Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Guizhi Fulingwan on autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells in mice with polycystic ovary syndrome （PCOS）.MethodTwenty SD mice were randomized into a normal group （n=10） and a PCOS model group （n=10）， followed by PCOS modeling and in vitro culture of extracted ovarian granulosa cells. The ovarian granulosa cells of normal mice were classified into the control group and treated with 10% blank serum while those of PCOS mice into the experimental groups and with 10% Guizhi Fulingwan-containing serum at different concentrations （17.6， 35.1， 70.2 mg·kg-1） and 10% metformin-containing serum （25 mg·kg-1）， respectively， for 72 h. During the modeling， the changes in mouse body weight were measured. After modeling， the ovarian morphology was observed by microscopy， and the fasting blood glucose （FBG） was measured by Roche glucometer. Following the detection of fasting insulin （FI） and testosterone （T） levels by radioimmunoassay， the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells was determined using cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） to figure out the maximal dose of drug-containing serum that did not obviously affect the cell viability for subsequent assay. The autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells was examined by flow cytometry， and the protein expression levels of intracellular microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3Ⅰ （LC3Ⅰ）， LC3Ⅱ， Beclin1， and p62 were assayed by Western blott.ResultCompared with the blank group， the model group showed increased body weight and elevated FI， FBG， and T levels （P<0.05，P<0.01）， indicating the successful modeling of PCOS mice. Flow cytometric assay proved that the incubation with 10% Guizhi Fulingwan serum-containing medium resulted in a decline of autophagy （P<0.05）. As demonstrated by Western blot assay results， the protein expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ in the model group increased significantly as compared with those of the blank group， whereas the expression level of p62 decreased significantly （P<0.05，P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， the medium- and high-dose Guizhi Fulingwan groups exhibited significantly down-regulated Beclin1 and LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ levels but remarkably up-regulated p62 （P<0.05，P<0.01）.ConclusionGuizhi Fulingwan inhibits the autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells by down-regulating the protein expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the effects of Shenwei Ningyu pills （SNP）， a new Chinese medicine for depression， on the immunoinflammatory response mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 （TLR4）/myeloid differentiation factor 88 （MyD88） signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic restraint stress （CRS）.MethodForty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly enrolled into a normal group， a model group， an escitalopram group， and an SNP group. Except for the rats in the normal group， all rats were exposed to CRS and isolated rearing for 21 days continuously. Rats in the escitalopram group and the SNP group were administered with escitalopram （30 mg·kg-1） and SNP （18 mg·kg-1） one hour prior to CRS， respectively. The changes in body weight， sucrose preference index， horizontal movement scores， and vertical movement scores were observed by body weight assessment， sucrose preference test， and open field test. The expression of hippocampal TLR4 and MyD88 was detected by Western blot. The content of serum interleukin-1β （IL-1β）， IL-10， and tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA）.ResultThe results of the behavioral assessment showed that there was no significant difference in the changes of behavioral baselines among the groups before intervention. However， significant differences were found among the groups following different interventions. The body weight， sugar preference index， horizontal movement score， and vertical movement score of rats in the model group decreased after CRS for 21 days as compared with those in the normal group （P<0.01）. The above indicators in the SNP group and the escitalopram group were higher than those in the model group （P<0.01）， which indicated that SNP exerted an obvious antidepressant effect. The results of Western blot and ELISA showed that compared with the normal group， the model group showed elevated levels of hippocampal TLR4 and MyD88 and serum IL-1β and TNF-α （P˂0.01） and dwindled serum IL-10 （P˂0.01）， while SNP and escitalopram reversed the conditions in the model group （P˂0.01） except for TNF-α.ConclusionThe present study indicated that the antidepressant effect of SNP was presumedly achieved by inhibiting the immunoinflammatory response mediated by the TLR4/Myd88 signaling pathway in CRS rats.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the efficacy and mechanism of Guben Qingyuan prescription combined with androgen deprivation therapy （ADT） in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer （CRPC）.MethodA CRPC-bearing mouse model was established. When the tumor volume reached about 100 mm3， 50 CRPC-bearing BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into the model group， ADT group， and ADT+low-， medium-， high-dose Guben Qingyuan prescription groups， with 10 mice in each group. After grouping， it was ensured that there was no statistically significant difference in tumor volume between groups. The mice in the model group was treated with the same amount of normal saline （10 mL·kg-1） by gavage， twice a day， while those in the other groups were provided with bicalutamide （5 mg·kg-1） for intragastric administration， once a day， and then with goserelin （0.36 mg·kg-1） for intraperitoneal injection on the 10th day. On the basis of ADT， the ones in the ADT+Guben Qingyuan prescription groups further received Guben Qingyuan prescription at the low （2.5 g·kg-1）， medium （25 g·kg-1）， and high doses （50 g·kg-1） by gavage， twice a day. After 25 days of continuous administration， the tumor tissue was harvested for recording the tumor growth and calculating the tumor inhibition rate. The mRNA and protein expression levels of androgen receptor （AR）， androgen receptor splice variant-7 （AR-V7）， and prostate-specific antigen （PSA） were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） and Western blot assay.ResultThe tumor inhibition rates of the ADT+low-， medium-， and high-dose Guben Qingyuan prescription groups were 27.95%， 46.71%， and 44.46%， respectively， and the inhibition rates in the ADT+medium- and high-dose Guben Qingyuan prescription groups were significantly increased as compared with that in the ADT group （P<0.05）. As revealed by comparison with the ADT group， Guben Qingyuan prescription at the medium and high doses significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of AR， AR-V7， and PSA （P<0.05）.ConclusionGuben Qingyuan prescription combined with ADT is efficient in controlling the tumor growth in CRPC-bearing mice， which is related to the regulation of AR/AR-V7 signaling pathway.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the efficacy and mechanism of Shugan Jianpi Jiedu prescription （SJJ） in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer through in vitro cell experiments.MethodThe following groups were set up in this study： a normal serum group，a pirarubicin group，and low-，medium-， and high-dose SJJ-medicated serum groups. Twenty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with SJJ solution （16.8，8.2，4.05 g·kg-1） and normal saline （equal volume） according to the body surface area to prepare serum. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated separately. The proliferation， migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells were detected by the cell counting kit-8（CCK-8），wound healing assay and transwell cell invasion assay. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase （PI3K），protein kinase B （Akt）， and mechanistic target of rapamycin （mTOR） protein expression levels in MDA-MB-231 cells were tested by the Western blot.ResultThe cell proliferation in the three different doses of medicated serum groups and the pirarubicin positive control group was significantly inhibited as compared with that in the normal serum group（P<0.01），and there was no statistical difference for this between the medium/high dose medicated serum group and the pirarubicin positive control group.The wound healing in the SJJ-medicated serum groups and the pirarubicin group was slowed down as compared with that in the normal serum group （P<0.01），and the effect in the SJJ-medicated serum groups was weaker than that in the pirarubicin group （P<0.05，P<0.01）. The number of cells invading the lower transwell chamber was decreased as compared with that in the normal serum group （P<0.01），and there was no statistical difference between the medium-/high-dose SJJ-medicated serum groups and the pirarubicin group. Western blot results showed that 48 h after treatment，the PI3K，Akt， and mTOR expression levels in the cells of SJJ-medicated serum groups and the pirarubicin group were lower than those of the normal serum group（P<0.01）.ConclusionThe SJJ-medicated serum could inhibit the proliferation， migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells presumedly by down-regulating the protein expression levels in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Keywords：Shugan Jianpi Jiedu prescription;triple-negative breast cancer;MDA-MB-231 cell;migration;invasion;phosphoinositide 3-kinase （PI3K）/protein kinase B （Akt）/mechanistic target of rapamycin （mTOR） signaling pathway
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Bushen Huoxue prescription in regulating the related factors in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase （PI3K）/ protein kinase B （Akt）/ mammalian target of rapamycin （mTOR） pathway and improving ovarian reserve function of rats with diminished ovarian reserve （DOR）.MethodSixty DOR model rats were duplicated by Ataya method （intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide） and then randomized into the model group， estradiol valerate （0.000 9 g·kg-1） group， and high- （33 g·kg-1）， middle- （16.5 g·kg-1） and low-dose （8.25 g·kg-1） Bushen Huoxue prescription groups， with 12 rats in each group. Another 12 healthy rats were classified into the blank control group. The rats in each group were given the corresponding drugs by gavage， while those in the blank control group and model group received the same volume of normal saline， once per day， for 14 successive days. After treatment， the ovarian tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin （HE） for observing the changes in quantities of primary follicles， mature follicles， and total follicles under a light microscope， followed by the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor （VEGF） expression in the ovarian tissue by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression levels of PI3K， Akt， mTOR， and cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease-3 （Caspase-3） in the ovarian tissue were assayed by Western blot， whereas the mRNA expression levels of PI3K， Akt， and mTOR were measured by Real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）.ResultAs revealed by comparison with the blank control group， the quantities of mature follicles and total follicles in the ovarian tissue of model group were significantly reduced （P<0.05， P<0.01）. The protein expression levels of VEGF and Caspase-3 in the ovarian tissue were increased （P<0.05）， while the protein and mRNA expression levels of PI3K， Akt， and mTOR were decreased （P<0.05， P<0.01）. Compared with the model group， Bushen Huoxue prescription at the high and middle doses elevated the quantities of mature follicles and total follicles to varying degrees （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and VEGF increased most significantly in the middle-dose Bushen Huoxue prescription group （P<0.05）. Caspase-3 in the low-， middle-， and high-dose Bushen Huoxue prescription groups and the western medicine group declined. The protein and mRNA expression levels of PI3K， Akt， and mTOR were up-regulated in the middle- and high-dose Bushen Huoxue prescription groups （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and the levels in the middle-dose Bushen Huoxue prescription group were closer to those in the blank control group.ConclusionBushen Huoxue prescription effectively improves the ovarian reserve function of rats with DOR and increases the number of follicles possibly by up-regulating VEGF expression in the ovarian tissue， activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway， and regulating the content of Caspase-3.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Huluan decoction on the expression of apoptosis-related protein silence information regulator 1 （SIRT1）， tumor suppressor gene （p53）， acetylated p53 （Ac-p53）， cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor （p21）， and nuclear factor-κB （NF-κB） p65 and changes in ovarian tissue structure of a mouse model with premature ovarian insufficiency （POI） induced by tripterygium glycosides.MethodFifty female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the blank group， model group， low- and high-dose Huluan decoction groups， and western medicine （estradiol valerate） group. After intragastric administration of tripterygium glycosides at 80 mg·kg-1·d-1 for 14 successive days， mice in the low- and high-dose Huluan decoction groups and western medicine group were treated with Huluan decoction at 1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and 6.2 g·kg-1·d-1 and estradiol valerate at 0.13 mg·kg-1·d-1， respectively， by gavage since the 15th day， while those in the blank group were provided with an equal amount of distilled water for 21 consecutive days. Following the last administration， the blood was sampled for detecting the levels of serum anti-Müllerian hormone （AMH）， follicle-stimulating hormone （FSH）， and luteinizing hormone （LH） by ELISA and the ovary was harvested for observing the morphological changes by HE staining. The mRNA expression levels of p53 and p21 were measured by Real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR）， and the protein expression levels of SIRT1， p53， p21， Ac-p53， NF-κB were assayed by Western blot.ResultCompared with the blank group， the model group exhibited a disordered estrous cycle， diminished ovarian volume， decreased number of follicles at various developmental stages， reduced AMH， and elevated FSH and LH， and elevated p53，p21，Ac-p53，NF-κB protein expression and p53，p21 mRNA， reduced SIRT1 protein expression（P<0.01）. As revealed by the comparison with the model group， each medication group displayed an increased number of follicles， elevated AMH， reduced FSH and LH （P<0.01）， up-regulated SIRT1 protein expression （P<0.01）， and significantly down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of aging-related genes p53， p21， and down-regulated Ac-p53，NF-κB protein expression （P<0.01）.ConclusionHuluan decoction significantly reverses the aging process and improves ovarian function possibly by boosting the activity of SIRT1/NF-κB/p53/p21 pathway in ovarian cells， changing the apoptotic state， increasing the growing and mature follicles， and reducing the atretic follicles.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the protective effect and mechanism of Ranae Oviductus protein hydrolysate （ROPH） on the expression of pathway-related proteins in ethanol-induced L-02 cell injury.MethodThe ROPH was prepared by compound enzymatic hydrolysis. L-02 cell injury model was induced with 400 mmol·L-1 ethanol. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. JC-1/Hochest staining was employed for qualitative investigation. The expression of related proteins in apoptosis， mitogen-activated protein kinase （MAPK） signaling pathway， and pyroptosis in L-02 cells was detected by Western blot.ResultThe results of the CCK-8 assay showed that 400 mmol·L-1 ethanol could induce L-02 cell injury within 12 hours. Compared with the blank group， the model group showed decreased viability of L-02 cells （P<0.01）， elevated percentage of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase （P<0.01）， increased total cell apoptosis rate （P<0.01）， reduced mitochondrial membrane potential （P<0.01）， up-regulated expression of apoptosis-related proteins ［B-cell lymphoma-2 （Bcl-2）-associated X protein （Bax）， Cytochrome C （Cyt C）， and cysteine-dependent aspartate specific protease-3 （Caspase-3）］ （P<0.05， P<0.01） and MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins ［C-Jun amino-terminal kinase （JNK） and p38 MAPK］ （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and potentiated expression of pyrolysis-related proteins Caspase-1 and interleukin-1β （IL-1β） （P<0.05）. Compared with the model group， the ROPH treatment group exhibited improved cell cycle arrest （P<0.05， P<0.01）， diminished total cell apoptosis rate （P<0.01）， elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner， down-regulated expression of Bax， Cyt C， and Caspase-3 proteins （P<0.05， P<0.01）， up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 protein （P<0.05， P<0.01）， and a downward trend in expression of proteins related to MAPK signaling pathway and pyrolysis （P<0.05， P<0.01）.ConclusionROPH could inhibit oxidative stress-triggered liver injury in ethanol-induced cells by improving mitochondrial membrane potential， reducing the expression of proteins in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway， and inhibiting the expression of proteins related to the MAPK signaling pathway and pyrolysis pathway to reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory response in ethanol-induced L-02 liver cells and inhibit oxidative stress， thereby exerting a therapeutic role in alcoholic liver injury.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo investigate the curative efficacy of modified Qilang prescription on drug-dependent constipation with Qi and Yin deficiency and the effects on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide （VIP）， motilin （MTL）， 5-hydroxytryptamine （5-HT）， and 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor （5-HT4R）.MethodA total of 160 patients diagnosed with drug-dependent constipation were randomly divided into a treatment group （n=80， Qilang prescription） and a control group （n=80， lactulose oral solution）. The treatment lasted for eight weeks. Changes in clinical symptoms， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） syndrome， and serum VIP， MTL， 5-HT， and 5-HT4R before and after treatment were observed. The clinical efficacies of the two groups were compared. An eight-week follow-up was carried out for the observation of recurrent rate and TCM syndrome.ResultThe overall response rate of the treatment group （90.91%） was higher than that （75.00%） of the control group （Z=-6.514，P<0.05）. There was no significant difference in serum VIP， MTL， 5-HT， and 5-HT4R between the two groups before treatment. After treatment for eight weeks， both groups showed reduced serum VIP level as compared with those before treatment， and the treatment group was inferior to the control group （P<0.05）. The serum MTL levels of the two groups were both higher than those before treatment （P<0.05）， and the treatment group was superior to the control group （P<0.05）. After treatment， the level of 5-HT in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group （P<0.05）. The post-treatment 5-HT4R level in the treatment group slightly increased （P<0.05）， but no significant difference in 5-HT4R levels between the two groups after treatment was observed. During the eight-week follow-up， the recurrence rate in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group at the 2nd and 4th weeks （P<0.05）. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate between the treatment group ［57.14% （40/70）］ and the control group ［64.81% （35/54）］ after eight weeks.ConclusionModified Qilang prescription was superior to lactulose in the short- and mid-term efficacy on drug-dependent constipation with Qi and Yin deficiency. No significant difference in the long-term efficacy was observed. The underlying therapeutic mechanism might be related to the regulation of serum VIP， MTL， 5-HT， and 5-HT4R levels.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy of Zhiwei pill for bile reflux gastritis （BRG） with symptoms of disharmony of liver and stomach， evaluate the safety after treatment by three-arm study， and investigate the regulatory action to gastrointestinal hormones.MethodOne hundred and eighty patients were randomly divided into placebo group （60 cases）， control group （60 cases） and observe group （60 cases） by random number table. Patients in three groups got lifestyle intervention of non-drug therapy. Patients in control group got hydrotalcite tablets 1-2 hours after meal or untimely bedtime or in case of stomach pain， 2 tablets/time， 3 times/day. Patients in placebo group got simulated medicine of Zhiwei pill 1 hour after meal， 6 g/time， 3 times/day. Patients in observe group got Zhiwei pill 1 hour after meal， 6 g/time， 3 times/day. The treatment continued for 4 weeks in all 3 groups. Before and after treatment， scores were graded for symptoms of disharmony of liver and stomach and patient reported outcome （PRO） scale for patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Gastroscopy was taken to grade the scores of bile reflux and mucosa under gastroscope. Levels of gastrin （GAS）， motilin （MTL）， cholecystokinin （CCK）， substance P （SP） and gastrointestinal hormones were detected. Efficacy for traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） syndrome and efficacy under gastroscope were compared， and safety after treatment was evaluated.ResultAfter treatment， the total scores of the main symptoms and 7 secondary symptoms of disharmony of liver and stomach in observe group were all lower than those in placebo group and control group （P<0.01）， and scores of symptoms of disharmony of liver and stomach and PRO were all lower than those in control group and placebo group （P<0.01）. After treatment， scores of degree of bile reflux and mucosa under gastroscope in observe group were all lower than those in placebo group and control group （P<0.01）. Level of CCK was lower than that in placebo group and control group （P<0.01）， while levels of MTL， GAS and SP were higher than those in placebo group and control group （P<0.01）. Total effective rate of TCM syndrome was 91.38%（53/58）， higher than 71.93%（41/57） in control group and 34.62%（18/52） in placebo group. The total effective rate in gastroscopy was 93.10%（54/58）， higher than 78.95%（45/57） in control group and 28.85%（15/52） in placebo group （P<0.05 or P<0.01）. No adverse reactions related to Zhiwei pill were found.ConclusionZhiwei pill can improve bile reflux， promote the healing of mucosa under gastroscope， regulate gastrointestinal hormones， improve gastrointestinal motor function， significantly alleviate clinical symptoms， and improve quality of life， with better efficacy for TCM syndrome and efficacy in gastroscopy， and it is safe for clinical use.
Keywords：bile reflux gastritis;disharmony of liver and stomach;Zhiwei pill;gastrointestinal hormone;quality of life;three-arm experiment design
Abstract：ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy and influence of modified Chaihu Shugansan combined with ursodeoxycholic acid tablets on inflammatory factors in treatment of chronic cholecystitis cholelithiasis （stagnation of liver and gallbladder Qi）.MethodOne hundred and ten patients were randomly divided into control group （60 cases） and observation group （60 cases）. Both groups received lifestyle intervention， and oral ursodeoxycholic acid tablets， 50 mg/time， taken in the morning and evening meals. Patients in control group additionally took Yidanshu capsules orally， 4 capsules/time， 3 times/day. Patients in observation group additionally took modified Chaihu Shugansan orally， 1 dose/day. The treatment courses continued 3 months in both groups. Before and after treatment， traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） symptom scores were graded， the ultrasound status of chronic gallbladder inflammation， gallbladder contraction function and stones was graded， the levels of interleukin-6 （IL-6）， IL-8， tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） and nuclear transcription factor-κB（NF-κB）Were detected， and safety was evaluated. The efficacy for TCM syndromes， imaging efficacy and the efficacy for eliminating gallbladder stones were compared between the two groups.ResultThe efficacy for TCM syndrome， efficacy on color ultrasound for chronic cholecystitis and the efficacy on imaging for cholelithiasis in the observation group were all better than those in the control group（Z=2.104，Z=2.076，Z=2.101，P<0.05）. The thickness of gallbladder wall and volume of the gallbladder of the observation group were smaller than those of the control group （P<0.01）， and gallbladder contraction function was higher than that in control group （P<0.01）. Levels of IL-6， IL-8， TNF-α and NF-κB in observation group were lower than those in control group （P<0.01）.Conclusionmodified Chaihu Shugansan combined with ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis （liver and gall Qi stagnation） is better than Yidanshu capsule combined with ursodeoxycholic acid sour scheme in terms of clinical efficacy， imaging efficacy， and elimination of gallbladder stones. It can reduce inflammation， and enhance gallbladder contraction， with high safety in clinical use.
Keywords：chronic cholecystitis;cholelithiasis;stagnation of liver and gallbladder Qi;Chaihu Shugansan;gallbladder contraction;inflammatory factors
Abstract：ObjectiveThe chemical constituents in guarana （Paullinia cupana dried seeds） were systematically analyzed to provide a basis for further research， development and utilization of this plant.MethodThe contents of crude protein， crude fat， crude polysaccharide and crude fiber in guarana were determined according to national standards and related documents， and the chemical constituents of guarana was qualitatively analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS）， ACQUITY UPLC-HSS-T3 column （2.1 mm×100 mm， 1.8 μm） was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution （A）-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution （B） as mobile phase for gradient elution （0-5 min， 2%-10%B； 5-6 min， 10%-20%B； 6-9 min， 20%-30%B； 9-9.5 min， 30%-35%B； 9.5-10.5 min， 35%-45%B； 10.5~13 min， 45%-55%B； 13-15 min， 55%-80%B； 15-19 min， 80%-98%B； 19-20 min， 98%B； 20-20.3 min， 98%-2%B； 20.3-23 min， 2%B）， the electrospray ionization （ESI） was used for detection in positive and negative ion modes， the scanning range was m/z 50-1 500， and the structure was identified according to the relative molecular weight and fragment information combined with database matching and comparison of reference substances.ResultThe contents crude protein， crude fat， crude polysaccharide and crude fiber in guarana were （0.63±0.03）%， （2.73±0.09）%， （3.23±0.12）% and （8.89±0.59）%， respectively. A total of 42 chemical constituents in guarana were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS， including 3 methylxanthines， 2 nucleosides， 1 amino acid， 3 organic acids， 33 flavonoids， 3 （L-tryptophan， epigallocatechin gallate， daidzein） of which were first discovered in guarana.ConclusionGuarana is rich in nutrients and has good potential to be developed as a functional food. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique provides a simple， rapid and accurate method for the identification of chemical constituents in guarana. Methylxanthines and proanthocyanidins are the main chemical constituents of guarana， which is meaningful for quality evaluation and material basis of guarana.
Keywords：Paullinia cupana;chemical constituents;ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-TOF-MS）;methylxanthines;proanthocyanidins;amino acids;flavonoids
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the quality evaluation method of Cyperi Rhizoma processed with four excipients.MethodUltra-performance liquid chromatography （UPLC） fingerprints of raw products and processed products with four excipients of Cyperi Rhizoma were established， and the changes of chemical components in the fingerprints before and after processing were compared by chemometric analysis. The mobile phase was consisted of methanol （A）-water （B） for gradient elution （0-10 min， 5%-40%A； 10-30 min， 40%-70%A； 30-40 min， 70%A） at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min-1. The injection volume was 3 μL， the column temperature was 35 ℃， and the detection wavelength was 280 nm. The content changes of main index components in Cyperi Rhizoma before and after processing were compared by UPLC. The mobile phase was methanol-water （75∶25） and the detection wavelength was 242 nm.ResultProcessing with four excipients had a significant impact on the overall characteristics of chemical components in the fingerprint of Cyperi Rhizoma. A total of 28 characteristic peaks were identified in fingerprints of the raw and processed products. Among them， peaks 1， 2 and 4 were specific peaks of the processed products， peak 5 was characteristic peak of the raw products. Peak 2 was identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural， peak 24 as cyperenone and peak 27 as α-cyperone. The 5-hydroxymethylfurfural produced by the processing with four excipients came from rice vinegar， rice wine and Maillard reaction of polysaccharides in Cyperi Rhizoma. The results of determination showed that there was no significant difference in the content of cyperenone after processing， but the content of α-cyperone decreased significantly.ConclusionIn the process of Cyperi Rhizoma processed with four excipients， there are new components produced by structural transformation， which are accompanied by changes in the content of index components. In this study， the quality of raw and processed products of Cyperi Rhizoma can be rapidly and effectively evaluated from qualitative and quantitative aspects.
Keywords：Cyperi Rhizoma processed with four excipients;Maillard reaction;fingerprint;processing;cyperenone;α-cyperone;ultra-performance liquid chromatography （UPLC）
Abstract：ObjectiveTo study the relative molecular weight and distribution of polysaccharides in Polygonati Rhizoma （PR） before and after processing， as well as the effects of different polysaccharide fractions on immune function and inflammatory response of mouse peritoneal macrophages.MethodHigh-performance gel permeation chromatography （HPGPC） was used to determine the relative molecular weight and distribution of polysaccharides in PR （named SC） and polysaccharides in PR processed with wine （named JC）， and polysaccharide fractions with different relative molecular weights were obtained by dialysis. Different polysaccharide fractions were applied to mouse peritoneal macrophages， which was normal or induced by lipopolysaccharide （LPS）. Cell counting kit-8 （CCK-8） method was used to select the optimal administration concentration. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay （ELISA） was used to determine the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α） and interleukin-1β （IL-1β） in the cell supernatant. The Griess method was used to detect the concentration of nitric oxide （NO）.ResultSC and JC could be divided into four parts according to relative molecular weight and its distribution range， including part Ⅰ（14 800-2 273 kDa）， part Ⅱ（2 148-296 kDa）， part Ⅲ（12-1 kDa） and part Ⅳ（818-362 Da）. Based on the differences of part Ⅰ and part Ⅲ after processing， the SC and JC were divided into two-part according to the weight-average relative molecular weight （MW）. For normal mouse peritoneal macrophages， JC could significantly promote the secretion of TNF-α （P<0.01）， while SC had no significant effect. Four polysaccharide fractions， named SD （SC fraction with MW>50 kDa）， JD （JC fraction with MW>50 kDa）， SX （SC fraction with MW<50 kDa） and JX （JC fraction with MW<50 kDa）， also could significantly promote the secretion of TNF-α （P<0.01）， but only JX could significantly promote the secretion of NO （P<0.05）. In addition， the effect of JX group stimulated secretion of TNF-α was better than the JD group （P<0.01）. For the LPS-induced macrophage model， JC and SC group could significantly inhibit the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β （P<0.01）， and the effect of JC was stronger. To compare different polysaccharide fractions， the impact of JX on inhibiting the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly stronger than JD （P<0.01）， and SX inhibited the secretion of TNF-α was significantly stronger than SD （P<0.01）.ConclusionThe relative molecular weight and distribution of polysaccharides in PR before and after processing have changed. JC and SC improve the immune regulation mainly by inhibiting the inflammatory response， the fraction of MW<50 kDa is the main effective part， and the effect of PR polysaccharides in inhibiting the inflammatory is enhanced after processing with wine.
Keywords：processing with wine;Polygonati Rhizoma;polysaccharides;relative molecular weight;macrophages;immune function;inflammatory response
Abstract：ObjectiveAn ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS） was developed to analyze and identify the chemical constituents in Coptis chinensis inflorescence.MethodThe chromatographic separation was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column （2.1 mm×100 mm， 1.7 μm） with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution （A）-acetonitrile （B） for gradient elution （0-15 min， 10%-22%B； 15-20 min， 22%B； 20-25 min， 22%-44%B； 25-35 min， 44%-50%B； 35-40 min， 50%-60%B； 40-55 min， 60%-85%B）， the flow rate was 0.15 mL·min-1， the injection volume was 3 μL and the column temperature was 30 ℃. HRMS was equipped with electrospray ionization （ESI） and scanned in positive and negative ion modes by means of full scan/data dependent secondary scan （Full MS/dd-MS2）. Compound Discoverer 3.0 software combined with mzCloud， mzVault， ChemSpider databases and HRMS database of components in traditional Chinese medicine were used to analyze and identify the collected data by HRMS， based on accurate relative molecular mass， retention time and characteristic ion fragmentation of the compounds， as well as literature information and relevant reference materials.ResultA total of 51 chemical constituents were identified in C. chinensis inflorescence， including 16 alkaloids， 14 flavonoids， 7 phenylpropanoids， 7 organic acids and 7 others. Among them， 10 components ［berberine， palmatine， coptidine， rutin， quercetin， isoquercitrin， chlorogenic acid， cryptochlorogenic acid， D-（-） quinic acid and D-proline］ were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference standards.ConclusionThe established UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS can be used to accurately analyze and identify chemical constituents of C. chinensis inflorescence. A total of 41 chemical constituents are reported from C. chinensis inflorescence for the first time and 6 alkaloids are found from the C. chinensis for the first time. These findings can provide methodological reference and experimental basis for the basic research of quality evaluation and efficacy materials of C. chinensis inflorescence， and lay a foundation for its further development and utilization.
Keywords：ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry （UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS）;Coptis chinensis inflorescence;chemical constituents;alkaloids;flavonoids;phenylpropanoids;organic acids
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the feasibility of replacing wood （or wood chips） with crop residues for culturing Armillaria gallica targeting the problems of forest resource destruction and increased cultivation cost caused by the extensive use of wood in Gastrodia elata cultivation， so as to reduce the cultivation cost of G. elata， promote the effective use of crop residues， and protect forest resources.MethodThe growth situation of A. gallica in different media was observed， followed by the measurement of its growth rate using streaking method and the determination of total polysaccharide content of A. gallica by phenol-concentrated sulfuric acid colorimetric method. In order to further optimize the soybean straw cultivation medium， we carried out a four-factor three-level L9（34） orthogonal assay on the ratio of main ingredients， sucrose content， inorganic salt content， and water content.ResultThe comparison of growing states of A. gallica cultured in different media revealed that A. gallica in soybean straw medium began to grow since the fourth day of inoculation， and the mycelium grew well， with the growth rate being 0.352 cm·d-1， which was 1.48 times that in birch wood medium. The total polysaccharide content of A. gallica cultured in soybean straw medium was the highest， which was 39.260 mg·g-1， much higher than 17.028 mg·g-1 of that cultured in birch wood medium. This demonstrated the obvious advantage of soybean straw medium， whose main ingredients were soybean straw and wheat bran at the ratio of 8：2， with the sucrose and inorganic salt content accounting for 1% and 0.5% of the main ingredients， respectively. When the water content reached 50%， the growth rate of A. gallica was maintained at 0.392 cm·d-1.ConclusionThis study has provided a basis for utilizing soybean straw instead of wood （or wood chips） as cultivation medium for A. gallica， thus better reducing the waste of forest resources and protecting the natural environment in the cultivation of G. elata.
Keywords：crop residues;soybean straw;Armillaria gallica;optimal composition;cultivation of Gastrodia elata
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the feasibility of machine vision and deep learning methods in intelligent screening of pieces of Chinese medicine， so as to meet the needs of modern screening of pieces of Chinese medicine and overcome the problems of strong subjectivity and low efficiency in traditional screening based on manual experience.MethodAn image set containing 11 125 images for 60 kinds of pieces of Chinese medicine was constructed， and the network architectures for high- and low-frequency feature learning were designed. Specifically， the parallel convolutional network was employed to obtain the low frequency feature and the deep multi-scale convolutional neural network to uncover the high-frequency feature. The semantic network was used to realize the feature learning mode with generalization ability. In this study， Wasserstein distance was introduced into the generative adversarial networks （GANs） to complete the screening of pieces of Chinese medicine， and the conditional parameters were added to the generation and discrimination networks to make the network training more reliable and improve the accuracy of identification.ResultThe experiment results showed that when the ratio of training samples to test samples was greater than 6∶4， the identification accuracy of pieces of Chinese medicine was relatively stable. The identification accuracy of images captured in different states and environments by bi-view multi-feature network Wasserstein generative adversarial network （BMFnet-WGAN） reached up to 85.9% on average and the stability was high， demonstrating that BMFnet-WGAN was superior to VGG-Net and AlexNet.ConclusionThe BMFnet-WGAN method enables the revealing of rich and typical characteristics of decoction pieces and the introduced WGAN model and Wasserstein distance make the network training more reliable. The resulting accuracy， robustness， and batch effects in the intelligent screening of pieces of Chinese medicine were good， which has provided the technical support for the sorting and quantitative quality screening of pieces of Chinese medicine.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）;pieces;feature learning;semantic description;Wasserstein
Abstract：Xiao chengqitang is recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases written by ZHANG Zhong-jing in the Eastern Han dynasty. It is composed of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma， Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus， which is mainly used to treat mild exogenous Yangming Fu-viscera excess syndrome. This formula has been included in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescription （The First Batch）. However， the processing specifications and doses recorded in the original formula are different from the modern usage， which results in some difficulties in the research and development of Xiao Chengqitang granules. For clarifying the key information， such as historical evolution of prescription， dose conversion， the origin and processing specifications of each medicine in the prescription， the paper systematically analyzes the ancient medical books and related literature in the past dynasties and refers to the life experience of ZHANG Zhong-jing. Then the modern prescription and decocting methods of Xiao Chengqitang were determined as follows：composing 55.2 g of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma （Rheum officinale） washed with wine， 27.6 g of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex （Magnolia officinalis） processed with ginger and 39.0 g of stir-fried Aurantii Fructus Immaturus （Citrus aurantium）， adding 800 mL of water， decocting to 240 mL and filtrating.
Abstract：Visci Herba， a commonly used Chinese medicinal， was often mistaken as Taxilli Herba in ancient Chinese materia medica. The two Chinese medicinals have often been confused even in present clinical practice， and their origins are difficult to be identified. Hence， it is necessary to carry out systematic and in-depth textual research. This paper explored the origin， producing area， quality evaluation， harvesting and processing， property， flavor， and efficacy of Visci Herba based on ancient Chinese materia medica of the past dynasties and modern plant morphology， so as to provide evidence for the development and utilization of Visci Herba. The findings demonstrated that Visci Herba was mostly recorded as Taxilli Herba until the name of Visci Herba appeared in the Tang Dynasty. The records of the two Chinese medicinals could be traced back to the Song Dynasty. Visci Herba and Taxilli Herba were officially listed as two different Chinese medicinals in the 1977 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the first time， where the origin of Visci Herba was determined to be Viscum coloratum（Komar.）Nakai. According to the ancient Chinese materia medica， V. coloratum was mainly distributed in Lingbao， Henan province and Xuzhou， Jiangsu province and now it mostly grows in Northeast China and North China. In ancient times， Visci Herba with deep yellow cross-section and sticky fruit juice on the tree was preferred， which was often harvested on 3， March in spring， dried in the shade， grinded together with the roots， branches， stems， and leaves using the copper file， and preserved away from fire. By contrast， it is now usually harvested from winter to the next spring and then cut into sections for drying after the removal of thick stems， or dried after being steamed. As described in ancient Chinese materia medica， Visci Herba， bitter and sweet in flavor， neutral in property， possessed the effects of dispelling rheumatism， tonifying kidney， strengthening sinews and bones， benefiting blood vessels， and preventing abortion， basically consistent with its modern functions of dispelling rheumatism， tonifying liver and kidney， strengthening sinews and bones， and preventing abortion.
Keywords：Visci Herba;textual research;origin;change in producing area;quality evaluation;harvesting;property flavor efficacy
Abstract：Codonopsis Radix， one of the bulk commodities， has been commonly used for tonification in clinical practice. Apart from the medicinal purpose， it can also be utilized as food. Among the multiple local varieties， the ones called "Luduiduoji" in Tibetan medicine cannot be neglected， which have frequently been adopted for diminishing inflammation and swelling， invigorating spleen and stomach， and tonifying Qi， etc. Considering its complex origins and frequent substitution by or confusion with other medicinal materials， this paper reviewed the Si Bu Yi Dian， Jingzhu Bencao， ministerial and local standards， modern literature on Tibetan medicine， and the results of field investigation in major Tibetan medicine hospitals and medicinal material markets of Sichuan， Qinghai and Tibet to figure out the name， original plants， medicinal parts， effects， and local varieties of Codonopsis Radix in Tibetan medicine. The results showed that the names of local varieties were diverse， many of which were transliterated into Tibetan， with "Luduiduoji" being most well-known. It was derived from 14 species in genus Codonopsis and one in Adenophora of family Campanulaceae， with Codonopsis foetens subsp. nervosa， C. thalictrifolia var. mollis， C. canescens， C. alpina， and C. pilosula being the main species. According to literature records， the roots， aerial parts， and whole plants could all be employed as medicine， but there were certain differences in their clinical applications. At present， in order to protect the medicinal resources， Tibetan medical workers mostly collect the aerial parts， which are applicable to patients with yellow water， rheumatism， Gamba disease， and leprosy. This literature review of local varieties for Codonopsis Radix and textual research on their original plants are of great significance for elevating the standard， accelerating the pharmacodynamic research， expanding the sources and promoting the rational use of Codonopsis Radix.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the multi-component， multi-target and multi-pathway mechanism of Astragali Radix against immunoglobulin A nephropathy （IgAN） by network pharmacology， aiming to provide evidence for its basic research and clinical application.MethodThe active chemical components and targets of Astragali Radix and targets associated with IgAN were obtained by literature mining and GeneCards， Traditinal Chinese Medicine Integrated Database （TCMID）， Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP） databases. Cytoscape 3.7.1 software was used to draw network interaction diagrams. The key targets of Astragali Radix against IgAN were searched by network topology. Gene ontology （GO） analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway analysis involved in the targets were analyzed by different packages in R programming language. On this basis， cell experiments in vitro were carried out to verify the activation effect of astragaloside Ⅳ on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/tumor suppressor gene protein 53 （PI3K/Akt/p53） signaling pathway of human mesangial cells.ResultA total of 25 active components and 49 ingredient-disease targets of Astragali Radix were screened. The GO enrichment analysis included 84 items， which were related to nuclear hormone receptor binding， nuclear receptor activity， deoxyribonucleic acid binding transcriptional activation activity and other aspects. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis included 88 KEGG pathways， which were closely related to PI3K/Akt signaling pathway， hypoxia inducible factor-1 （HIF-1） signaling pathway， advanced glycation end product/receptor of advanced glycation end product （AGE/RAGE） signaling pathway and others. Cell experiments in vitro confirmed that astragaloside Ⅳ could effectively inhibit the platelet derived growth factor-BB （PDGF-BB）-induced proliferation of human mesangial cells by regulating PI3K/Akt/p53 signaling pathway.ConclusionThe active ingredients of Astragali Radix may play a role in the treatment of IgAN by acting on targets and pathways related to apoptosis， oxidative stress， inflammation response and others， providing ideas and directions for the new drug development and mechanism study of IgAN.
Keywords：Astragali Radix;immunoglobulin A （IgA）;IgA nephropathy;network pharmacology;astragaloside Ⅳ;molecular mechanism;in vitro cell test
Abstract：ObjectiveTo screen the active components of sovereign medicinal Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix in Rongjin Niantong formula based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology and observe their effects on therapeutic targets of osteoarthritis （OA） in in vivo and in vitro animal experiments.MethodThe main active components and therapeutic targets of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform （TCMSP）， and the differentially expressed genes relevant to OA from the Gene Expression Omnibus （GEO） database for cross analysis. The effects of main active components in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix on enriched therapeutic targets of rats with OA in vivo and in vitro were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction （Real-time PCR） and Western blot.ResultThere were 20 active components for Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix against OA， with quercetin being an important one. Among the three target genes， osteopontin （OPN） and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1（PAI-1） were the key ones in the network. Gene Ontology （GO） analysis yielded 227 related terms， involving the regulation of physiological response to trauma （GO： 1903034）， negative regulation of trauma response （GO： 1903035）， etc. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） pathway analysis revealed 12 related pathways， involving extracellular matrix receptor interaction （hsa04512） and so on. In animal experiments， compared with the normal group， the model group exhibited increased gene and protein expression of OPN and PAI-1. Compared with the model group， the quercetin group displayed decreased gene and protein expression of OPN and PAI-1 （P<0.05）. In cell experiments， the OPN and PAI-1 protein expression levels in the model group were increased as compared with those in the normal group， while the Collagen Ⅱ protein expression was decreased. The OPN and PAI-1 protein expression levels in the quercetin group and the inhibitor group were down-regulated in contrast to those in the model group， whereas the Collagen Ⅱ protein expression levels were up-regulated significantly （P<0.05）.ConclusionAchyranthis Bidentatae Radix inhibits cartilage degeneration and exerts the preventive and therapeutic effects against OA， which is possibly due to the efficacy of its active component quercetin in down-regulating the expression of OPN and PAI-1 in chondrocytes and up-regulating the Collagen Ⅱ protein expression.
Keywords：quercetin;cartilage degeneration;bioinformatics;network pharmacology;mechanism research;Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix;RongJin Niantong formula
Abstract：ObjectiveTo predict the therapeutic targets and related signaling pathways of quercetin in the treatment of heart failure （HF） by network pharmacology and molecular docking methods，and further clarify its mechanisms through in vitro cell model.MethodThe pharmacological targets of quercetin were obtained by SwissTargetPrediction and Targetnet databases； the heart failure related targets were obtained by Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man（OMIM），GeneCards and Therapeutic Target Database（TTD） databases； the protein-protein interaction（PPI） network was analyzed by STRING database（Search Tool for Recurring Instances of Neighbouring Genes），and the PPI network diagram of quercetin for heart failure target was established. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used for analyzing and screening the anti-heart failure network nodes of quercetin，and the obtained targets were enriched with gene ontology （GO） and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes （KEGG） analysis by DAVID database. In order to explore the mechanism of quercetin in the treatment of heart failure，we used cell model to verify the function in heart failure treatment.ResultsThe predicted results showed that there were 23 targets for the treatment of heart failure，such as Matrix Metallopeptidase-9（MMP-9），androgen receptor（AR），coagulation factor 2（F2），insulin like growth factor 1 receptor（IGF1R），epidermal growth factor receptor（EGFR），janus kinase-2（JAK2），cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1（CYP19A1），estrogen receptor-1（ESR1），tumor necrosis factor（TNF），protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C（PTPRC） and cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1（CYP17A1） etc. The results suggest that quercetin may play a role in the treatment of heart failure by intervening in the physiological processes of cardiovascular cell proliferation and metabolism，regulating hypoxia-inducible factor 1 （HIF-1）signaling pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis.ConclusionQuercetin has the characteristics of multi-target，multi-channel and multi-channel in the treatment of heart failure. It may play a role in the treatment of heart failure by regulating MMP-9，EGFR and other key genes，participating in the biological process of cardiac and vascular cell proliferation and metabolism.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the clinical diagnosis and treatment characteristics as well as the optimal schemes of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection （URTI） in the real world.MethodThe information of 454 patients receiving Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for URTI was collected from the electronic medical data warehouse constructed by the Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine， China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences， which covered 16 large-scale tertiary Class A hospital information systems （HISs）. The harvested information was subjected to descriptive analysis， Apriori algorithm-based analysis and Louvain （BGLL） algorithm-based complex network analysis to explore the clinical medication schemes.ResultThe commonly adopted medication schemes were heat-clearing and detoxicating Chinese medicinal injections combined with expectorants， analgesic-antipyretic drugs， or antibacterial agents in western medicine. Besides， the combination with heat-clearing and phlegm-resolving Chinese medicinals， vitamins， or hypotensive， lipid-lowering， hypoglycemic， coronary circulation-improving， or antiplatelet aggregation drugs targeting the underlying diseases was also detectable.ConclusionThe complex network analysis based on BGLL clustering method can be used to find out the medication rules of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for URTI. The traditional Chinese medicine has been widely employed for resolving phlegm and relieving cough due to its good efficacy. The combination with antibiotics follows the guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents. Drug safety is one of the most concerned aspects in clinical drug combination. The uncovering of these rules has provided a direction for exploring the optimal treatments.
Abstract：ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of the botanical characteristics， biological characteristics， habitat， and medicinal property and efficacy of parasitic Chinese medicines， underpin quality evaluation based on property differentiation， and provide references for the development and utilization of parasitic medicinal plant resources.MethodThe origin， property and meridian tropism， parasitic type， and the efficacy of the common of parasitic Chinese medicines were summarized. The frequencies of parasitic Chinese medicines in Qingfei Paidu decoction， Medicine Food Homology， Catalogue of Ancient Classical Formulas （the first batch）， and the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were statistically analyzed. Excel 2013 and SPSS Statistics 23.0 were employed for statistical research.ResultThe ranking results of parasitic Chinese medicines are listed below： root parasitism>stem parasitism>root hemiparasitism>symbiosis=saprophytism according to the parasitic type， plain>warm>cool>cold， no heat involved according to nature， sweet>bitter>pungent>sour=salt， with one sweet-pungent， one sweet-bitter， one sweet-salt， and one bitter-salt Chinese medicine according to flavor， kidney>liver>large intestine>spleen>lung>heart=bladder， no small intestine meridian involved according to meridian tropism.ConclusionParasitic Chinese medicines were mostly root-parasitic， plain in nature， sweet in flavor， and entered kidney meridian， with main effects of dispelling wind-dampness， nourishing liver and kidney， clearing heat， and removing toxin. The morphology， habit， and habitat of parasitic Chinese medicine were correlated with the property and efficacy. This study is expected to provide comprehensive references and a theoretical basis for in-depth research， clinical application， and resource development.
Abstract：Six dimensional syndrome differentiation theory， put forward by professor GU Xiao-hong at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine based on her theoretical teaching and clinical experience， emphasizes that the syndrome differentiation should be carried out from six dimensions including etiology， disease location， disease stage， disease condition， pathology， and disease nature， which is conducive to clinical thinking training and formation of traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）. The differentiation and treatment of Baihutang syndrome frequently seen in cold damage and warm disease still need to be explored. Guided by the six dimensional syndrome differentiation theory coupled with diverse viewpoints of cold damage and warm disease schools， this paper summarized and reinterpreted the understandings and thoughts of GU Xiao-hong and YU He， warm disease specialists of two generations. Considering the lung-stomach dysfunction caused by the internal invasion of exogenous pathogens， Baihutang syndrome was staged into Qi aspect. In this stage， exuberant pathogens and sufficient healthy Qi allowed the prevailing of internal heat and the consumption of body fluid， manifested as high fever， profuse sweating， thirst， and the pulse corresponding to interior excess and heat syndrome. This paper also pointed out that the Baihutang syndrome involved both lung and stomach， and the adoption of Baihutang contributed to preventing tu from restricting shui in the case of extreme excess of Yang brightness and protecting the kidney Yin. As revealed by the dynamic analysis of prognosis of Baihutang syndrome based on the six dimensional syndrome differentiation theory， even though the Baihutang syndrome could be present in both cold damage and warm disease， the specific disease stage， transmission and change， condition， prognosis， pathology， and medication differed. On this basis， a series of prescriptions have been modified from Baihutang， which has expanded the application scope of Baihutang and enriched its research value， thus better promoting its clinical application.
Abstract：Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are one of the major diseases endangering human health， and its morbidity and mortality are still in the rising stage in our country. Traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） injections play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases due to their advantages of rapid onset， remarkable curative effect， and convenient use. Among them， Danhong injection （DHI）， a Chinese medicine injection for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis， is widely used in the clinical treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. DHI is composed of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma （Danshen in Chinese） and Carthami Flos （Honghua in Chinese）， and mainly contains phenolic acids， tanshinones and flavonoids. A large number of studies have shown that DHI has a significant effect in the treatment of ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases， is a representative drug of co-therapy of brain and heart of TCM， its pharmacological effects related to many aspects such as anti-inflammatory， anti-oxidation， anti-coagulation. At the same time， Other studies have also explained the protective effects of DHI on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through the overall regulation and intervention of multiple targets and pathways. However， DHI has a wide range of clinical applications， there are still many unknown pharmacological effects to be further explored. Therefore， this article summarizes the current researches on the chemical components of DHI， the multi-target and multi-path pharmacological mechanisms of DHI in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases， and introduces the latest pharmacological research progress， so as to provide theoretical guidance for clinical rational drug use and subsequent in-depth research.
Abstract：Angelicae Sinensis Radix， derived from a medicinal and edible plant Angelica sinensis， is one of the traditional bulk Chinese medicines. In addition to gynecological blood stagnation and deficiency， its indications also include dysmenorrhea， deficiency and cold-induced abdominal pain， and rheumatoid arthritis. With the in-depth study of Angelicae Sinensis Radix， its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities have attracted widespread attention. However， there has been no systemic report. The present study comprehensively reviewed the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Angelicae Sinensis Radix （including its compositions， extracts， and different processed products） and mechanisms published in recent 30 years. The anti-inflammatory effect of Angelicae Sinensis Radix was achieved mainly by blocking the expression of proteins and genes in nuclear factor-κB （NF-κB）， mitogen-activated protein kinases （MAPK）， and Janus kinase （JAK）/signal transducer and activator of transcription （STAT） signaling pathways， inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）， interleukin-6 （IL-6）， nitric oxide （NO）， prostaglandin E2 （PGE2） and IL-1β， and maintaining the high sensitivity of immune cells in the host to external stimuli. The mechanism of analgesic effect may be related to the suppression of the production of algesic substances （such as inflammatory factors and chemokines） or blocking of the amplification and transmission of pain perception in cascade reaction. Furthermore， the study also pointed out some problems in modern research and proposed suggestions on its future research to provide references for investigation and clinical applications of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.
Abstract：Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus （SCF）， a commonly used clinical Chinese medicine， is rich in chemical components， including lignans， volatile oils， polysaccharides， organic acids， terpenoids， and flavonoids. It has a high medicinal value， which is manifested in the treatment of palpitation， insomnia， spontaneous perspiration， internal heat， consumptive thirst， fluid injury， chronic cough， asthma， frequent urination， enuresis， nocturnal emission， chronic diarrhea， etc. Modern pharmacological studies have found that SCF has sedative， hypnotic， brain invigorating， analgesic， anticonvulsant， and antidepressant effects in the central nervous system. In the digestive system， it can regulate gastrointestinal motility and protect the liver. In the immune system， it is effective in resisting tumors and human immunodeficiency virus （HIV）， and also potent in protecting the cardiovascular system， lung and kidney， reducing blood sugar， promoting reproduction， inhibiting bacteria， resisting hyperprolactinemia and osteoporosis， and protecting against embryo damage and retina injury. This study reviewed the available research on clinical pharmacological effects of SCF in recent years and provided ideas for further research on SCF and theoretical basis for its rational development and utilization， which was of great guiding significance in clinical disease treatment.
Abstract：The Chinese herbal medicines contained in Guipitang （GPT） were retrieved in the databases， including traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform （TCMSP）， encyclopedia of traditional Chinese medicine （ETCM）， bioinformatics analysis tool for molecular mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine （BATMAN-TCM）， and database for associated traditional Chinese medicine， gene， and disease information using text mining （TCMGeneDIT）， and the compounds and their potential targets were obtained. Disease enrichment analysis on the potential targets of GPT was carried out to obtain the diseases potentially treated by GPT using MetaCore. Disease enrichment results showed that the potential diseases treated by GPT included encephalopathy， gastrointestinal diseases， nutritional/metabolic diseases， tumors/cancers， cardiovascular system diseases， endocrine system diseases， immune system diseases， drug-related side effects/adverse reactions， and congenital/hereditary diseases. On these grounds， the diseases treated by GPT were reviewed. The results of the previous research on diseases treated by GPT were consistent with analysis results of network pharmacology. The modern applications of GPT clinically went beyond its original indications， but its applications were based on the clinical manifestation of qi and blood deficiency in the heart and spleen， presenting the characteristic of "same treatment for different diseases". This study is expected to provide a reference for the further research and development of GPT.
Abstract：Esophageal cancer has a high morbidity and mortality worldwide， and the burden of esophageal cancer is still heavy in China. The conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy fail to yield a satisfactory outcome， implying that the safe and effective treatments are not available for the majority of patients. At present， esophageal cancer is mainly treated by Chinese medicine combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The retrieval of related papers in Chinese and English reveals that Kang'ai injection， Compound Kushen injection， Kanglaite injection， Xiaoaiping injection， Aidi injection， Bruceae Fructus Oil Emulsion， Cinobufotalin injection， and Shenmai injection have been commonly used in esophageal cancer treatment. These eight injections are either single medicinal or compound preparations， involving 11 Chinese medicinals， which synergize the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy and reduce their adverse reactions in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicinal components， a series of adverse reactions such as phlebitis， phlebosclerosis， and hemolysis may be caused by irrational dosage， administration speed， and compatibility in the use of injection. There are many clinical studies on Chinese medicine injections for anti-esophageal cancer but few studies on their active components and molecular mechanism. This paper reviewed the active components， effectiveness， safety， and mechanism of Chinese medicine injections frequently employed for treating esophageal cancer， in order to provide reference for their clinical application as well as the development of new Chinese drugs.
Keywords：Chinese medicine injection;esophageal cancer;ingredients;security;effectiveness;molecular mechanisms
Abstract：Curcumae Longae Rhizoma is a traditional Chinese medicine with the efficacy of activating blood and moving Qi. Curcumin， a polyphenolic substance extracted from the rhizome of plant Curcuma longa， possesses multiple pharmacological activities like anti-tumor， anti-oxidation， anti-bacteria， and anti-inflammation. Laryngeal carcinoma （LC） is a common malignant tumor， whose incidence in recent years has been on the rise， and the 5-year survival rate has continuously decreased. Considering the specific location of larynx， researchers are actively exploring diverse treatment modalities for laryngeal organ preservation. Many studies have shown that curcumin has an inhibitory effect on the development of LC. By virtue of multiple pharmacological effects， curcumin deserves to be thoroughly explored. However， most of the current research is limited to in vitro exploration， and the partial mechanism of curcumin remains unclear， indicating that there is still a long way to go before curcumin becomes a Chinese medicinal preparation for the clinical treatment of LC. This paper reviewed the physicochemical properties of curcumin and the methods for its extraction from plants， the efficacy of curcumin in inducing cell apoptosis and protective autophagy， reversing cell drug resistance， inhibiting cell proliferation， migration， and invasion and tumor angiogenesis， the action mechanism of curcumin in combination with resveratrol， platinum drugs， 3-methyladenine， taxols， and 5-fluorouracil against LC， as well as the bioinformatics analysis concerning curcumin and LC. This paper is expected to provide reference for relevant researchers to clarify the mechanism and important targets of curcumin against LC and promote its clinical application.
Abstract：As an inflammatory skin disease with a gradually increasing prevalence，psoriasis has negatively impacted the quality of life of patients and has attracted widespread attention from the medical community. The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be affected by a variety of genetic，environmental， and immune factors，and cytokine-driven epidermal proliferation，abnormal differentiation，inflammation， and neovascularization contribute to the pathogenesis，involving the interaction between immune and skin cells. However， some pathogenesis is still a blind spot for research，which brings great challenges to clinical treatment. Therefore， the identification of effective targets for psoriasis is critical in the research on psoriasis. Signaling pathways， another hotpot in the research on psoriasis， play an important cellular transduction role in the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and serve as key transduction factors regulating the immune and inflammatory responses to psoriasis. With the in-depth research in the field of network pharmacology and molecular biology， single Chinese medicine and Chinese medicinal compound can exert a therapeutic role by regulating multiple signaling pathways related to psoriasis. In recent years，traditional Chinese medicine （TCM） has achieved good clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of psoriasis，such as relieving pruritus，decreasing the area of skin lesions，improving anxiety， and preventing complications， which confirms the credibility of TCM in the understanding and treatment of psoriasis. Despite the rich theoretical and clinical research on the prevention and treatment of psoriasis，studies on the regulation of psoriasis-related signaling pathways and mechanisms of action by TCM are rarely reported. Therefore，the present study reviewed the available research in recent years and introduced the following six major signaling pathways related to psoriasis which are regulated by TCM： Janus kinase（JAK）/signal transducer and activator of transcription（STAT） signaling pathway，mitogen-activated protein kinase（MAPK） signaling pathway，phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases（PI3K）/protein kinase B（Akt） signaling pathway，nuclear transcription factor-κB（NF-κB） signaling pathway，Wnt signaling pathway， and Notch signaling pathway.
Keywords：traditional Chinese medicine （TCM）;psoriasis;signaling pathway;mechanism;research progress