Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Gancao Fuzitang （GCFZ）in inhibiting the bone destruction of collagen-induced arthritis （CIA） model in mice.MethodThirty male DBa/1J mice were randomly divided into normal group， CIA group， low-dose GCFZ group （GCFZ-L， 2.4 g·kg-1）， high-dose GCFZ group （GCFZ-H， 4.8 g·kg-1）， and methotrexate group （MTX， 1 mg·kg-1）， with six mice in each group. The CIA model was induced by secondary immunization method. The arthritis index of mice in each group was observed and recorded， and the histopathological changes in ankle joint were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The damage to ankle cartilage was detected by safranin O-fast green staining. Micro-CT scanning was used to detect the bone destruction of ankle joint， and the expression of nuclear factor-κB p65 （NF-κB p65）， p-NF-κB p65， inhibitory-κB kinase α/β （IKKα/β）， and p-IKKα/β was observed by immunohistochemical staining.ResultCompared with the normal group， the CIA group showed manifest joint swelling and increased arthritis index score （P<0.01）. Compared with the CIA group， the groups with drug intervention could inhibit joint swelling and reduce arthritis index score （P<0.05， P<0.01）. As revealed by HE staining and safranine O-green staining， compared with the CIA group， the groups with drug intervention could inhibit synovial invasion and reduce the destruction of articular cartilage. Micro-CT scanning analysis showed that compared with the CIA group， the GCFZ-H group and the MTX group showed reduced bone destruction scores （P<0.01）. The immunohistochemical results showed that compared with the normal group， the CIA group showed increased optical density values of NF-κB p65， p-NF-κB p65， IKKα/β， and p-IKKα/β（P<0.01）. Compared with the CIA group， the GCFZ-H group and the MTX group showed reduced optical density values of NF-κB p65， p-NF-κB p65， IKKα/β， and p-IKKα/β（P<0.05，P<0.01）. In the GCFZ-L group， only the NF-κB p65 optical density value decreased（P<0.01）.ConclusionGCFZ may inhibit bone destruction in CIA mice by regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between Kansui Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in the Gansui Banxiatang based on cytochrome P450 （CYP450） enzyme and ascites rats.MethodA total of 150 Wistar rats were randomized into blank group （distilled water， ig）， model group （distilled water， ig）， Gansui Banxiatang group （5.68 g·kg-1·d-1， ig）， Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix group （5.57 g·kg-1·d-1， ig）， Gansui Banxiatang without Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group （4.01 g·kg-1·d-1， ig）， and Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix And Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group （3.90 g·kg-1·d-1， ig）， with 25 rats in each group. The Gansui Banxiatang was composed of 1.1 g Kansui Radix， 9 g Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum， 15 g Paeoniae Radix Alba， 16.7 g Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma praeparata cum melle， and 15 g honey. The rats， except for the blank group， were injected （ip） with Walker-256 cells to induce cancerous ascites. The administration lasted 7 days for each group. The concentration of probe drugs was detected by high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） and based on the metabolic rates of the drugs， the CYP450 enzyme activity was yielded. The CYP450 enzyme gene expression was determined by Real-time PCR， and CYP450 enzyme protein expression by Western blot.ResultCompared with the blank group， the model group showed high activity of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9， low activity of CYP2E1， CYP2C19， and CYP3A4， low mRNA expression of CYP2E1， CYP2C19， CYP2C9， and CYP3A4， and low protein expression of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， Gansui Banxiatang group displayed low activity of CYP2C9 and high expression of CYP3A4 mRNA （P<0.01）， and Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix group demonstrated low activity of CYP1A2， high activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4， high mRNA expression of CYP1A2， CYP2E1， CYP2C19， and CYP3A4， and high protein expression of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 （P<0.05）. In comparison with the model group， the Gansui Banxiatang without Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma group showed low activity of CYP2C9， high activity of CYP3A4， and high mRNA expression of CYP2E1 and CYP2C19 （P<0.05）， and Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma group had low activity of CYP2C9， high activity of CYP3A4， and high CYP3A4 mRNA expression （P<0.01）. The activity of CYP2E1， CYP2C9， and CYP3A4 was higher， and the mRNA expression of CYP1A2， CYP2C19， and CYP3A4 and CYP3A4 protein expression were higher in the Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix group than in the Gansui Banxiatang group （P<0.05）. The activity of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4， and CYP2C19 mRNA were higher and mRNA expression of CYP3A4 was lower in the Gansui Banxiatang without Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma group than in the Gansui Banxiatang group （P<0.05）. The activity of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in the Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group was higher than that in the Gansui Banxiatang group （P<0.01）.ConclusionThe four prescriptions all showed certain efficacy in the perspective of CYP450 enzyme， among which Gansui Banxiatang without Kansui Radix had the best effect and was better than Gansui Banxiatang. The Kansui Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma did not show antagonism in Gansui Banxiatang， but reduced the effect. Thus， in this study， the medicinal pair may show mutual inhibition.
Keywords：eighteen antagonisms;Gansui Banxiatang;KANSUI RADIX;Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma;cytochrome P450
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Naoxin'an capsule against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in brains of rats with vascular cognitive impairment （VCI） induced by chronic cerebral ischemia.MethodA total of 150 rats were randomized into modeling group （130 rats） and sham-operated group （20 rats） with the random number table method. The two-vessel occlusion （2-VO） was employed to induce VCI in rats， and finally 87 rats developed VCI. The VCI rats were classified into model group， positive drug group （Aricept， 0.5 mg·kg-1）， and low-， medium- and high-dose Naoxin'an capsule groups （0.18， 0.36， 0.72 g·kg-1， separately）， with 17-18 rats in each group. The administration lasted 8 weeks. The learning and working memory of VCI rats were assayed by novel object recognition test and Y-maze test. The 8-oxoguanine （8-OxoG） level was measured based on immunofluorescence staining. Spectrophotometry was performed to determine the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ， Ⅱ， Ⅲ， and Ⅳ， mitochondrial swelling， mitochondrial membrane potential （MMP）， and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase （PDH） and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase （KGDH）. The submicroscopic structure of mitochondria was observed with electron microscope. The phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein （CREB） and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α （PGC-1α）， nuclear respiratory factor 1 （NRF-1）， and mitochondrial transcription factor A （mt-TFA） were determined by Western blot. The mitochondrial status Ⅳ H2O2 generation， activity of cerebral superoxide dismutase （SOD） and glutathione peroxidase （GSH-Px）， and malondialdehyde （MDA） content were measured with the photochemical method.ResultCompared with the sham-operated group， model group showed decrease in new object discrimination index （P<0.01） and spontaneous alternation rate in the Y-maze test （P<0.01）， increase in ROS production in the brain （P<0.01）， reduction in MMP and mitochondrial swelling A value （P<0.01）， obvious mitochondrial swelling， vacuoles and cristae fractures in mitochondria， decrease in the level of phosphorylated CREB， expression of PGC-1α， NRF-1 and mt-TFA （P<0.01）， and activity of the respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ， Ⅱ， Ⅲ， and Ⅳ （P<0.01）， PDH and KGDH in the brain （P<0.01）， rise of the production of H2O2 at state IV （P<0.01） and the content of MDA （P<0.01）， and reduction in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， each dose of Naoxin'an capsules can improve the new object discrimination index （P<0.05， P<0.01） and the rate of spontaneous alternation （P<0.05， P<0.01）， decrease ROS production in the brain （P<0.01）， improve the MMP and swelling A value （P<0.05， P<0.01）， alleviate mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial submicroscopic damage， elevate the phosphorylated CREB level， the expression of PGC-1α， NRF-1 and mt-TFA （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅲ， and Ⅳ， PDH and KGDH （P<0.01）， decrease state Ⅳ H2O2 generation （P<0.01） and MDA content （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and raise the activity of SOD and GSH-Px （P<0.01）.ConclusionBy activating the CREB/PGC-1α pathway， Naoxin'an capsule can protect the structure and function of mitochondria， enhance the antioxidant capacity， and inhibit the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage induced by chronic cerebral ischemia， thus improving the VCI.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effect of aqueous extract of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma （STRR） on rheumatoid arthritis （RA） and to explore the anti-bone destruction mechanism based on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/serine/threonine-protein kinase （Akt） pathway.MethodHigh-performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） was used to determine the content of main active components in aqueous extract of STRR， and type Ⅱ collagen to induce RA （CIA） in mice. The blank group， model group， methotrexate （MTX） group （0.5 mg·kg-1）， and low-dose （100 mg·kg-1） and high-dose （200 mg·kg-1） STRR aqueous extract groups were designed. Joint swelling was observed and clinical scores of CIA mice were calculated. Pathological changes of mouse joints were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin （HE） staining， and Micro-CT was performed to monitor joint destruction. TRAP staining was used to observe osteoclast formation in mouse joint， and Western blot to detect the expression of key proteins in PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mouse joint tissue.ResultThe model group demonstrated higher degree of joint swelling， clinical scores of CIA， and degrees of synovial hyperplasia， inflammatory cell infiltration （P<0.01）， and joint destruction， more osteoclasts， and higher levels of matrix metallopeptidase-9 （MMP-9）， cathepsin K （CTSK）， nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 （NFATc1）， PI3K， and phosphorylated-Akt （p-Akt） proteins than the blank group （P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the low-dose and high-dose aqueous extract of STRR alleviated joint swelling， reduced the clinical scores of CIA mice （P<0.05， P<0.01）， relieved the pathological changes of joint tissue （P<0.01） and joint destruction， decreased osteoclasts （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and lowered the levels of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related proteins in joint tissue of mice （P<0.01）.ConclusionThe aqueous extract of STRR can significantly delay the inflammatory response of RA and especially inhibit bone destruction by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Keywords：aqueous extract of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma;rheumatoid arthritis;bone destruction;phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/serine/threonine-protein kinase （Akt） signaling pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of Yinxing Mihuan oral solution （YM） on neovascularization and vascular remodeling in chemical photothrombosis-induced focal cerebral ischemia model in mice.MethodFifty SPF C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into sham group， model group， ginaton group （12.5 mg·kg-1）， and low- （YM-L， 412 mg·kg-1） and high-dose （YM-H， 824 mg·kg-1） YM groups， with 10 mice in each group. The focal cerebral ischemia model was established by chemical photothrombosis method. Drugs in each group were administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days after operation. The modified neurological severity score （mNSS） and measurement of forelimb grasping were used to evaluate the neurologic impairment of mice. The vascular density of infarct border-zone （IBZ） was measured by fluorescein labelled dextran （FITC-dextran） method. The morphology of IBZ was evaluated and observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The expression of proteins related to neovascularization and vascular remodeling in brain tissues， including vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF）， platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 （CD31）， hypoxia-inducible factor-1α （HIF-1α）， von Willebrand factor （vWF）， and angiogenin （ANG）， was detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with the sham group， the model group showed manifest neurological deficits （P<0.01）， weakened forelimb grasping （P<0.01）， increased vascular density of IBZ （P<0.01）， and obvious pathological changes， such as neuronal necrosis and gliocyte proliferation. After treatment for 14 days， compared with the model group， the YM-H group showed improved neurological deficits （P<0.01）， and the YM-L group and the YM-H group showed strengthened forelimb grasping （P<0.01）. Moreover， the YM-L group displayed increased vascular density of IBZ （P<0.05）， reduced pathological damage， and up-regulated protein expression of CD31， ANG， HIF-1α， and vWF （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionYM could improve motor function and pathological morphological impairment in chemical photothrombosis-induced focal cerebral ischemia mouse model， and the underlying mechanism might be related to the promotion of neovascularization and vascular remodeling in IBZ.
Keywords：Yinxing Mihuan oral solution;chemical photothrombosis;focal cerebral ischemia;neovascularization and vascular remodeling
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the animal model of rheumatoid arthritis （RA） induced by inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis （Mtb） from inflammation， apoptosis and autophagy， compare the rat RA model of wind-damp-heat arthralgia （FSR） induced by Mtb with the rat RA model of adjuvant arthritis （AA）， and provide experimental evidence for improving the disease-syndrome combined model and developing drugs for the prevention and treatment of RA.MethodThirty 6-week-old SD rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups： a normal group， an AA group and a FSR group， with 10 rats in each group. The RA rat model was established by injection of Mtb suspension （1 mg/rat）， and the rats in the normal group were injected with the same volume of normal saline. The invention in the FSR group lasted for 16 days. The general conditions， body weight， spleen index， swelling of ankle joints， arthritis index （AI）， and the symptoms of arthritis in the hind feet of the rats in each group were observed and measured. The expression levels of serum interleukin-1β （IL-1β） and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）. The expressions of IL-1β， TNF-α， apoptosis-related protein B cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2） and Bcl-2 associated X protein （Bax）， autophagy-related protein 1 light chain 3 （LC3）， autophagy key molecule yeast Atg6 （Beclin1），and p62 mRNA expression levels were detected by Real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）. The protein expression levels of Bcl-2， Bax， LC3， Beclin1 and p62 were detected by Western blot.ResultCompared with those of the normal group， the rats of AA and FSR groups grew slowly and presented dull hair， soft or loose stool， slow movement， swelling of spleen， redness and swelling of ankle joints， increased AI， and histopathologic changes in the synovium and ankle joints. Moreover， the modeling elevated the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the serum， up-regulated the mRNA levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the synovium， up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2， LC3， Beclin1， and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of Bax and p62. Compared with the AA group， the FSR group showed severe symptoms， slowly increased body weight （P<0.01）， early appearance of obvious redness and swelling of ankle joints， increased AI （P<0.05）， increased spleen index （P<0.05）， and obvious pathologic changes of synovial tissue and ankle joints， the inflammatory infiltration in the synovial tissue， and the damage of joint structure. Moreover， the FSR group had higher expression levels of IL-1β， TNF-α， Bcl-2， LC3， and Beclin1 （P<0.05） and lower expression levels of Bax and p62 than the AA group （P<0.05）.ConclusionThe animal model of RA （syndrome of wind-damp-heat arthralgia） can be induced successfully with the symptoms consistent with clinical manifestations of RA. The FSR group has lower apoptosis level and higher autophagy level than the AA group， which indicates that the FSR group is more appropriate for the research on the RA with the syndrome of wind-damp-heat arthralgia.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the mechanism of Shenling Guchang prescription on blood glucose of gestational diabetes mellitus rats by regulating intestinal flora and short chain fatty acids.MethodThe 30 pregnant rats were randomly selected from 36 pregnant rats which were successfully pregnant. The model rats were fed with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 1 week， and 35 mg·kg-1 streptozotocin （ STZ ） was given for 3 consecutive days to construct a gestational diabetes model. After successful modeling， the rats were randomly divided into model group， metformin group， Shenling Guchang prescription low-， medium- and high-dose group. The high dose group of Shenling Guchang prescription was given 18 mg·kg-1， the middle dose group was given 9 mg·kg-1， the low dose group was given 4.5 mg·kg-1 drug solution by gavage， the metformin group was given 52.5 mg·kg-1 drug solution by gavage， the blank group and the model group were given equal volume of normal saline by gavage.At 24 h after the last administration， blood samples were collected from the tail tip of the rats to measure the blood glucose， and blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta under anesthesia to measure the levels of triglyceride （TG）， total cholesterol （TC）， high density lipoprotein cholesterol （HDL-C） and low density lipoprotein cholesterol （LDL-C）. Lipopolysaccharides （LPS）， interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） and insulin （INS） were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）.The intestinal tissue of rats was taken， and the pathological changes of intestinal tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. Fecal samples were collected from rats， 16S rRNA sequencing was used to detect intestinal flora， and short-chain fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography.ResultCompared with the blank group， the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the model group was significantly increased （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Shenling Guchang prescription groups and the metformin group was significantly decreased （P<0.05）. Compared with the blank group， the levels of blood glucose， TG， TC， HDL-C， LDL-C， LPS， IL-1β， IL-6 and TNF-α in the model group were significantly increased （P<0.05）， and the intestinal tissues had different degrees of inflammatory changes and mucosal damage. Compared with the model group， the levels of blood glucose， TG， TC， HDL-C， LDL-C， LPS， IL-1β， IL-6 and TNF-α in each group of Shenling Guchang prescription and metformin group were down-regulated （P<0.05）， and intestinal inflammation and intestinal mucosal damage were improved. Compared with the blank group， the functional structure and diversity of intestinal flora in the model group changed （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， the functional structure and diversity of intestinal flora in the Shenling Guchang prescription groups and the metformin group were reversed， and the trend was close to the blank group （P<0.05）.Compared with the blank group， the abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli， Enterococcus， Klebsiella， and Dustella in the model group was significantly increased， and the abundance of probiotics such as Prevotella， Prevotella， Akmania， Rombustella， and Lachnospiraceae was decreased （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， the abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli， Enterococcus， Klebsiella， and Dustella was decreased （P<0.05）， and the abundance of probiotic bacteria such as Prevotella， Akmanella， Rombustella， and Lachnospira was increased （P<0.05） in the Shenling Guchang prescription groups and the metformin group. Compared with the blank group， the content of short-chain fatty acids in the model group was significantly decreased （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， the content of short-chain fatty acids in each group of Shenling Guchang prescription and metformin group increased （P<0.05）. Correlation analysis showed that Proteobacteria was positively correlated with inflammatory factors， blood glucose and blood lipid in gestational diabetes mellitus （P<0.05）.ConclusionShenling Guchang prescription has a good regulatory effect on blood glucose， blood lipids and adverse pregnancy outcomes in rats with gestational diabetes mellitus. Its efficacy is comparable to that of metformin sustained-release tablets. Its mechanism may be related to regulating the structure of intestinal flora， increasing the content of short-chain fatty acids， reducing LPS， IL-1β， IL-6， TNF-α， and improving intestinal inflammation.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effect of tetramethylpyrazine （TMP） on the vascular mimicry （VM） of non-small cell lung cancer A549 stem cell-like cells （CSLCs） in hypoxic state， and on the expression of hepatocyte growth factor （HGF）/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor （c-Met）.MethodSerum-free sphere culture method was used to separate and enrich A549 CSLCs， and flow cytometry to detect the expression of stem cell marker CD44+/CD24-/low. CoCl2 was employed to induce hypoxia model. Cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） assay was employed to examine the influence of 100， 200， 400， 800， 1 600， and 3 200 μmol·L-1 TMP on the viability of A549 CSLCs. The low， medium， and high concentration （100， 200， 400 μmol·L-1） of TMP that did not significantly affect the viability of A549 CSLCs was selected for subsequent experiments. Tube formation assay was used to detect the effect of different concentration of TMP on the formation of A549 CSLCs VM under hypoxia condition， and Western blot was applied to measure the expression of HGF/c-Met.ResultThe CD44+/CD24-/low expression ratio of the isolated and enriched CSLCs was （80.3±0.21）%， which was significantly higher than that of the A549 group （P<0.01）. Compared with the control group， TMP groups showed increase in the inhibition rate of CSLCs， particularly the 24 h TMP （800， 3 200 μmol·L-1） groups and the 48 h TMP （1 600， 3 200 μmol·L-1） groups （P<0.05）. Compared with blank group and Bevacizumab （Bev） group， each concentration of TMP decreased the number of tubes formed and intersections （P<0.01）. The number of tubes formed and intersections decreased in TMP groups compared with that in the SU11274 group， particularly the 200 μmol·L-1 TMP group （P<0.05） and 400 μmol·L-1 TMP group （P<0.01）. Levels of HGF and c-Met in all TMP groups were down-regulated compared with those in the blank group （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionTMP can inhibit the formation of VM in A549 CSLCs in vitro under hypoxia condition which may act by regulating HGF/c-Met related signaling pathways.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the effects of matrine derivative C4 on migration， invasion and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting heat shock protein 90.MethodMolecular docking and Western blot were used to detect the regulation of matrine derivative C4 （0， 1， 2， 4， 8 μmol·L-1） on heat shock protein 90 （Hsp90）. methyl thiazolyl-tetrazolium （MTT） assay was conducted to observe the effects of C4 （0， 0.25， 0.5， 1， 2， 4， 8， 16 μmol·L-1） on viability of A549 cells. The impacts of different concentrations of C4 （0， 2， 4， 8 μmol·L-1） on the proliferation， migration， invasion and apoptosis of A549 cells were explored by clone formation assay， wound healing assay， Transwell assay， and flow cytometry， respectively. Western blot was employed to detect the effects of C4 （0， 1， 2， 4， 8 μmol·L-1） on the protein expression of A549 protein kinase B （Akt）， phosphorylated protein kinase B （p-Akt）， epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR）， phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase （PI3K）， p-PI3K， cysteine aspartate protease 9 （Caspase-9）， B-cell lymphoma 2 （Bcl-2）-associated X （Bax）， Bcl-2， and Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death （Bad）.ResultMatrine derivative C4 could effectively interact with Hsp90 protein through a water-mediated hydrogen bond network with residues of asparagine-51 （ASN-51）， glycine-135 （GLY-135）， and phenylalanine-138 （PHE-138）， and the π-π stacking interaction with the phenyl ring of PHE-138 contributed to its affinity. In addition， compared with blank group， C4 down-regulated the protein expression of Hsp90 in A549 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and reduced the cell viability （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations （IC50） of C4 on A549 cells were （12.32±0.14）， （7.79±0.16） and （3.26±0.09） μmol·L-1 at 24， 48 and 72 h， respectively. Compared with the conditions in the blank group， the clone formation ability of A549 cells in C4 （2， 4， 8 μmol·L-1） groups was decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01） in a concentration-dependent manner， and C4 inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells （P<0.05， P<0.01）， with the most significant inhibition observed at 8 μmol·L-1 （P<0.01）. Moreover， C4 induced apoptosis of A549 cells （P<0.01）， and the apoptosis rates at 0， 2， 4 and 8 μmol·L-1 were （2.28±0.35）%， （4.97±0.36）%， （8.86±0.50）% and （20.67±0.99）%， respectively. It also up-regulated the protein expression of Caspase-9， Bax and Bad （P<0.05， P<0.01）， while down-regulated those of PI3K， p-PI3K， p-Akt， EGFR and Bcl-2 to varying degrees （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the protein expression level of Akt did not change significantly.ConclusionMatrine derivative C4 played an anti-tumor role by inhibiting cell viability， proliferation， migration and invasion and promoting apoptosis response， which might be realized by inhibiting Hsp90/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Keywords：matrine;matrine derivatives C4;non-small cell lung cancer;heat shock protein 90 （Hsp90）;phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase （PI3K）/ protein kinase B（Akt） signaling pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Chenpi Huoxiangtang against diarrhea based on network pharmacology and experimental verification.MethodThe active components and targets of Chenpi Huoxiangtang were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP）， and targets related to diarrhea from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man （OMIM）. Thereby， the common targets were screened out. The component-target-disease network and protein-protein interaction （PPI） network were constructed with Cytoscape 3.7.1 and STRING. Bioconductor and R language were employed for gene ontology （GO） term enrichment and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes （KEGG） pathway enrichment of core targets， and AutoDockTools 1.5.6 and AutoDockVina 1.1.2 for molecular docking. Finally， animal experiment was carried out for verification.ResultA total of 51 active components 226 targets of Chenpi Huoxiangtang and 37 common targets of the medicine and the disease were screened out. The core targets were involved in 1 249 GO terms （P<0.05） and 110 KEGG pathways （P<0.05）， mainly the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）， Janus kinase （JAK）/signal transducer and activator of transcription （STAT）， hypoxia inducible factor （HIF）-1， and mitogen-activated protein kinase （MAPK） pathways. Molecular docking suggested that hesperidin and Akt1 showed the highest binding affinity. Animal experiment demonstrated that Chenpi Huoxiangtang significantly alleviated the diarrhea symptoms. The diarrhea index on the first day of administration decreased to 0.92， which was statistically different from that （1.24） of the model group （P<0.05）. The intestinal ink propulsion rate was 70.36%， higher than that （58.20%） in the model group （P<0.01）. Moreover， intestinal peristalsis was improved by the decoction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） indicated the decrease in the levels of interleukin-6 （IL-6） and interleukin-1β （IL-1β） （P<0.05） and increase in the levels of Akt1， epidermal growth factor （EGF）， and epidermal growth factor receptor （EGFR） （P<0.05）.ConclusionThe active components of Chenpi Huoxiangtang mainly regulate PI3K/Akt， MAPK， and other signaling pathways through Akt1， IL-6， IL-1β， EGF， EGFR， and other core targets， thereby relieving diarrhea. This study is expected to lay a basis for the research on the pharmacological mechanism of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Pogostemonis Herba combination and the scientific connotation of their compatibility.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the improvement and mechanism of the water extract of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos （FL） on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis （NASH）.MethodC57BL/6 mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient （MCD） diet for 6 weeks. From the 3rd week， the mice were continuously orally given with FL （0.2 and 0.4 g·kg-1） until the end of the experiment. Serum alanine aminotransferase （ALT） and aspartate aminotransferase （AST） activities of mice were detected， and the liver pathology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin （HE） staining. The content of triglyceride （TG） and non-esterified fatty acids （NEFA）， and the activity of myeloperoxidase （MPO） in the liver tissue were determined. Hepatic collagen deposition was observed by Sirius Red and Masson staining assays， and the hepatic hydroxyproline （HYP） content was measured. Network pharmacology combined with following experimental verifications were used to analyze the potential mechanism of FL in the improvement of NASH. Real time polymerase Chain reaction （Real-time PCR） was used to detect hepatic mRNA expression of inflammation-related factors and fibrosis-related factors. The release of heat shock protein （HSP60） in the serum and α-smooth muscle actin （α-SMA） in the liver were detected by Western blot.ResultFL （0.2 and 0.4 g·kg-1） reduced serum ALT and AST， hepatic MPO activity， and HYP content in the MCD-induced NASH mice. The results of network pharmacology suggested that FL presumably improved NASH by influencing biological processes related to extracellular matrix and inflammation， and signal pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-B （NF-κB）， hypoxia inducible factor-1α （HIF-1α）， and heat shock proteins were possibly involved. FL （0.2 and 0.4 g·kg-1） reduced the increase of mRNA expression of inflammation-related and fibrosis-related factors， and FL （0.4 g·kg-1） decreased the release of HSP60 in serum and reduced the protein expression of α-SMA in liver.ConclusionFL improves NASH by reducing inflammation， decreasing collagen deposition， and inhibiting HSC activation.
Keywords：water extract of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos （FL）;nonalcoholic steatohepatitis （NASH）;collagen deposition;inflammation
Abstract：The present study reviewed the relevant research on Gandouling tablets，a Xin'an special preparation for the treatment of hepatolenticular degeneration ［also known as Wilson's disease （WD）］ to provide a basis for the further development and research on Gandouling tablets. The research articles on Gandouling tablets in China and abroad were retrieved from China national knowledge infrastructure（CNKI）， and the clinical application and action mechanism of Gandouling tablets were collected. The results indicated that Gandouling tablets could improve liver function，cellular immune function，cognitive and memory impairment，and depression in patients with WD， effectively reduce Hamilton e-24 （HDRS-24） score，and promote the recovery of neurological function and renal function in patients with WD. The efficacy of Gandouling tablets in improving depression symptoms may be achieved by increasing serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine （5-HT），interleukin-10 （IL-10），macrophage migration inhibitory factor （MIF），etc. The pathogenesis of WD complicated with depression was related to the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters，the regulation of neural plasticity， and immune inflammatory response. Gandouling tablets have the effects of clearing heat，removing toxins， resolving blood stasis，softening hardness， promoting bile secretion， and expelling copper， and can effectively improve the neurological function， liver and kidney function， cognitive and memory impairment and other symptoms of patients with hepatolenticular degeneration.
Keywords：hepatolenticular degeneration;Xin'an special preparation;Gandouling tablets;mechanism
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the characteristics of eye collaterals of patients with hepatic Wilson's disease （WD） and intervention effect of Gandouling （GDL） based on digital diagnosis information on eyes， in order to provide references for the clinical efficacy of GDL in the treatment of patients with hepatic WD.MethodEighty-two patients with hepatic WD （WD group） and 68 healthy volunteers （normal control group， NC） were enrolled. Eye images of all subjects were collected by the ophthalmoscope， followed by digital extraction of eye collateral characteristics. Differences in main eye collateral characteristics between the WD group and the NC group were analyzed. Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the eye collateral characteristics， serological indexes of liver damage ［alanine aminotransferase （ALT），aspartate transaminase （AST），and albumin （ALB）］， and Child-Pugh score in patients with hepatic WD. The 82 patients with hepatic WD were divided into a treatment group （42 cases） and a control group （40 cases）. All patients were treated with sodium 2，3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate （DMPS）， while those in the treatment group received additional GDL Tablets. One course of treatment contained eight days， and the treatment lasted six courses. The effects of GDL intervention on the levels of ALT，AST， and ALB，as well as the eye collateral characteristics score and Child-Pugh score were evaluated.Result① Compared with the NC group，the WD group had higher scores of "Qiu" （P<0.05） and "Xuemai" （P<0.05），which are the characteristics of eye collaterals. ② The levels of ALT and AST， and Child-Pugh score in patients with hepatic WD were positively correlated with the scores of "Qiu" and "vessel"，while the ALB level was negatively correlated with the "bulge" and "Xuemai" scores. ③ Compared with the conditions before treatment，the serum ALT and AST levels，Child-Pugh score，and the "Qiu" and " Xuemai " scores of the two groups were reduced （P<0.01），and the ALB levels were increased （P<0.01）. ④ Compared with the control group after treatment，the treatment group showed improved levels of ALT and ALB and the scores of "Qiu" and "Xuemai" （P<0.05）and better Child-Pugh score （P<0.01）. There was no significant difference in AST between the two groups.ConclusionCompared with healthy people，hepatic WD patients showed higher scores of "Qiu" and "Xuemai"， indicating that patients with hepatic WD were mainly characterized by dampness and heat，and the scores of "Qiu" and "Xuemai" were positively correlated with the severity of liver damage. Meanwhile，copper-expelling therapy combined with GDL can significantly improve the liver function of WD patients and improve the clinical efficacy.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between homocysteine （Hcy） and traditional Chinese medicine（TCM）syndromes in patients with hepatolenticular degeneration ［also known as Wilson's disease（WD）］.MethodA total of 356 patients with WD who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled and assigned to the WD group， while 100 healthy people were included as healthy controls. All participants underwent serum Hcy level measurement and the analysis of gender and age. Furthermore，all patients in the WD group were assessed by global assessment scale （GAS） and Barthel scale/index （BI）. The correlation between GAS and BI scores and the serum Hcy levels of patients in the WD group was analyzed.ResultThe serum Hcy levels in the WD group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group，（P<0.01）. The differences between different types of TCM syndromes were significant （P<0.05，P<0.01），which were ranked as follows：Dampness-heat internal accumulation syndrome，phlegm-stasis combination syndrome，and Yin deficiency in liver and kidney syndrome. The correlation analysis revealed that serum Hcy levels in WD patients were positively correlated with GAS scores （P<0.01）， while negatively correlated with BI scores （P<0.01）. The analysis of variance indicated remarkable gender difference in the WD group （P<0.01），with higher overall serum Hcy levels in men than in women，while there were no marked differences in the results between age and serum Hcy levels.ConclusionThe serum Hcy level closely correlates with WD，showing significant differences among different TCM syndromes of WD，and the level changes can reflect different TCM syndromes and clinical conditions. Therefore，the detection of Hcy level can be used as a reference to identify the type of TCM syndrome of WD and assess the condition and the prognosis.
Keywords：hepatolenticular degeneration;Wilson's disease;homocysteine;traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndrome;correlation
Abstract：ObjectiveTo summarize and compare the main traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndromes of Delta and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 （SARS-CoV-2） carriers to provide references for the syndrome evolution and syndrome differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodThe TCM medical records of imported and local cases of infection with Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Changsha since September 23， 2021 to March 27， 2022 were collected， including 18 Delta variant cases and 36 Omicron variant cases. Their TCM diagnosis information and TCM pathogenesis were analyzed and compared.ResultThe common manifestations in Delta variant cases were cough， fever， chest distress/shortness of breath， sore muscles， nausea， dry mouth， dry or sore throat， thick and greasy tongue coating， and rapid and slippery pulse. The predominant pathogenesis was dampness-heat in the upper-energizer and heat stagnation in the lesser Yang combined with dampness. The occurrence of chest distress/shortness of breath， greasy tongue coating， slippery pulse， and the proportion of dampness-heat in the upper-energizer syndrome were higher in Delta variant cases than in Omicron variant cases （P<0.05）. The common manifestations in Omicron variant cases were itchy and sore throat， nasal congestion， running nose， fever， mild aversion to cold， dry mouth， dizziness， slightly reddish tongue with thin white coating， and rapid or wiry pulse. The predominant pathogenesis was wind-dryness invading defensive exterior， and heat stagnation in the lesser Yang. The occurrence of white-coated tongue and the proportion of wind-dryness invading defensive exterior syndrome were higher in Omicron variant cases than in Delta variant cases （P<0.05）.ConclusionThere are certain differences in TCM syndromes and the corresponding pathogenesis between Delta variant and Omicron variant cases in Changsha， Hunan. The Delta variant of SARS-COV-2 tends to induce dampness-heat syndrome， whereas Omicron variant infection tends to elicit wind-dampness syndrome， which is expected to provide a reference for the pathogenesis evolution of SARS-COV-2 infection.
Keywords：severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 （SARS-CoV-2）;Omicron variant;Delta variant;traditional Chinese medicine pathogenesis;syndrome
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical effect of Danshenyin on chronic atrophic gastritis and explore the mechanism.MethodA total of 152 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis who were treated in Xining No. 1 People's Hospital were selected and randomized into control group （76 cases） and observation group （76 cases）. The control group was given conventional western medicine treatment， and the observation group was given Danshenyin （oral）. The treatment lasted 8 weeks for both groups. The clinical effect， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndrome score， and pathological score of gastric mucosa were compared between two groups. The content of pepsinogenⅠ （PGⅠ）， pepsinogenⅡ （PGⅡ）， proinflammatory cytokines ［soluble interleukin-2 receptor （sIL-2R）， tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）］， and gastric mucosa-proteting factors ［prostaglandin E2 （PGE2）， calcitonin gene-related peptide （CGRP）］ was determined， and the adverse reactions and recurrence rates were recorded.ResultThe effective rate （91.18%， 62/68） in the observation group was higher than that （7.61%， 52/67） in the control group （χ2=4.727， P<0.05）. The TCM syndrome score in the observation group was lower than that in the control group （P<0.05）. Compared with the control group， the observation group showed low pathological scores of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia （P<0.05）. The observation group had higher serum PGⅠ content and PGⅠ/PGⅡ value and lower PGⅡ content than the control group （P<0.05）. The content of sIL-2R and TNF-α decreased （P<0.05） and that of PGE2 and CGRP increased （P<0.05） in the observation group as compared with those in the control group. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was 7.35% （5/68）， as compared with the 14.93% （10/67） in the control group. The recurrence rates in the 6-month and 12-month follow-up in the observation group were lower than those in the control group， but the difference was not statistically significant （Fisher's exact test）.ConclusionDanshenyin shows satisfactory effect in relieving TCM syndrome， regulating PG secretion， and improving gastric mucosal lesions in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis. The mechanism is the likelihood that it modulates sIL-2R， TNF-α， PGE2， and CGRP to alleviate inflammatory damage of gastric mucosa and protect gastric mucosa. The medicine is safe and reduces the recurrence of chronic atrophic gastritis.
Keywords：chronic atrophic gastritis;syndrome of stasis in stomach collateral;Danshenyin;collateral disease theory
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the changes of dry matter accumulation， mineral element absorption and medicinal component accumulation in Belamcanda chinensis and to provide a theoretical basis for fertilization in the standardized cultivation of B. chinensis.MethodDuring the two-year growth period of B. chinensis， the samples were collected at 30-day intervals from day 90 after sowing for the measurement of dry matter accumulation and mineral element content in different organs as well as the flavonoid content in the rhizome.ResultAccording to the accumulation of dry matter in different organs， the two-year growth period of B. chinensis was divided into seven stages： seedling stage （before July in the first year）， first-year vegetative growth stage （August to October in the first year）， first-year late growth stage （November to January of the second year）， re-growth stage （February to March in the second year）， second-year vegetative growth stage （April to May in the second year）， reproductive growth stage （June to October in the second year）， second-year late growth stage （November of the second year to January of the third year）. During the whole growth period， the late growth stage of each year witnessed the expansion of the rhizome， and the accumulation of dry matter of the whole plant peaked after the reproductive growth stage. The content of flavonoids in the rhizome varied greatly among different stages. Specifically， the content of mangiferin， tectorigenin and irigenin was higher in the second-year vegetative growth stage， and that of tectoridin and iridin was higher in the first-year late growth stage and the second-year late growth stage. The content of irisflorentin was higher in the second-year vegetative growth stage and the second-year late growth stage than that in other stages. The total content of six flavonoids peaked in the second-year vegetative growth stage （April in the second year）. The correlation analysis showed that all the nine mineral elements had different degrees of positive correlations with tectorigenin， irigenin and irisflorentin.ConclusionIn the first year， B. chinensis presents slow dry matter accumulation and low demand for fertilizer， so the application of base fertilizer can be reduced. In the second year， especially after the reproductive growth， B. chinensis demands high fertilizer， so nitrogen， phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and other micronutrients should be applied as early as possible. In addition， the rhizome expands in October to November of the first year and November to December of the second year， when the supply of nitrogen and potassium to the rhizome should be ensured or beneficial elements should be supplemented to improve the quality of B. chinensis.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of different nitrogen application rates on the growth， yield and quality of Belamcanda chinensis and to provide a theoretical basis for the quality and production efficiency improvement of B. chinensis.MethodA field experiment was carried out on the basis of 120 kg·hm-2 phosphate and potassium fertilizers， with five nitrogen fertilizer treatments： 0 （N0）， 60 （N60）， 120 （N120）， 180 （N180） and 240 （N240） kg·hm-2. The effects of different nitrogen application rates on the agronomic traits， yield， mineral element accumulation and flavonoid content of B. chinensis were studied.ResultApplication of nitrogen fertilizer was beneficial to dry matter accumulation and significantly increased the yield of rhizome. After the application of nitrogen fertilizer， the yield of rhizome increased by 48.75%-86.62%. The nitrogen application at 60-180 kg·hm-2 increased the active components such as tectoridin， iridin and irisflorentin， while it was not conducive to the accumulation of tectorigenin and irigenin in the rhizome. The accumulation of Mn and Fe reached the highest when the nitrogen application rate was 120 and 60 kg·hm-2， respectively. The principal component analysis of active component content showed that the comprehensive score was ranked as N180>N120>N60>N240>N0. The correlation analysis indicated that the tectoridin content had a positive correlation with N accumulation and a negative correlation with Ca accumulation in B. chinensis. The content of tectorigenin was negatively correlated with N accumulation and positively correlated with Ca accumulation. The content of irigenin had positive correlations with Ca and Zn accumulation.ConclusionThe nitrogen application at 120-180 kg·hm-2 can increase the rhizome yield and the content of tectoridin， iridin and irisflorentin in the rhizome， so as to improve the yield and quality of this herb.
Keywords：Belamcanda chinensis;nitrogen fertilizer;yield;flavonoids;mineral elements
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of different potassium application rates on the growth， yield and quality of two-year-old Belamcanda chinensis and to provide a basis for potassium application to achieve high yield and quality of B. chinensis.MethodOn the basis of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization at 120 kg·hm-2， we designed five potassium treatments of 0 （K0）， 60 （K60）， 120 （K120）， 180 （K180） and 240 （K240） kg·hm-2 in a field experiment to study the effects of different potassium application rates on the agronomic traits， rhizome yield， flavonoid content and potassium fertilizer utilization efficiency of the two-year-old B. chinensis.ResultThe application of potassium fertilizer promoted the root development and tillering， which significantly improved the yield of B. chinensis. Compared with the K0 treatment， the other potassium treatments increased the rhizome yield by 16.0%-44.0% and K180 had the highest yield. The application of potassium fertilizer increased the accumulation of flavonoids in the rhizomes of B. chinensis. The total accumulation of six flavonoids （mangiferin， tectoridin， iridin， tectorigenin， irigenin and irisflorentin） increased by 33.2% in the K120 treatment compared with that in the K0 treatment. Furthermore， the application of potassium fertilizer promoted the accumulation of N， K， Mg， Fe and Zn. With the increase in potassium application rate， the potassium accumulation of B. chinensis first increased and then decreased， while the partial productivity and the absorptivity of roots and leaves gradually decreased. The agronomic efficiency of potassium fertilizer was higher at low to medium potassium application rates and decreased significantly at high potassium application rates. The results of the principal component analysis indicated that the ranking of the overall quality score of B. chinensis was K120>K180>K240>K60>K0.ConclusionConsidering factors such as yield， quality and potassium utilization efficiency of two-year-old B. chinensis， the potassium application at 120-166 kg·hm-2 is recommended for the production of B. chinensis in Tuanfeng County.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of the combined application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer at different ratios on the growth， yield and quality of two-year-old Belamcanda chinensis and provide a scientific basis for fertilization to achieve high yield and quality of this medicinal plant.MethodIn a field plot experiment， we designed five fertilization patterns with organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer at different ratios： OM0 （pure chemical fertilizer）， OM1 （30% organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizer， application of organic fertilizer at 2 567 kg·hm-2）， OM2 （50% organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizer， application of organic fertilizer at 4 283 kg·hm-2）， OM3 （70% organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizer， application of organic fertilizer at 6 000 kg·hm-2）， and OM4 （pure organic fertilizer， 8 567 kg·hm-2）. The effect of different fertilization patterns on the agronomic properties， herb yield， flavonoid content， mineral element content， and fertilizer utilization rate of B. chinensis were determined.ResultThe combined application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer at an appropriate ratio increased the leaf width and promoted tillering， thereby improving the yield of B. chinensis. The yield of OM1 and OM2 groups increased by 6.65% and 13.10%， respectively， compared with that of OM0 group， while too high a proportion of organic fertilizer led to a decrease in yield. With organic fertilizer application， the content of mangiferin， tectoridin， iridin， tectorigenin， irigenin， and irisflorentin in the rhizomes of B. chinensis increased. Moreover， a certain proportion of organic fertilizer facilitated the accumulation of functional elements such as K， Fe and Cu. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the overall quality of B. chinensis was ranked in the order of OM3 > OM2 > OM1 > OM4 > OM0. The OM2 group had the maximum accumulation of N， P and K and the maximum partial factor productivity of fertilizer.ConclusionAccording to the agronomic traits， yield， quality indexes and fertilizer utilization rate of B. chinensis under different fertilization patterns， we recommended to apply 4 283 kg·hm-2 organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer to the production of two-year-old B. chinensis， so as to improve the quality and yield of B. chinensis.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of different phosphorus application rates on the growth， yield and quality of two-year-old Belamcanda chinensis and provide a basis for phosphorus application in the high-quality and high-yielding cultivation of B. chinensis.MethodIn this study， we designed five phosphorus application rates of 0 （P0）， 60 （P60）， 120 （P120）， 180 （P180） and 240 （P240） kg·hm-2 on the basis of 120 kg·hm-2 nitrogen and potassium fertilizers to investigate the effects of different phosphorus levels on the agronomic traits， yield， mineral content， flavonoid content and phosphorus utilization efficiency of B. chinensis through field experiments.ResultThe plant height and tillering number of B. chinensis gradually increased after phosphorus fertilization. The phosphorus application increased the rhizome yield by 37.59%-61.03% compared with P0 treatment and the highest yield was achieved when phosphorus fertilizer was applied at 120 kg·hm-2. The content of mangiferin and irisflorentin in the rhizomes gradually increased with the increase in phosphorus application and the moderate application of phosphorus fertilizer increased the content of tectoridin， iridin and irigenin. The highest Mn， Cu and Fe elements were achieved at 60 and 120 kg·hm-2 of phosphorus fertilization， respectively. The overall quality scores of B. chinensis were ranked in the order of P240>P180>P120>P60>P0. With the increase in phosphorus application， the phosphorus accumulation of B. chinensis first increased and then decreased， and the partial factor productivity， apparent utilization rate and agronomic efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer gradually decreased.ConclusionConsidering the yield， quality and phosphorus utilization efficiency of B. chinensis， it is recommended to apply phosphorus fertilizer at about 120 kg·hm-2 in the production of B. chinensis in Tuanfeng county.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo quickly analyze and identify the components in raw and rice-washed water products of Atractylodes lancea rhizoma （ALD） by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS）， and then find out the differential components before and after processing.MethodTitanK C18 column （2.1 mm×100 mm， 1.8 μm） was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution （A）-acetonitrile （B） for gradient elution （0-0.01 min， 10%B； 0.01-12 min， 10%-25%B； 12-18 min， 25%-55%B； 18-30 min， 55%-70%B； 30-35 min， 70%-95%B； 35-37 min， 95%B； 37-37.1 min， 95%-10%B under negative ion mode and 0-0.01 min， 10%B； 0.01-10 min， 10%-56%B； 10-30 min， 56%-75%B； 30-35 min， 75%-95%B； 35-37 min， 95%B； 37-37.1 min， 95%-10%B under positive ion mode）. Electrospray ionization was selected for collection and detection in positive and negative ion modes with the scanning range of m/z 100-1 250. Combining the reference substances， databases and related literature information， PeakView 1.2 software was used to identify the chemical components of ALD and its rice-washed water products. After normalized treatment by MarkerView™ 1.2.1， the MS data of each sample were analyzed with principal component analysis （PCA） and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis （OPLS-DA） in SICMA 14.1， and then the differential components before and after processing were screened according to the principle of variable importance in the projection （VIP） value>1 and P<0.01 in t-test.ResultA total of 56 components were identified from the raw and rice-washed water products of ALD， including 17 terpenoids， 8 polyacetylenes， 12 organic acids， 4 glycosides， 4 flavonoids and 11 others. There were 43 components in both， and 7 and 6 specific components respectively. The results of PCA and OPLS-DA showed that there were significant differences in the contents of the chemical components of ALD before and after processing， and 23 differential components such as atractylodin， atractylenolide Ⅰ， atractylenolide Ⅱ and wogonin were screened.ConclusionALD mainly contains sesquiterpenoids， polyacetylenes and organic acids. The components of ALD are hydrolyzed before and after processing， and the content of active ingredients such as atractylodin increased. According to this， it can provide reference for the research on material basis of processing of ALD.
Keywords：Atractylodes lancea rhizoma;processing of traditional Chinese medicine;chemical compositions;rice-washed water;atractylodin;atractylenolide;ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo compare the consistency and difference between the integrated decoction pieces （IDP） and traditional decoction pieces （TDP） of Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine （PRPZA） in the component content and pharmacological effect， so as to explain the rationality of the integrated production of PRPZA.MethodThin layer chromatography （TLC）， extract determination， ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） were used to analyze and determine the TLC identification， the contents of water-soluble extract， alum residue， needle-like calcium oxalate crystal， protein， total alkaloids， polysaccharides and three nucleosides （inosine， guanosine and adenosine） of IDP and TDP of PRPZA， and the statistical comparison was made. The anti-inflammatory effect and irritation of IDP and TDP of PRPZA were compared by xylene-induced mouse auricle swelling test and rabbit conjunctival irritation test.ResultCompared with the TDP of PRPZA， the contents of alum residue， needle-like calcium oxalate crystal， protein， polysaccharides， inosine， guanosine and the total amount of three nucleosides in the IDP of PRPZA decreased by 16.95%， 21.27%， 23.78%， 4.74%， 52.12%， 0.24% and 26.04%， the contents of water-soluble extract， total alkaloids and adenosine increased by 7.62%， 114.83% and 125.42%， respectively. IDP and TDP of PRPZA had obvious inhibitory effects on ear edema in mice， but there was no significant difference between them， indicating that the anti-inflammatory effect was consistent. The two decoction pieces of PRPZA had no irritation to the conjunctiva of rabbits， and the difference was not statistically significant between them， suggesting that the safety was similar.ConclusionThere is a certain difference in the component content between the IDP and the TDP of PRPZA， but their anti-inflammatory and irritant effects are similar， and the quality of IDP is slightly better than TDP， which provides a reference for the industrial production and clinical application of the IDP of PRPZA.
Keywords：Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine;integrated processing;index components;high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC）;anti-inflammatory;irritation;traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces
Abstract：ObjectiveBy testing trace elements content and sulfur isotopic composition of 12 primary Cinnabaris ore samples from Xingren city and Danzhai county of Guizhou province， to explore the feasibility of identifying the origin of Chinese medicinal materials based on the trace element content-isotopic tracer technique.MethodThe contents of 50 trace elements in Cinnabaris were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry， and cluster analysis and principal component analysis （PCA） were performed by OriginPro 2018 software. At the same time， the sulfur isotopic composition in Cinnabaris samples was determined by gas stable isotope mass spectrometry.ResultThe trace element content and sulfur isotopic composition of Cinnabaris in Xingren and Danzhai were quite different， the contents of vanadium （V）， chromium （Cr）， copper （Cu）， arsenic （As）， strontium （Sr）， barium （Ba）， thallium （Tl）， aluminum （Al）， titanium （Ti） and manganese （Mn） in Cinnabaris from Lanmuchang were significantly higher than those in the Sixiangchang. The results of cluster analysis showed that the trace element content of 6 Cinnabaris samples from Sixiangchang was close and had a good correlation， while the contents of trace elements in 6 samples from Lanmuchang were far apart. The PCA biplots showed that 6 samples of Cinnabaris from Sixiangchang concentrated on the negative half axis of principal component 1 and 2， while 6 samples from Lanmuchang concentrated on the positive half axis of principal component 1 and 2. The δ34S values of Cinnabaris samples from Lanmuchang and Sixiangchang were 0.573%-0.884% and 2.233%-2.364%， scatter diagram showed that the δ34S values of Cinnabaris from the same origin were distributed in the same area， but δ34S values of samples from the two producing areas were different， which indicates that the formation mechanism of Cinnabaris was different.ConclusionBased on the analysis of Cinnabaris from two producing areas in Guizhou province， it is found that Cinnabaris from different producing areas has different trace element composition， and the correlation of trace elements in samples from the same producing area is good， and the composition of δ34S in Cinnabaris from different producing areas is different. The results show that trace element-isotopic tracer technique has great potential in the study of origin identification and traceability of mineral Chinese medicine， which can provide new research ideas for origin traceability， identification and quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal materials.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo establish a method for the analysis of oligosaccharides in Atractylodes lancea rhizome based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS） and a method for the quantification of oligosaccharides in A. lancea rhizome based on UPLC-evaporative light scattering detector （ELSD）， and to investigate the oligosaccharide characteristics of A. lancea rhizome from different habitats.MethodUPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the oligosaccharides in A. lancea rhizome with the mobile phase of 0.1% ammonia acetonitrile solution （A）-0.1% ammonia solution （B） for gradient elution （0-0.5 min， 98%A； 0.5-2.0 min， 98%-89%A； 2.0-2.5 min， 89%-86%A； 2.5-5.5 min， 86%-80%A； 5.5-6.5 min， 80%-72%A； 6.5-9.5 min， 72%-63%A； 9.5-14.0 min， 63%-50%A； 14.0-16.0 min， 50%A； 16.0-16.5 min， 50%-98%A； 16.5-20 min， 98%A）， the column temperature of 60 ℃ and the flow rate of 0.2 mL·min-1. Electrospray ionization （ESI） was used to collect data in negative ion mode and the detection range was m/z 50-1 500. The qualitative analysis of oligosaccharides was accomplished by retention time， relative molecular weight， primary and secondary MS information of characteristic fragment ions in combination with reference substance information. UPLC-ELSD was employed to determine the contents of nine oligosaccharides in A. lancea rhizome with the mobile phase of 0.1% ammonia acetonitrile solution （A）-0.1% ammonia solution （B） for gradient elution （0-1 min， 98%-75%A； 1-7 min， 75%-70%A； 7-18 min， 70%-55%A； 18-23 min， 55%A； 23-23.5 min， 55%-98%A； 23.5-28 min， 98%A）， the drift tube temperature of ELSD was set at 50 ℃. Principal component analysis （PCA） and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis （OPLS-DA） were used to analyze the classification and differential components between A. lancea rhizome from different habitats.ResultA total of 24 oligosaccharides， containing 11 pairs of isomers， were identified from A. lancea rhizome. Among them， compared with samples from Anhui， Chongqing， Nanjing and Shaanxi， the contents of kestose（GF2）， 1F-fructofuranosylnystose （GF4）， kestohexose （GF5）， fructo-oligosaccharide DP10 （GF9） in samples from Maoshan were statistically significant （P<0.05）， and the total mass fraction of sucrose （GF1）-GF9 reached 16.47%. The peak area ratio of fructose-fructose oligosaccharide to its isomer sucrose-fructose oligosaccharide was greater than 1 in samples from Maoshan.ConclusionThe types and contents of oligosaccharides in A. lancea rhizome vary greatly among different habitats， and the peak area ratio of fructose-fructose oligosaccharide to sucrose-fructose oligosaccharide >1 may be one of the geoherb characteristics of A. lancea rhizome， which can provide a reference for the development， utilization and quality control of this herb.
Keywords：Atractylodis Rhizoma;oligosaccharides;ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS）;evaporative light scattering detector （ELSD）;principal component analysis （PCA）;genuine producing area;orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis （OPLS-DA）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo analyze the effect of different fixation methods on the chemical quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of Rehmannia glutinosa leaves， so as to lay a foundation for the selection of processing technology and quality evaluation of this medicinal materials.MethodR. glutinosa leaves was dried at 55 ℃ after treating by three fixation methods （55 ℃， boiling water， 105 ℃）， and then the fingerprints of R. glutinosa leaves were collected by high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） and near infrared spectroscopy （NIRS）， and their antioxidant activities were analyzed by the 2，2-biphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl （DPPH） method. Finally， similarity analysis， principal component analysis （PCA）， orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis （OPLS-DA） and Pearson correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of R. glutinosa leaves with different fixation methods.ResultThe results of HPLC and NIRS fingerprint analysis indicated that there were differences in the quality characteristics of R. glutinosa leaves by different fixation treatments. The comprehensive score of chemical quality of R. glutinosa leaves by fixation at 55 ℃ was the highest， its average comprehensive score was 2.096， followed by fixation at 105 ℃， and the lowest was fixation with boiling water. The antioxidant activity of sample with fixation at 55 ℃ was the highest， followed by fixation with boiling water. The results of OPLS-DA showed that verbascoside， isoacteoside and catalpol were the main components causing the difference in chemical quality of the leaves from the three treatments， and the three components were positively correlated with the antioxidant activity of R. glutinosa leaves. Among them， the correlation between verbascoside and antioxidant activity was extremely significant， and the isoacteoside was significant.ConclusionThe chemical quality and antioxidant activity of R. glutinosa leaves are affected by the method of fixation， and the fixation at low temperature is the best primary processing method of R. glutinosa leaves.
Abstract：As precious Chinese medicinal materials， Moschus and Bovis Calculus are often used in the treatment of acute and severe patients. However， due to their scarce sources and high prices， wild animal resources are in urgent need of protection， natural Moschus and Bovis Calculus can no longer meet the needs of preparation production. The use of substitutes such as Moschus Artifactus， Bovis Calculus Artifactus and Bovis Calculus Sativus has alleviated the shortage of original medicinal materials to some extent， and has been widely used in the production and use of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） preparations. According to statistics， the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains 75 TCM preparations containing Moschus and 95 preparations containing Bovis Calculus， but in the quality standards of these 134 TCM preparations， the difference between natural medicinal materials and their substitutes is not very obvious， and some quality control projects are relatively simple. Based on this， the author intends to sort out the quality standards of TCM preparations containing Moschus or Bovis Calculus in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia （volume Ⅰ）， including the type， drug form， prescription dosage， maximum daily （time） dosage and the quality control items of Moschus and Bovis Calculus in the preparation， in order to explore the rationality of the quality standard of TCM preparations containing Moschus or Bovis Calculus， and to give some suggestions on standardizing the use types of Moschus and Bovis Calculus， improving the quality control items of Moschus and Bovis Calculus in TCM preparations combining modern research achievements and advanced technology.
Keywords：Moschus;Bovis Calculus;Chinese Pharmacopoeia;traditional Chinese medicine preparations;quality standard;substitutes;prescription
Abstract：Skin health is an important aspect of cosmetology. With the increase of social demand， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） brings its advantages into play in health care and conservation. Under the guidance of Xiang thinking， the method of "treating disease with color" is formed， which is also known as TCM color therapy. It refers to a method of treating diseases with Chinese medicines of opposite or interpromoting color to skin lesions， which reflects the unique thinking and diagnosis and treatment methods of TCM， and has practical value in the field of skin health. This study outlined the formation and application of "treating disease with color"， and summarized and analyzed the classic prescriptions and their composition characteristics in "treating the black with white" and "treating the white with black". Common medicinal materials in "treating the black with white" included Angelicae Dahuricae Radix， Ampelopsis Radix， Poria， Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma， Bletillae Rhizoma， and Typhonii Rhizoma， and those in "treating the white with black" included Polygoni Multiflori Caulis， Rehmanniae Radix， Sesami Semen Nigrum， Ecliptae Herba， Ligustri Lucidi Fructus， and Mori fructus. On this basis， "treating disease with color" was proposed as a characteristic treatment method for skin health care and conservation， which would effectively guide the research and development of products related to healthy food， cosmetics， healthcare food， and new Chinese medicine. In addition， this paper conducted a detailed elaboration from the following three perspectives： further exploring the theoretical connotation of "treating disease with color"， strengthening the basic research of the causes and effects of medicinal color， and promoting the research and development of skin health products under the guidance of "treating disease with color". It provided reference for the research and development of TCM skin health products.
Keywords：treating disease with color;skin health;treating the black with white;treating the white with black;Xiang thinking
Abstract：Huangqintang comes from Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases （《伤寒论》） and is regarded as the traditional prescription for treating dysentery. It is composed of four herbs： Radix Scutellariae， Radix Paeoniae Alba， Fructus Jujubae and Radix Glycyrrhizae， with the effect of clearing heat and stopping dysentery， and is a classic prescription for clinical treatment of ulcerative colitis （UC）. Both experimental research and clinical practice show Huangqintang has the characteristics of multiple pathways and multiple targets in treating UC. At present， research on the mechanism of Huangqintang in the treatment of UC mainly focuses on reducing intestinal inflammation， repairing epithelial cell barrier， improving microflora disorder， maintaining immune balance， relieving oxidative stress， regulating mitochondrial autophagy， and inhibiting cell pyroptosis and ferroptosis. In clinical application， Huangqintang and its modified prescription combined with conventional western medicine have a clear effect on UC， which can significantly alleviate abdominal pain， diarrhea， purulent bloody stool and other symptoms， effectively control the condition and improve the quality of life of patients， with few adverse reactions and high safety. However， the experimental methods and research programs of Huangqintang in treating UC need to be further improved， and the related mechanisms need to be further studied. Through retrieval and sorting of relevant literature， this paper systematically summarized and comprehensively analyzed the mechanism and clinical research results of Huangqintang in treating UC in recent years， and proposed suggestions on the shortcomings in order to provide theoretical and data support for the further application of Huangqintang. This had practical guiding significance for interpreting the connotation of Huangqintang and clinical scientific application.
Abstract：As a neurodegenerative disease in the middle-aged and elderly， Parkinson's disease features insidious onset and long course， threatening the quality of life of patients and exerting heavy economic burden to the society. Levodopa is mainly applied for the treatment in clinical settings. However， it shows poor efficacy in the instance of sustained use， and adverse reactions such as allodynia and on-off phenomenon may happen. Chinese medicine has shown remarkable efficacy on this disease and can delay the progression. In particularly， prepared rehmannia root， as a common Chinese medicine for this disease， has the functions of tonifying and replenishing the liver and kidney， supplementing essence and replenishing marrow， and has a long history of medicinal use and extensive pharmacological effect. Through data mining， network pharmacology， and medication rule of famous Chinese medicine practitioners， it is found that prepared rehmannia root is one of the frequently used medicinals for Parkinson's disease. Moreover， the medicinal contains a variety of active pharmacological components such as catalpol， rehmannioside， polysaccharide， and mullein glycoside. Through literature research， this study summarizes the mechanisms of this medicinal against Parkinson's disease such as anti-oxidative stress， inhibition of monoamine oxidase expression， reduction of excitotoxicity， suppression of apoptosis， regulation of neurotrophic factor expression， and restriction of pro-inflammatory factor release， which is expected to clarify the components， signaling pathways， and receptors of prepared rehmannia root in the treatment of this disease and to provide a reference for the related research and treatment of the disease.
Abstract：Diabetic nephropathy （DN） is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. The onset and progression of DN are linked to the progression of renal fibrosis which is an important pathological feature and final pathological result of various chronic kidney diseases. As a result， therapies against renal fibrosis can help delay the progression of DN. The transforming growth factor-β1 （TGF-β1）/Smad signaling pathway is one of the key pathways in renal fibrosis. TGF-β1， a crucial mediator of renal fibrosis， is highly expressed in the case of fibrosis-associated kidney diseases， and Smads are the main effectors in the TGF-β1 signal transduction pathway. By activating Smads， TGF-β1 transports signals from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the transcription of fibrosis-related target genes， thus exerting the biological effects and promoting the progression of renal fibrosis. In recent years， Chinese medicine has become prominent in the prevention and treatment of DN， and there has been an explosion of research on Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of DN through the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Based on literature research， this paper reviewed the basic structure of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway， the relationship with DN， and monomers and extract of Chinese medicine， Chinese patent medicine， and compound Chinese medicine prescriptions in improving and delaying the renal fibrosis based on the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway， and in alleviating inflammatory response and oxidative stress， reducing the accumulation of extracellular matrix， and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition by regulating the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Thereby， this study is expected to provide new mindset for the treatment of DN.
Abstract：Acute cerebral infarction （ACI）， also known as ischemic stroke， is a disease with a high disability rate， which brings heavy burdens to society and families. Its pathogenesis is related to many factors， of which the inflammatory theory is one of the important mechanisms. In the early stage of ACI， microglia are activated， and the inflammatory mediators， such as interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， released by them induce vascular endothelial cells to express adhesion molecules. The circulating leukocytes （neutrophils， monocyte-macrophages， etc.） are promoted to roll and adhere to the injured vascular endothelium， migrate and cross the blood-brain barrier， penetrate and infiltrate the brain parenchyma， and further expand the local inflammatory response by releasing a variety of proinflammatory mediators， thus exacerbating the tissue injury at the injury site and ischemic penumbra. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has advantages in treating the disease. TCM believes that the occurrence of stroke is related to blood stasis caused by various reasons， which block the brain vessel. This article reviewed the research progress on the effect of activating blood therapy on inflammatory factors in patients with ACI in recent years and discussed its regulation of inflammatory factors in ACI such as interleukin-1 （IL-1）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， interleukin-8 （IL-8）， interleukin-10 （IL-10）， TNF-α， C reactive protein （CRP）， and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 （MCP-1）， hoping to elucidate the scientific connotation of TCM treatment of ACI and lay the foundation for further research.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine;activating blood therapy;acute cerebral infarction;inflammatory factors;research progress
Abstract：Hepatocellular carcinoma （HCC）， an insidious malignant tumor with high incidence and lethality， poses a major threat to physical and mental health of human beings. The pathological mechanism needs to be further studied. Surgery， radiotherapy， chemotherapy， and targeted drugs are effective but induce many adverse reactions. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has unique advantages and abundant clinical experience in the treatment of HCC. There has been an explosion of research on the pathways， targets， and mechanism of TCM against HCC from the perspective of molecular biology. According to previous research， Chinese medicinals or compound Chinese medicine prescriptions， directly or indirectly prevent the occurrence and progression of HCC through multiple pathways and targets， which is closely related to the pathophysiological processes such as cell proliferation， metastasis， apoptosis， autophagy， inflammatory response， and immune response. This paper summarizes and analyzes research on the action pathways and mechanisms of Chinese medicine against HCC. Specifically， isoliquiritigenin， dendrobium candidum and Yexiazhu compound Ⅱ regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B （PI3K/Akt） signaling pathway to inhibit the growth， proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Toad venom and dioscorea zingiberensis induce and enhance HCC autophagy by modulating mammalian target of rapamycin （mTOR） signaling pathway. Myricetin， asparagus， and Biejiajian Wan regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase （MAPK） signaling pathway to promote HCC cell cycle arrest， inhibit angiogenesis， and induce apoptosis. Polygonum odoratum， tetragonum， and plantainoside modulate nuclear factor-kappa B （NF-κB） to inhibit inflammatory response and HCC metastasis and reduce drug resistance. Quercetin and erigeron breviscapus control the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 （JAK2/STAT3） signaling pathway to suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition （EMT） and remodel cytoskeleton. This paper is expected to lay a theoretical basis for the in-depth research on and clinical application of Chinese medicine in the treatment of HCC.
Keywords：hepatocellular carcinoma;signaling pathway;mechanism;Chinese medicine
Abstract：Xiaoyaosan， a classical prescription for mental disorder recorded in Formulary of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy（《太平惠民合剂局方》）， is composed of Bupleuri Radix， Angelicae Sinensis Radix， Paeoniae Radix Alba， Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma， Poria， Zingiberis Rhizoma Praeparatum， Menthae Haplocalycis Herba， and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle. Clinical practices and experiments have proved that it can be used for primary depression， anxiety， as well as the depression induced by various somatic disorders， such as gynecological diseases， internal diseases， and digestive system diseases， as evidenced the improvement of Hamilton depression rating scale score， self-rating depression scale score， etc. Xiaoyaosan has been verified to be remarkably effective， with high compliance and no obvious adverse reactions in patients. Xiaoyaosan mainly acts on monoamine neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine （5-HT）， norepinephrine （NE）， and dopamine （DA）， adrenocorticotropic hormone （ACTH） and corticosterone （CORT） in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis， pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， and tumor necrosis factored （TNF）-α， and orexin， ghrelin， and leptin in intestinal microecology and brain-gut axis， to regulate the neurobiochemical mechanism， endocrine mechanism， immune mechanism， and abnormal brain structure， thereby preventing and alleviating depression. However， the antidepressant mechanism of Xiaoyaosan needs to be further discussed. Through literature research， this paper analyzes the clinical application and basic mechanism of Xiaoyaosan in the treatment of depression， which is expected to serve as a reference for the application of this prescription in the clinical prevention and treatment of depression and improvement of the quality of life of patients， and further research on the antidepressant mechanism of Xiaoyaosan.