxic dose and mechanism of TP, TP's derivatives, drug loading system, compatibility and attenuation were integrated to provide ideas for further researches on toxicity and attenuation of TP.
Abstract：The processing of Aurantii Fructus has a long history and many methods. In addition to the current mainstream varieties of raw products and stir-fried products with bran of Aurantii Fructus, other 17 processing methods, such as stir-fried with rice, processed with salt, honey and medicinal juice, are recorded in the literature of past dynasties. Through a comprehensive review and sorting out of ancient and modern literature, this paper clarifies the historical evolution of the processing of Aurantii Fructus, through clarifying the historical evolution of processing and analyzing the present situation of modern research on Aurantii Fructus, summarizes the modern research progress on processing in production place, processing technology, chemical compositions and pharmacological effects before and after being processed, and puts forward some ideas for the follow-up research on processing of Aurantii Fructus, in order to provide reference for screening the dominant varieties, standardizing the processing technology, explaining the scientific connotation of processing, and improving the utilization ratio of medicinal resources of Aurantii Fructus.
Keywords：Aurantii Fructus;processing;historical evolution;processing technology;chemical composition;pharmacological effect;mechanism of action
Abstract：The blood-brain barrier is located between blood vessels and brain parenchyma and is a composite tissue composed of brain capillary endothelial cell, astrocyte end foot, pericyte, basement membrane and their tight connections.The blood-brain barrier acts as an important barrier between the blood-brain. It strictly restricts the exchange of blood and brain tissue. On the one hand, it allows the nutrients required by the brain tissue to enter the barrier. On the other hand, the substance that damages the brain tissue is restricted from entering the barrier to maintain the stability of the neuron microenvironment. The barrier function of the blood-brain barrier also limits the concentration of drugs that treat certain diseases into the brain or reduces the concentration of drugs into the brain, affecting the treatment of certain diseases.Studies have found that Chinese medicine has the effect of regulating the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. For example, Chinese herbal medicines such as Moschus, borneol, Styorax, and Benzoinum can increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, and can help its medicine into the brain. Its role is mainly related to the reduction of the blood-brain barrier tight junction, the inhibition of the blood-brain barrier transporter, and the inhibition of the active transport of ion channels.Orifice-opening medicinal such as borneol and Moschus can reduce the permeability of the blood-brain barrier.Certain tonifying and replenishing medicinal such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, and Paeoniae Radix Alba can also reduce the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to protect the blood-brain barrier and brain tissue.Its role is mainly related to the regulation of inflammatory reactions, increased expression of tight junction-associated proteins, and promotion of vascular endothelial proliferation.The two-way regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) may be the basis for the prevention and treatment of brain diseases by TCM.In this paper, we systematically sort out the relevant literatures on the study of the permeability of blood-brain barrier and its mechanism of action in Chinese medicine in recent years, and carry out in-depth combing and summary, in order to provide a scientific basis for the clinical application of TCM to prevent and treat brain diseases.
Keywords：tonifying and replenishing medicinal;orifice-opening medicinal;brain disease;regulation;blood brain barrier
Abstract：Ginsenoside Rh2 is a tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin monomer containing a dammarane-type skeleton, with advantages of low toxicity, low molecular weight, good fat solubility and strong anticancer effect, and is the main anticancer effective in ginseng. In recent years, there have been emerging findings on ginsenoside Rh2, indicating an obvious anticancer activity against a variety of cancers with a high morbidity and mortality. Particularly, ginsenoside Rh2 has a significant anti-hepatocarcinoma effect, so the studies on the mechanism of action have gradually been given attention. In this paper, we have reviewed more than 100 domestic and foreign relevant literatures in Chinese and English databases in the past 20 years, such as CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP Data, Pub Med, and conducted detailed collection, analysis and summary for the contents of the anti-hepatocarcinoma mechanism of ginsenoside Rh2. According to the findings, although there are many reports on the anti-hepatocarcinoma effect of ginsenoside Rh2, the mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rh2 against liver cancer has not been systematically elaborated. Therefore, this paper comprehensively discusses the anti-hepatocarcinoma effect of ginsenoside Rh2, clarifies that the mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rh2 against liver cancer may be related with the inhibition of the proliferation of hepatoma cells, the induction of differentiation of hepatoma cells, the promotion of apoptosis of hepatoma cells, the inhibition of invasion and metastasis of hepatoma cells, the reduction of drug resistance of liver cancer cells, and the improvement of immunity. For the first time, the mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rh2 against liver cancer was comprehensively summarized, which provided reference for researches on ginsenoside Rh2 against liver cancer, evidence and ideas for further researches on ginsenoside Rh2, new research directions for the treatment of liver cancer and new hope to patients with liver cancer.
Keywords：Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma;ginsenoside Rh2;liver cancer;mechanism of action;research progress
Abstract：The antibiotics have obvious antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, but their toxic side effect, secondary infection and bacterial resistance have become a global problem. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has always been the treasure of traditional culture and national characteristics in China since ancient times. It also has remarkable effect on inhibiting the growth of bacteria and killing pathogenic bacteria. The research on bacteriostatic experiment of TCM has gradually become a hot topic. Sensitivity experiments for such natural medicines have gradually become a research hotspot, but the complexity and particularity of natural medicines will vary with different methods. Therefore, different methods of drug sensitivity experiments should be matched with different natural drugs. By collecting and sorting out the relevant literature at home and abroad, this paper systematically summarizes the commonly used in vitro, in vivo and their combination bacteriostasis experimental methods of natural medicine activity, analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each method in the process of application, finds that different kinds of natural drugs have different applicable methods, and puts forward suggestions for the operation of each experimental method, in order to provide ideas for the selection of antibacterial susceptibility research experiments of natural medicines. It also provides a reliable reference method for solving the problem of antibiotic abuse and the development and utilization of natural medicines.
Keywords：drug resistance;natural medicines;traditional Chinese medicine;drug sensitivity;bacteriostasis test;in vitro and in vivo;antibiotics
Abstract：The physiology and pathology of the heart and kidney are interdependent and interact with each other, and dysfunction of any one of them causes dysfunction of the other, namely cardiorenal syndrome, in which type I and type Ⅱ have the highest incidence rate and are the commonest in clinic. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of treating the cardiorenal syndrome. It believes that the disease is located in the heart and kidney, and Wenyang Yiqi, Huoxue Lishui and other methods shall be adopted to effectively improve the heart and kidney function of patients. However, the pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome is complicated, and the clinical manifestations are diverse, which makes it difficult to diagnose and treat in the early stage, and causes missing of the best intervention timing and a poor prognosis. Biomarkers play a vital role in predicting the occurrence and development of cardiorenal syndrome. Therefore, efforts shall be made to look for biomarkers with better specificity and sensitivity, accurately evaluate physiological and pathological changes in heart and kidney, so as to achieve early diagnosis and early intervention of cardiorenal syndrome, and improve the effect of disease diagnosis and treatment. At present, domestic and foreign scholars have studied and applied more markers mainly in renal tubular injury, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1 and urinary interleukin-18. In addition, other studies have found cell cycle arrest inducing factors, such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7, tissue inhibitor metallo proteinase-2, and fibroblast growth factor 23 associated with mineral metabolism. The increase of the content of these biomarkers in the body is earlier than the rise of serum creatinine, which can better predict the occurrence of early cardiorenal syndrome, and has a high application value and research value. After summarization of the biomarkers relating to type I and Ⅱ cardiorenal syndrome in domestic and foreign literatures, the research progress of several representative markers were reviewed to provide reference for related research.
Abstract：Mori Cortex is the dry root bark of Moras alba L. and usually used in clinical practice. It is sweet and cold in nature, and enters the lung meridian. With effects in purging lung and relieving asthma, and inducing diuresis to reduce edema, it is mainly used to treat lung heat, asthma, cough, swelling, urine deficiency and facial skin edema. In clinic, it is mainly used for the treatment of respiratory system, urinary infection and diabetes mellitus. In recent years, great progress has been made in studies on the pharmacological effects of Mori Cortex. The literatures on the pharmacological effects of Mori Cortex in recent years were reviewed and summarized in this paper. Mori Cortex has antitussive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, cardiovascular, antiviral, anticancer, immunoregulatory, antioxidation and anti-allergy and other pharmacological effects, in addition to antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic and other traditional effects. Total flavones have a strong pharmacological activity. These extended studies provide valuable reference for the further development of Mori Cortex. This paper summarizes the pharmacological effects of Mori Cortex, proposes the key directions of further studies, and provides the beneficial reference for better development and utilization of Mori Cortex.